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Swami Vivekananda (Bengali:  (About this sound ); 12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta (Bengali: ), was an , a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic . He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of and to the Western world and is credited with raising awareness, bringing to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. He was a major force in the in India, and contributed to the concept of in . Vivekananda founded the and the . He is perhaps best known for his speech which began, "Sisters and brothers of America ...," in which he introduced Hinduism at the in in 1893.

Born into an aristocratic family of , Vivekananda was inclined towards spirituality. He was influenced by his , Ramakrishna, from whom he learnt that all living beings were an embodiment of the divine self; therefore, service to God could be rendered by service to mankind. After Ramakrishna's death, Vivekananda toured the extensively and acquired first-hand knowledge of the conditions prevailing in . He later travelled to the United States, representing India at the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions. Vivekananda conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating tenets of in the United States, England and Europe. In India, Vivekananda is regarded as a and his birthday is celebrated there as .

Contents

Early life (1863–1888)

Birth and childhood

(left) Bhubaneswari Devi (1841–1911); "I am indebted to my mother for the efflorescence of my knowledge." – Vivekananda
(right) 3, Gourmohan Mukherjee Street, birthplace of Vivekananda, now converted into a museum and cultural centre

Vivekananda was born Narendranath Datta (shortened to Narendra or Naren) in a family at his ancestral home at in Calcutta, the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the festival. He belonged to a traditional family and was one of nine siblings. His father, , was an attorney at the . Durgacharan Datta, Narendra's grandfather was a and Persian scholar who left his family and became a monk at age twenty-five. His mother, Bhubaneswari Devi, was a devout housewife. The progressive, rational attitude of Narendra's father and the religious temperament of his mother helped shape his thinking and personality.

Narendranath was interested in spirituality from a young age and used to meditate before the images of deities such as , , , and . He was fascinated by wandering ascetics and monks. Naren was naughty and restless as a child, and his parents often had difficulty controlling him. His mother said, "I prayed to Shiva for a son and he has sent me one of his ghosts".

Education

In 1871, at the age of eight, Narendranath enrolled at 's , where he went to school until his family moved to in 1877. In 1879, after his family's return to Calcutta, he was the only student to receive first-division marks in the entrance examination. He was an avid reader in a wide range of subjects, including philosophy, religion, history, social science, art and literature. He was also interested in Hindu scriptures, including the , the , the , the , the and the . Narendra was trained in , and regularly participated in physical exercise, sports and organised activities. Narendra studied Western logic, Western philosophy and European history at the (now known as the Scottish Church College). In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination, and completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884. Narendra studied the works of , , , , , , , and . He became fascinated with the of and corresponded with him, translating Spencer's book Education (1861) into Bengali. While studying Western philosophers, he also learned Sanskrit scriptures and Bengali literature.

(principal of Christian College, Calcutta, from where Narendra graduated) wrote, "Narendra is really a genius. I have travelled far and wide but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities, even in German universities, among philosophical students. He is bound to make his mark in life".

Narendra was known for his prodigious memory and the ability at speed reading. Several incidents have been given as examples. In a talk, he once quoted verbatim, two or three pages from . Another incident that is given is his argument with a Swedish national where he gave reference to some details on Swedish history that the Swede originally disagreed with but later conceded. In another incident with Dr.'s at Kiel in Germany, Vivekananda was going over some poetical work and did not reply when the professor spoke to him. Later, he apologized to Dr.Deussen explaining that he was too absorbed in reading and hence did not hear him. The professor was not satisfied with this explanation but Vivekananda quoted and interpreted verses from the text leaving the professor dumbfounded about his feat of memory. Once, he requested some books written by Sir John Lubbock from a library and returned them the very next day claiming that he had read them. The librarian refused to believe him until cross examination about the contents convinced him that Vivekananda was being truthful.

Some accounts have called Narendra a shrutidhara (a person with a prodigious memory).

Spiritual apprenticeship - influence of Brahmo Samaj

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In 1880 Narendra joined 's , which was established by Sen after meeting and reconverting from Christianity to Hinduism. Narendra became a member of a lodge "at some point before 1884" and of the in his twenties, a breakaway faction of the led by and . From 1881 to 1884 he was also active in Sen's , which tried to discourage youths from smoking and drinking.

It was in this milieu that Narendra became acquainted with Western . His initial beliefs were shaped by Brahmo concepts, which included belief in a formless God and the deprecation of , and a "streamlined, rationalized, monotheistic theology strongly coloured by a selective and modernistic reading of the Upanisads and of the Vedanta.", the founder of the Brahmo Samaj who was strongly influenced by , strived toward an interpretation of Hinduism. His ideas were "altered [...] considerably" by , who had a approach to the development of these new doctrines, and questioned central Hindu beliefs like reincarnation and karma, and rejected the authority of the Vedas. Tagore also brought this "neo-Hinduism" closer in line with western , a development which was furthered by Keshubchandra Sen. Sen was influenced by , an American philosophical-religious movement strongly connected with unitarianism, which emphasised personal over mere reasoning and theology. Sen strived to "an accessible, non-renunciatory, everyman type of spirituality", introducing "lay systems of spiritual practice" which can be regarded as prototypes of the kind of Yoga-exercises which Vivekananda popularised in the west.

The same search for direct intuition and understanding can be seen with Vivekananda. Not satisfied with his knowledge of philosophy, Narendra came to "the question which marked the real beginning of his intellectual quest for God." He asked several prominent Calcutta residents if they had come "face to face with God", but none of their answers satisfied him. At this time, Narendra met Debendranath Tagore (the leader of Brahmo Samaj) and asked if he had seen God. Instead of answering his question, Tagore said "My boy, you have the 's eyes." According to Banhatti, it was Ramakrishna who really answered Narendra's question, by saying "Yes, I see Him as I see you, only in an infinitely intenser sense." Nevertheless, Vivekananda was more influenced by the Brahmo Samaj's and its new ideas, than by Ramakrishna. It was Sen's influence who brought Vivekananda fully into contact with western esotericism, and it was also via Sen that he met Ramakrishna.

With Ramakrishna

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In 1881 Narendra first met Ramakrishna, who became his spiritual focus after his own father had died in 1884.

Narendra's first introduction to Ramakrishna occurred in a literature class at General Assembly's Institution when he heard Professor William Hastie lecturing on 's poem, . While explaining the word "trance" in the poem, Hastie suggested that his students visit Ramakrishna of to understand the true meaning of trance. This prompted some of his students (including Narendra) to visit Ramakrishna.

They probably first met personally in November 1881, though Narendra did not consider this their first meeting, and neither man mentioned this meeting later. At this time Narendra was preparing for his upcoming F. A. examination, when accompanied him to 's, house where Ramakrishna was invited to deliver a lecture. According to Paranjape, at this meeting Ramakrishna asked young Narendra to sing. Impressed by his singing talent, he asked Narendra to come to Dakshineshwar.

In late 1881 or early 1882, Narendra went to Dakshineswar with two friends and met Ramakrishna. This meeting proved to be a turning point in his life. Although he did not initially accept Ramakrishna as his teacher and rebelled against his ideas, he was attracted by his personality and began to frequently visit him at Dakshineswar. He initially saw Ramakrishna's ecstasies and visions as "mere figments of imagination" and "hallucinations". As a member of Brahmo Samaj, he opposed idol worship, polytheism and Ramakrishna's worship of . He even rejected the of "identity with the absolute" as blasphemy and madness, and often ridiculed the idea. Narendra tested Ramakrishna, who faced his arguments patiently: "Try to see the truth from all angles", he replied.

Narendra's father's sudden death in 1884 left the family bankrupt; creditors began demanding the repayment of loans, and relatives threatened to evict the family from their ancestral home. Narendra, once a son of a well-to-do family, became one of the poorest students in his college. He unsuccessfully tried to find work and questioned God's existence, but found solace in Ramakrishna and his visits to Dakshineswar increased.

One day Narendra requested Ramakrishna to pray to goddess Kali for their family's financial welfare. Ramakrishna suggested him to go to the temple himself and pray. Following Ramakrishna's suggestion, he went to the temple thrice, but failed to pray for any kind of worldly necessities and ultimately prayed for true knowledge and devotion from the goddess. Narendra gradually grew ready to renounce everything for the sake of realising God, and accepted Ramakrishna as his .

In 1885, Ramakrishna developed , and was transferred to Calcutta and (later) to a garden house in . Narendra and Ramakrishna's took care of him during his last days, and Narendra's spiritual education continued. At Cossipore, he experienced . Narendra and several other disciples received ochre robes from Ramakrishna, forming his first monastic order. He was taught that service to men was the most effective worship of God. Ramakrishna asked him to care for the other monastic disciples, and in turn asked them to see Narendra as their leader. Ramakrishna died in the early-morning hours of 16 August 1886 in Cossipore.

Finding of first Ramakrishna Math at Baranagar

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After Ramakrishna's death, his devotees and admirers stopped supporting his disciples.[] Unpaid rent accumulated, and Narendra and the other disciples had to find a new place to live. Many returned home, adopting a (family-oriented) way of life. Narendra decided to convert a dilapidated house at into a new math (monastery) for the remaining disciples. Rent for the Baranagar Math was low, raised by "holy begging" (mādhukarī). The math became the first building of the : the monastery of the of Ramakrishna. Narendra and other disciples used to spend many hours in practising meditation and religious austerities every day. Narendra later reminisced about the early days of the monastery:

We underwent a lot of religious practice at the Baranagar Math. We used to get up at 3:00 am and become absorbed in and meditation. What a strong spirit of detachment we had in those days! We had no thought even as to whether the world existed or not.

In 1887, Narendra compiled a Bengali song anthology named with Vaishnav Charan Basak. Narendra collected and arranged most of the songs of this compilation, but could not finish the work of the book for unfavourable circumstances.

Monastic vows

In December 1886, the mother of Baburam invited Narendra and his other brother monks to village. Narendra and the other aspiring monks accepted the invitation and went to Antpur to spend few days. In Antpur, in the Christmas Eve of 1886, Narendra and eight other disciples took formal monastic vows. They decided to live their lives as their master lived. Narendranath took the name "Swami Vivekananda".

Travels in India (1888–93)

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In 1888, Narendra left the monastery as a Parivrâjaka— the Hindu religious life of a wandering monk, "without fixed abode, without ties, independent and strangers wherever they go". His sole possessions were a (water pot), staff and his two favourite books: the and . Narendra travelled extensively in India for five years, visiting centres of learning and acquainting himself with diverse religious traditions and social patterns. He developed sympathy for the suffering and poverty of the people, and resolved to uplift the nation. Living primarily on (alms), Narendra travelled on foot and by railway (with tickets bought by admirers). During his travels he met, and stayed with Indians from all religions and walks of life: scholars, , , Hindus, Muslims, Christians, (low-caste workers) and government officials. Narendra left Bombay for Chicago on 31 May 1893 with the name "Vivekananda", as suggested by Ajit Singh of Khetri, which means "the bliss of discerning wisdom," from Sanskrit and .

First visit to the West (1893–97)

Vivekananda started his journey to the West on 31 May 1893 and visited several cities in Japan (including , , , , and ), and en route to the , reaching Chicago on 30 July 1893, where the "" took place in September 1893. The Congress was an initiative of the layman, and judge of the Illinois Supreme Court, , to gather all the religions of the world, and show "the substantial unity of many religions in the good deeds of the religious life." It was one of the more than 200 adjunct gatherings and congresses of the Chicago's World's Fair, and was "an avant-garde intellectual manifestation of [...] cultic milieus, East and West," with the Brahmo Samaj and the being invited as being representative of .

Vivekananda wanted to join, but was disappointed to learn that no one without credentials from a organisation would be accepted as a delegate. Vivekananda contacted Professor of , who invited him to speak at Harvard. Vivekananda wrote of the professor, "He urged upon me the necessity of going to the , which he thought would give an introduction to the nation". Vivekananda submitted an application, "introducing himself as a monk 'of the oldest order of sannyāsis ... founded by Sankara,'" supported by the Brahmo Samaj representative Protapchandra Mozoombar, who was also a member of the Parliament's selection committee, "classifying the Swami as a representative of the Hindu monastic order."

Parliament of the World's Religions

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(left) Vivekananda on the platform at the Parliament of Religions, September 1893; left to right: , , Vivekananda
(right) Swami Vivekananda with the East Indian group, in the photo: (from left to right) Narasimha Chaira, Lakeshnie Narain, Vivekananda, H. Dharmapala, and Virchand Gandhi

The Parliament of the World's Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the as part of the . On this day, Vivekananda gave a brief speech representing India and . He was initially nervous, bowed to (the Hindu goddess of learning) and began his with "Sisters and brothers of America!". At these words, Vivekananda received a two-minute standing ovation from the crowd of seven thousand. According to Sailendra Nath Dhar, when silence was restored he began his address, greeting the youngest of the nations on behalf of "the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance, of and universal acceptance". Vivekananda quoted two illustrative passages from the "": "As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!" and "Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me." According to Sailendra Nath Dhar, "it was only a short speech, but it voiced the spirit of the Parliament."

Parliament President said, "India, the Mother of religions was represented by Swami Vivekananda, the Orange-monk who exercised the most wonderful influence over his auditors". Vivekananda attracted widespread attention in the press, which called him the "cyclonic monk from India". The New York Critique wrote, "He is an orator by divine right, and his strong, intelligent face in its picturesque setting of yellow and orange was hardly less interesting than those earnest words, and the rich, rhythmical utterance he gave them". The noted, "Vivekananda is undoubtedly the greatest figure in the Parliament of Religions. After hearing him we feel how foolish it is to send to this learned nation". American newspapers reported Vivekananda as "the greatest figure in the parliament of religions" and "the most popular and influential man in the parliament". The reported that Vivekananda was "a great favourite at the parliament... if he merely crosses the platform, he is applauded". He spoke "at receptions, the scientific section, and private homes" on topics related to Hinduism, and harmony among religions until the parliament ended on 27 September 1893. Vivekananda's speeches at the Parliament had the common theme of universality, emphasising religious tolerance. He soon became known as a "handsome oriental" and made a huge impression as an orator.

Sponsorship of Swami Vivekananda for Parliament of the World's Religions

In 1892, Swami Vivekananda stayed with , who was a Raja of Ramnad, when he visited Madurai and he sponsored Vivekananda's visit to Parliament of the World's Religions held in Chicago.

Lecture tours in the UK and US

"I do not come", said Swamiji on one occasion in America, "to convert you to a new belief. I want you to keep your own belief; I want to make the a better Methodist; the a better Presbyterian; the a better Unitarian. I want to teach you to live the truth, to reveal the light within your own soul."

After the Parliament of Religions, he toured many parts of the US as a guest. His popularity opened up new views for expanding on "life and religion to thousands". During a question-answer session at Brooklyn Ethical Society, he remarked, "I have a message to the West as had a message to the East."

Vivekananda spent nearly two years lecturing in the eastern and central United States, primarily in , , , and . He founded the of New York in 1894. By spring 1895 his busy, tiring schedule had affected his health. He ended his lecture tours and began giving free, private classes in Vedanta and . Beginning in June 1895, Vivekananda gave to a dozen of his disciples at in New York for two months.

During his first visit to the West he travelled to the UK twice, in 1895 and 1896, lecturing successfully there. In November 1895 he met Margaret Elizabeth Noble an Irish woman who would become . During his second visit to the UK in May 1896 Vivekananda met , a noted from who wrote Ramakrishna's first biography in the West. From the UK, Vivekananda visited other European countries. In Germany he met , another Indologist. Vivekananda was offered academic positions in two American universities (one the chair in at and a similar position at ); he declined both, since his duties would conflict with his commitment as a monk.

Left: Vivekananda in , Maine (August 1894). Right: Vivekananda at Mead sisters' house, in 1900.

His success led to a change in mission, namely the establishment of Vedanta centres in the West. Vivekananda adapted traditional Hindu ideas and religiosity to suit the needs and understandings of his western audiences, who were especially attracted by and familiar with western esoteric traditions and movements like and . An important element in his adaptation of Hindu religiosity was the introduction of his "four yogas" model, which includes , his interpretation of Patanjali's , which offered a practical means to realise the divine force within which is central to modern western esotericism. In 1896 his book was published, which became an instant success and was highly influential in the western understanding of .

Vivekananda attracted followers and admirers in the US and Europe, including , , , , , , , , , and . He initiated several followers : Marie Louise (a French woman) became , and Leon Landsberg became Swami , so that they could continue the work of the mission of the . This society still is filled with foreign nationals and is also located in . During his stay in America, Vivekananda was given land in the mountains to the southeast of to establish a retreat for Vedanta students. He called it "Peace retreat", or, Shanti Asrama. The largest American centre is the Vedanta Society of Southern in , one of the twelve main centres. There is also a Vedanta Press in Hollywood which publishes books about Vedanta and English translations of Hindu scriptures and texts. Christina Greenstidel of was also initiated by Vivekananda with a and she became , and they established a close father–daughter relationship.

From the West, Vivekananda revived his work in India. He regularly corresponded with his followers and brother monks, offering advice and financial support. His letters from this period reflect his campaign of social service, and were strongly worded. He wrote to , "Go from door to door amongst the poor and lower classes of the town of Khetri and teach them religion. Also, let them have oral lessons on geography and such other subjects. No good will come of sitting idle and having princely dishes, and saying "Ramakrishna, O Lord!"—unless you can do some good to the poor". In 1895, Vivekananda founded the periodical to teach the Vedanta. Later, Vivekananda's translation of the first six chapters of was published in Brahmavadin in 1889. Vivekananda left for India on 16 December 1896 from with his disciples Captain and Mrs. Sevier and J.J. Goodwin. On the way they visited France and Italy, and set sail for India from on 30 December 1896. He was later followed to India by Sister Nivedita, who devoted the rest of her life to the education of Indian women and India's independence.

Back in India (1897–99)

The ship from Europe arrived in , (now ) on 15 January 1897, and Vivekananda received a warm welcome. In Colombo he gave his . From there on, his journey to Calcutta was triumphant. Vivekananda travelled from to , , , , and , delivering lectures. Common people and rajas gave him an enthusiastic reception. During his train travels, people often sat on the rails to force the train to stop so they could hear him. From (now Chennai), he continued his journey to Calcutta and . While in the West, Vivekananda spoke about India's great spiritual heritage; in India, he repeatedly addressed social issues: uplifting the people, eliminating the caste system, promoting science and industrialisation, addressing widespread poverty and ending colonial rule. These lectures, published as , demonstrate his nationalistic fervour and spiritual ideology.

(left) Vivekananda at Chennai 1897 (right) Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati (a branch of the founded on 19 March 1899) later published many of Vivekananda's work and now publishes .

On 1 May 1897 in Calcutta, Vivekananda founded the for social service. Its ideals are based on , and its governing body consists of the trustees of the (which conducts religious work). Both Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission have their headquarters at . Vivekananda founded two other monasteries: one in Mayavati in the (near Almora), the and another in Madras. Two journals were founded: in English and Udbhodan in Bengali. That year, -relief work was begun by in the district.

Vivekananda earlier inspired to set up a research and educational institution when they travelled together from to Chicago on Vivekananda's first visit to the West in 1893. Tata now asked him to head his ; Vivekananda declined the offer, citing a conflict with his "spiritual interests". He visited Punjab, attempting to mediate an ideological conflict between (a reformist Hindu movement) and sanatan (orthodox Hindus). After brief visits to Lahore, Delhi and Khetri, Vivekananda returned to Calcutta in January 1898. He consolidated the work of the math and trained disciples for several months. Vivekananda composed "", a prayer song dedicated to Ramakrishna, in 1898.

Second visit to the West and final years (1899–1902)

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(left) Vivekananda at Belur Math on 19 June 1899
(right) Vivekananda (photo taken in Bushnell Studio, San Francisco, 1900)

Despite declining health, Vivekananda left for the West for a second time in June 1899 accompanied by Sister Nivedita and Swami Turiyananda. Following a brief stay in England, he went to the United States. During this visit, Vivekananda established in San Francisco and New York and founded a shanti ashrama (peace retreat) in California. He then went to Paris for the Congress of Religions in 1900. His lectures in Paris concerned the worship of the and the authenticity of the . Vivekananda then visited , Vienna, , Athens and . The French philosopher was his host for most of this period, until he returned to Calcutta on 9 December 1900.

After a brief visit to the in Mayavati Vivekananda settled at Belur Math, where he continued co-ordinating the works of Ramakrishna Mission, the math and the work in England and the US. He had many visitors, including royalty and politicians. Although Vivekananda was unable to attend the Congress of Religions in 1901 in Japan due to deteriorating health, he made pilgrimages to and . Declining health (including , and chronic ) restricted his activity.

Death

On 4 July 1902 (the day of his death) Vivekananda awoke early, went to the monastery at Belur Math and meditated for three hours. He taught Shukla-Yajur-Veda, Sanskrit grammar and the philosophy of yoga to pupils, later discussing with colleagues a planned Vedic college in the Ramakrishna Math. At 7:00 p.m. Vivekananda went to his room, asking not to be disturbed; he died at 9:20 p.m. while . According to his disciples, Vivekananda attained ; the rupture of a blood vessel in his brain was reported as a possible cause of death. His disciples believed that the rupture was due to his (an opening in the crown of his head) being pierced when he attained mahasamādhi. Vivekananda fulfilled his prophecy that he would not live forty years. He was cremated on a on the bank of the in Belur, opposite where was cremated sixteen years earlier.

Teachings and philosophy

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Vivekananda propagated that the essence of Hinduism was best expressed in 's philosophy. Nevertheless, following Ramakrishna, and in contrast to Advaita Vedanta, Vivekananda believed that the Absolute is both immanent and transcendent. According to Anil Sooklal, Vivekananda's neo-Advaita "reconciles Dvaita or dualism and Advaita or non-dualism". Vivekananda summarised the Vedanta as follows, giving it a modern and Universalistic interpretation:

Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within by controlling nature, external and internal. Do this either by work, or worship, or mental discipline, or philosophy—by one, or more, or all of these—and be free. This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details.

Nationalism was a prominent theme in Vivekananda's thought. He believed that a country's future depends on its people, and his teachings focused on human development. He wanted "to set in motion a machinery which will bring noblest ideas to the doorstep of even the poorest and the meanest".

Vivekananda linked morality with control of the mind, seeing truth, purity and unselfishness as traits which strengthened it. He advised his followers to be holy, unselfish and to have (faith). Vivekananda supported (celibacy), believing it the source of his physical and mental stamina and eloquence. He emphasised that success was an outcome of focused thought and action; in his lectures on Raja Yoga he said, "Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life – think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Let the brain, muscles, nerves, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success, that is the way great spiritual giants are produced".

Influence and legacy

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Vivekananda was one of the main representatives of , a modern interpretation of selected aspects of Hinduism in line with , especially , and Theosophy. His reinterpretation was, and is, very successful, creating a new understanding and appreciation of Hinduism within and outside India, and was the principal reason for the enthusiastic reception of yoga, transcendental meditation and other forms of Indian spiritual self-improvement in the West. explained, "...modern Hindus derive their knowledge of Hinduism from Vivekananda, directly or indirectly". Vivekananda espoused the idea that all sects within Hinduism (and all religions) are different paths to the same goal. However, this view has been criticised as an oversimplification of Hinduism.

(left) Vivekananda statue near the , Mumbai
(right) at Shri Ramakrishna Vidyashala, Mysore, India

In the background of emerging nationalism in British-ruled India, Vivekananda crystallised the nationalistic ideal. In the words of social reformer , "The Swami's intrepid patriotism gave a new colour to the national movement throughout India. More than any other single individual of that period Vivekananda had made his contribution to the new awakening of India". Vivekananda drew attention to the extent of poverty in the country, and maintained that addressing such poverty was a prerequisite for national awakening. His nationalistic ideas influenced many Indian thinkers and leaders. regarded Vivekananda as the one who awakened India spiritually. counted him among the few Hindu reformers "who have maintained this Hindu religion in a state of splendor by cutting down the dead wood of tradition".

Vivekananda Circle, Mysore

The first governor-general of independent India, , said "Vivekananda saved Hinduism, saved India". According to , a proponent of armed struggle for , Vivekananda was "the maker of modern India"; for Gandhi, Vivekananda's influence increased Gandhi's "love for his country a thousandfold". Vivekananda influenced India's independence movement; his writings inspired independence activists such as , , and and intellectuals such as , , . Many years after Vivekananda's death told French Romain Rolland, "If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative". Rolland wrote, "His words are great music, phrases in the style of Beethoven, stirring rhythms like the march of Händel choruses. I cannot touch these sayings of his, scattered as they are through the pages of books, at thirty years' distance, without receiving a thrill through my body like an electric shock. And what shocks, what transports, must have been produced when in burning words they issued from the lips of the hero!"

was inspired by Vivekananda to establish the , one of India's best-known research universities. Abroad, Vivekananda communicated with orientalist , and scientist was one of those influenced by his Vedic teachings. While National Youth Day in India is observed on his birthday, 12 January, the day he delivered his masterful speech at the Parliament of Religions, 11 September 1893 is "World Brotherhood Day". In September 2010, India's Finance Ministry highlighted the relevance of Vivekananda's teachings and values to the modern economic environment. The then Union Finance Minister , the before the current President Ram Nath Kovind, approved in principle the Swami Vivekananda Values Education Project at a cost of ₹1 billion (US million), with objectives including involving youth with competitions, essays, discussions and study circles and publishing Vivekananda's works in a number of languages. In 2011, the West Bengal Police Training College was renamed the Swami Vivekananda State Police Academy, West Bengal. The state technical university in has been named the . In 2012, the airport was renamed .

The was celebrated in India and abroad. The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports in India officially observed 2013 as the occasion in a declaration. Year-long events and programs were organised by branches of the , the , the central and state governments in India, educational institutions and youth groups. Bengali film director Tutu (Utpal) Sinha made a film, as a tribute for his 150th birth anniversary.

Works

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(left) Lectures from Colombo to Almora front cover 1897 edition
(right) Vedanta Philosophy An address before the Graduate Philosophical Society 1901 cover page

Lectures

Although Vivekananda was a powerful orator and writer in English and Bengali, he was not a thorough scholar, and most of his published works were compiled from lectures given around the world which were "mainly delivered [...] impromptu and with little preparation". His main work, , consists of talks he delivered in New York.

Literary works

According to Banhatti, "[a] singer, a painter, a wonderful master of language and a poet, Vivekananda was a complete artist", composing many songs and poems, including his favourite,[] "". Vivekananda blended humour with his teachings, and his language was lucid. His Bengali writings testify to his belief that words (spoken or written) should clarify ideas, rather than demonstrating the speaker (or writer's) knowledge.[]

meaning "Present Day India" is an erudite Bengali language essay written by him, which was first published in the March 1899 issue of Udbodhan, the only Bengali language magazine of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission. The essay was reprinted as a book in 1905 and later compiled into the fourth volume of The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. In this essay his refrain to the readers was to honour and treat every as a brother irrespective of whether he was born poor or in lower caste.

Publications

Published in his lifetime Published posthumously

Here a list of selected books by Vivekananda that were published after his death (1902)

  • Addresses on Bhakti Yoga
  • Bhakti Yoga
  • The East and the West (1909)
  • (1909)
  • Narada Bhakti Sutras – translation
  • Para Bhakti or Supreme Devotion
  • Practical Vedanta
  • Speeches and writings of Swami Vivekananda; a comprehensive collection
  • Complete Works: a collection of his writings, lectures and discourses in a set of nine volumes( ninth volume will be published soon)
  • Seeing beyond the circle (2005)

See also

Notes

  1. The exact date of the meeting is unknown. Vivekananda researcher Shailendra Nath Dhar studied the Calcutta University Calendar of 1881—1882 and found in that year, examination started on 28 November and ended on 2 December
  2. A brother monk of Narendranath
  3. On learning that Vivekananda lacked credentials to speak at the Chicago Parliament, Wright said "To ask for your credentials is like asking the sun to state its right to shine in the heavens".
  4. McRae quotes "[a] sectarian biography of Vivekananda," namely Sailendra Nath Dhar A Comprehensive Biography of Swami Vivekananda, Part One, (Madras, India: Vivekananda Prakashan Kendra, 1975), p. 461, which "describes his speech on the opening day".
  5. Brother monks or brother disciples means other disciples of Ramakrishna who lived monastic lives.
  6. According to Michael Taft, Ramakrishna reconciled the dualism of form and formless, regarding the Supreme Being to be both Personal and Impersonal, active and inactive. Ramakrishna: "When I think of the Supreme Being as inactive - neither creating nor preserving nor destroying - I call Him Brahman or Purusha, the Impersonal God. When I think of Him as active - creating, preserving and destroying - I call Him Sakti or Maya or Prakriti, the Personal God. But the distinction between them does not mean a difference. The Personal and Impersonal are the same thing, like milk and its whiteness, the diamond and its lustre, the snake and its wriggling motion. It is impossible to conceive of the one without the other. The Divine Mother and Brahman are one."
  7. Sooklalmquoytes Chatterjee: "Sankara's Vedanta is known as Advaita or , pure and simple. Hence it is sometimes referred to as Kevala-Advaita or unqualified monism. It may also be called abstract monism in so far as Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, is, according to it, devoid of all qualities and distinctions, nirguna and nirvisesa [...] The Neo-Vedanta is also Advaitic inasmuch as it holds that Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, is one without a second, ekamevadvitiyam. But as distinguished from the traditional Advaita of Sankara, it is a synthetic Vedanta which reconciles Dvaita or dualism and Advaita or non-dualism and also other theories of reality. In this sense it may also be called concrete monism in so far as it holds that Brahman is both qualified, saguna, and qualityless, nirguna (Chatterjee, 1963 : 260)."

References

  1. . vivekananda.net. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  2. . www.oneindia.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
  3. . Retrieved 2017-05-03.
  4. .
  5. Banhatti, Gopal Shrinivas (1995). . p. 1.
  6. Steven Kemper (2015). . University of Chicago Press. p. 236.
  7. .
  8. K.R.Gupta; Amita Gupta, eds. (2006). . Atlantic. p. 1066.
  9. G. S Banhatti (2015). . Atlantic. pp. 156, 157. (7) (156)Haripada Mitra related, "One day, in the course of a talk, Swamiji quoted verbatim some two or three pages from Pickwick papers.I wondered at this, not understanding how a sannyasin could get by heart so much from a secular book.....Vivekanada was a champion of good memory...Once in America, his reference to a point in Swedish history was challenged by a Swede , but Vivekananda calmly insisted that his reference was correct. The next day, the Swede, having conceded the point and apologized....Yet another similar occasion took place at Dr.Paul Deussen's at Kiel in Germany."Some time during the day, the professor found the Swami turning over the pages of a poetical work. He spoke to him but got no response. When Swami came to know of it afterwards, he apologized, saying that he was so absorbed in reading that he had not heard him. The professor was not satisfied with this explanation until in the course of the conversation the swami quoted and interpreted verses from the book. Dr.Deussen was dumbfounded, and asked the Swami how he could accomplish such a feat of memory....(157) With Vivekananda's remarkable memory goes hand in hard his power of fast reading already referred to. Early in life he developed this faculty. During his convalescence at Meerut in 1891, he called for some books by Sir John Lubbock from a local library and returned them the next day saying he had read them. The librarian did not believe this, but on cross examining the Swami regarding the contents of the books, he was convinced that his assertion was true. Later similar instances occurred and this power came to be established as his normal practice.
  10. ^
  11. Meena Agrawal (30 January 2008). Swami Vivekananda. Diamond Pocket Books. p. 49.  .
  12. . vivekananda.net. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  13. Shack, Joan (2012). (PDF). Sri Sarada Society Notes. Albany, New York. 18 (1).
  14. Lulla, Anil Buddy (3 September 2007). . The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  15. . www.ramakrishnavivekananda.info. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  16. . Belur Math. Archived from on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  17. . Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  18. . UNESCO. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  19. . Retrieved 20 August 2011.
  20. (PDF). National Portal of India. Government of India. 10 January 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  21. . Zee News.India. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  22. . Highbeam. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  23. . Swami Vivekananda State Police Academy. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
  24. . Csvtu.ac.in. 19 November 2012. Archived from on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  25. . The Hindu. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  26. . PTI. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  27. . The Times of India. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  28. ^ . vivekananda.net. Retrieved 22 March 2012.

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Further reading

Main article:

  • Chauhan, Abnish Singh (2004), , Prakash Book Depot,  
  • Chauhan, Abnish Singh (2006), , Prakash Book Depot,  
  • King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge
  • (1999). Swami Vivekananda: A historical review. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.
  • Rambachan, Anatanand (1994), The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas, University of Hawaii Press
  • (2016). Indra's Net: Defending Hinduism's Philosophical Unity (revised ed.). Noida, India: HarperCollins Publishers India.  .   (400 pages)
  • Sharma, Jyotirmaya (2013), , Yale University Press,  

External links




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