Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. (ΑΦΑ) is an African-American, intercollegiate . It was initially a literary and social studies club organized in the 1905–1906 school year at but later evolved into a fraternity with a founding date of December 4, 1906, at Cornell. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, the , as its symbol. Its aims are "Manly Deeds, Scholarship, and Love For All Mankind," and its motto is "First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All." Its archives are preserved at the .

Chapters were chartered at and in 1907. The fraternity has over 290,000 members and has been open to men of all races since 1945. Currently, there are more than 730 active chapters in the Americas, Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and Asia. It is the largest predominately African-American fraternity and one of the ten largest in the nation.

Alpha Phi Alpha is a social organization with a service organization mission and provided leadership and service during the , , and . The fraternity addresses social issues such as apartheid, AIDS, urban housing, and other economic, cultural, and political issues of interest to people of color. National programs and initiatives of the fraternity include A Voteless People Is a Hopeless People, My Brother's Keeper, Go To High School, Go To College, Project Alpha, and the . It also conducts philanthropic programming initiatives with the , , the , and .

Members of this fraternity include many historical civil rights leaders such as , founder , , and . Other world renowned-members include political activist , musicians and , legend , , Olympic gold medalist , , United Nations Ambassador , -winning director , six time MTV Video Music Awards - winning director/choreographer Frank Gatson Jr., hero of the , , and sportscasters , and .

Alpha Phi Alpha was directly responsible for the conception, funding, and construction of the next to the in

Contents

History[]

Founding[]

The Arts Quad of in 1919. The organization was founded in Ithaca, N.Y., by students of Cornell University.

At the start of the 20th century, African-American students at American universities were often excluded from fraternal organizations enjoyed by the predominantly student population at non-. C. C. Poindexter organized a group of students for literary discussion and social functions at Cornell University. The group initially consisted of 15 students and included women. The initial study group consisted of 14 students. These students included four from Washington, D.C. – Robert Ogle, Fred Morgan Phillip, Fannie Holland, and Flaxie Holcosbe. There were also four men and a woman from New York State: George Kelley, Arthur Callis, James Thomas, Gordon Jones, and Paul Ray. From West Virginia came and Mary Vassar. Vertner Tandy came from Kentucky, and C.H. Chapman was from Florida.

The group met every two weeks at 421 North Albany Street, where Poindexter roomed. Poindexter was stated to have a relationship with the other students of the group that was more faculty to student than peer-to-peer, given that he was the secretary of a professor at Cornell. In December 1905, Poindexter organized a meeting of students which included Murray, Ogle, Phillips, Chapman, Kelley, Callis, Tandy, and George Tompkins.

Robert Ogle had seen an article in the magazine about a Negro fraternity at Ohio State University called , of which the university had no knowledge. Pi Gamma Omicron inspired Ogle to try to transform the literary society into a fraternity. There was disagreement about the group's purpose: some wanted a social and literary club where everyone could participate; others wanted a traditional fraternal organization. Poindexter felt the group should serve the cultural and social needs of the black community and not be an elite secret society. The society decided to work to provide a literary, study, social, and support group for all minority students who encountered social and academic racial prejudice. On October 23, 1906, George Kelley proposed that the organization be officially known by the Alpha Phi Alpha, and Robert Ogle proposed the colors black and . Poindexter became the first President of Alpha Phi Alpha; under his leadership, the first banquet, initiation procedures, and policies were introduced.

The divisive issue of whether the terms "club" or "fraternity" should be used was still debated. A vote again confirmed the name Alpha Phi Alpha with the colors of old gold and black. The initiation of new members Eugene Kinckle Jones, Lemuel Graves and Gordon Jones took place on October 30, 1906 at a Masonic Hall including James Morton was considered and selected, but at the time he was not registered at the university. Two founding members learned about fraternity rituals from other fraternal organizations: Henry A. Callis worked in the fraternity House, and Kelly worked at fraternity house. Coincidentally, an article about a Negro fraternity Pi Gamma Omicron had initial desires to become a national fraternity was noted by a Beta Theta Pi correspondent at Ohio State University. Callis stated that these fraternities, SAE and BTP, were the original source of the fraternity rituals. The other members of the group felt that Poindexter, as a graduate student, dominated the meetings of Alpha Phi Alpha. In his absence in the meeting on November 1905, the fraternity idea was pushed for a vote by Murray and was seconded by Robert H Ogle. In December 1905, Thompson's resignation was accepted. Seven of the original 12 men from the initial meeting in December 1905 would continue on as members of the fraternity.

By December 4, 1906, the decision on a name was made: "fraternity". The earlier terms "club", "organization", and "society" were permanently removed. One month later, Poindexter resigned from the fraternity, as he took a new job in in Virginia. 11 members were present during the date of the founding of the fraternity on December 4, 1906. Despite Poindexter's role in the formation of Alpha Phi Alpha, it was agreed that his name would not be linked to the early formation of the fraternity by its founders. Murray was emphatic in his belief that Poindexter should not be considered to be a founder despite his role. As Charles Wesley stated in the fraternity's history book, "C.C. Poindexter deserves special mention. Without his serious and eager leadership, it is probable that the fraternal organization would have advanced more slowly. He was the moving spirit in the literary organization which served as the predecessor of the fraternity. He acted as president of the group and continued in office during the formation of the early policies and also through the first initiation in Alpha Phi Alpha society." According to his wife, Poindexter did not oppose the idea of a fraternity.

The original fraternal founding members are now stated to be , , (who replaced James Morton), , , , and . Eugene Kinkle Jones who joined the group in October 1906 was given the title of a founder in 1952, while James Morton was removed because of his lack of enrollment in the Cornell. The founders are collectively known as the .

The 1906 for ΑΦΑ's Alpha chapter at Cornell University

Mrs. Annie C Singleton played a pivotal part in helping the organization in its early years. She became the Mother of the fraternity as a result.

Consolidation and expansion[]

The fraternity's constitution was adopted on December 4, 1906, limiting membership to "Negro male" students and providing that the General Convention of the Fraternity would be created following the establishment of the fourth chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha. The states the purpose of Alpha Phi Alpha:

To promote a more perfect union among college men; to aid in and insist upon the personal progress of its members; to further brotherly love and a fraternal spirit within the organization; to discountenance evil; to destroy all prejudices; to preserve the sanctity of the home, the personification of virtue and the chastity of woman.

The 1907 ΑΦΑ Constitution and

Chapters of Alpha Phi Alpha are given names in order of installation into the fraternity. No chapter is designated , the last letter of the Greek alphabet and traditionally used for "the end". Deceased brothers are considered by brothers to have joined Omega Chapter.

Founders Eugene Kinckle Jones and Nathaniel Allison Murray chartered the second and third chapters, at and , respectively, in December 1907. The charter at Howard made it the site of the organization of the first black Greek letter organization among . The establishment of chapters at what was not considered to be grade A universities was the source of debate among the founders. The non grade A universities included Negro universities, particularly other than Howard University.

The purpose and objective of the fraternity within the were declared "educational and for the mutual uplift of its members." The fraternity has established the Alpha Phi Alpha Archives at Howard University's to preserve the history of the organization.

The fraternity chartered its first international chapter at the in 1908. Chapters have been chartered in London, , , the and South Korea.

The first General Convention of Alpha Phi Alpha, held at in 1908

The first general convention assembled in December 1908 at Howard University in Washington, D.C., producing the first ritual and the election of the first General President of Alpha Phi Alpha, Moses A. Morrison. Each newly elected General President is automatically considered one of the "100 most influential Black Americans."

The fraternity established its first chapter Alpha Lambda in 1911 in . It was again incorporated as a national organization on April 3, 1912, under the laws of within the District of Columbia, under the name and title of The Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity.

Alpha Phi Alpha member was founder of the and its journal, The Crisis.

For more than 100 years, Alpha Phi Alpha and its members have had a voice and influence on politics and current affairs., the magazine of the (NAACP), was started by fraternity member in 1910. In 1914, The Sphinx, named after the , began publication as the fraternity's journal.The Crisis and The Sphinx are respectively the first and second oldest continuously published black journals in the United States. The 's (NUL) Opportunity: Journal of Negro Life was first published in 1923 under the leadership of Alpha founder Eugene K. Jones and as its executive editor.

In 1912, was elected as the fourth annual president of Alpha Phi Alpha at the fourth annual convention in Ann Arbor, Michigan and was the first to individual to serve two terms as president. He served as two terms as president, between 1912-1914. While in office he helped secure a chapter house, appointed a special committee to consult with the president of Howard, and asked members to 'use every means possible to raise the moral and scholastic tone of the Fraternity". Garvin saw that it was vital that the Fraternity establish a mindful image and perception for future generations. One of the most notable contributions made by Garvin was the national incorporation of the fraternity under the laws of Congress. As president, Garvin wrote the fraternity's Esprit De Fraternite. In it he dictated:

Group Photograph of Alpha Phi Alpha Fourth Annual Convention 1912, Elected President on bottom right hand corner

      An Alpha Phi Alpha man's attitude should not be 'how much can I derive from the Fraternity' but 'how much can I do for the Fraternity?' In proportion to what he does for his Chapter and for Alpha Phi Alpha will a member receive lasting benefits from the Fraternity to himself in the way of self development by duty well done, and the respect of the Brothers served.
        A member's duties should be:
        1. Prompt payment of all financial obligations, the prime requisite for successful fraternal life
        2. The doing of good scholastic work in his chosen vocation, thereby accomplishing the real end of a college course
        3. The reasonable endeavor to participate in general college activities and social service and to excel therein
        4. The proper consideration of all things with appropriate attention to the high moral standard of Alpha Phi alpha.

The Training Camp at Fort Des Moines during was the result of the fraternity's advocacy in lobbying the government to create an ' training camp for . Thirty-two Alpha men were granted commissions (four were made and many were ). First Lieutenant Victor Daly was decorated with the for his service in France. Today, the fort is a museum and education center which honors the first officer candidate class for African-American men in 1917.

While continuing to stress academic excellence among its members, Alpha's leaders recognized the need to correct the educational, economic, political, and social injustices faced by African Americans and the world community. Alpha Phi Alpha has a long history of providing scholarships for needy students and initiating various other charitable and service projects. It evolved from a social fraternity to a primarily community service organization.[41]

Alpha Phi Alpha member and Harlem Renaissance singer, bandleader, playwright and composer,

History: 1919–1949[]

The fraternity's date back to 1919, with its "Go-To-High School, Go-to- campaign to promote academic achievement within the African-American community as its first initiative.

The 1920s witnessed the birth of the –a flowering of African-American , , , and which began to be absorbed into mainstream . Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity brothers Charles Johnson, W. E. B. Du Bois, , and other members were entrepreneurs and participants in this creative upsurge led primarily by the African-American community based in , New York City. By the end of the 1920s, the fraternity had chartered 85 chapters throughout the United States and initiated over 3,000 members.

I want the Fraternity to stand out in the affairs of the Nation.

,
ΑΦΑ Founder

During the , Alpha Phi Alpha and its members continued to implement programs to support the black community. The Committee on Public Policy, the Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, and "The Foundation Publishers" were established at the 1933 general convention. The Committee on Public Policy took positions on numerous issues important to the black community. It investigated the performance of 's agencies to assess the status of the black population, both as to treatment of agencies' employees and in the quality of services rendered to American blacks. Alpha men and Eugene K. Jones were members of Roosevelt's unofficial , an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President.

The Education Foundation was created in recognition of the educational, economic, and social needs of African Americans in the United States. The foundation, led by Rayford Logan, was structured to provide scholarships and grants to African-American students. The Foundation Publishers would provide financial support and fellowship for writers addressing African-American issues. Historian and fraternity brother was an early beneficiary of the publishing company and was the 2006 recipient for lifetime achievement in the study of humanity.

In 1933 fraternity brother founded the New Negro Alliance (NNA) in Washington D.C. to combat white-run business in black neighborhoods that would not hire black employees. The NNA instituted a then-radical "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" campaign, and organized or threatened against white-owned business. In response, some businesses arranged for an injunction to stop the picketing. NNA lawyers, including Lawson and Thurgood Marshall, fought back – all the way to the in This ruling in favor of the NAACP became a in the struggle by African Americans against practices. "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" groups multiplied throughout the nation. The fraternity sponsors an annual Belford V. Lawson Oratorical Contest in which collegiate members demonstrate their oratorical skills first at the chapter level, with the winner competing at the District, Regional and General Convention.

The fraternity began to participate in issues, coining the well-known phrase "A Voteless People is a Hopeless People" as part of its effort to register black voters. This term was coined by the Alpha Omicron Chapter located at Johnson C. Smith University in 1936. The Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy said "Alpha Phi Alpha...developed citizenship schools in the urban South and with its slogan "A Voteless People is a Hopeless People" registered hundreds of blacks during the 1930s, decades before the (SCLC) and the (SNCC) launched their citizenship schools in the 1960s." The slogan is still used in Alpha Phi Alpha's continuing voter registration campaign. Alpha Phi Alpha member and former Washington, D.C. mayor was the first chairman of the SNCC.

Alphamen led the way in achieving competitive glory for the nation as well as racial pride for black America.

Harold Rudolph Sims

Seven Alpha men represented the United States at the politically charged : Jesse Owens, , , , , , and . In 1938, Alpha Phi Alpha continued to expand and became an international organization when a chapter was chartered in London, England.

Alpha Phi Alpha supported legal battles against . Some of its members who were trial lawyers argued many of the nation's major court cases involving and . The case styled (1935) was initiated by the fraternity and successfully argued by Alpha men Thurgood Marshall and Charles Houston to challenge biases at the university which had no laws requiring segregation in its colleges. The fraternity assisted in a similar case that involved fraternity brother . In , the most important segregation case since , Gaines was denied admission to the Law School at the because he was black. Alpha men Houston and Sidney Redmon successfully argued "States that provide only one educational institution must allow blacks and whites to attend if there is no separate school for blacks."[]

In 1940, true to its form as the "first of first", Alpha Phi Alpha sought to end racial discrimination within its membership. The use of the word "Negro" in the membership clause of the constitution which referred to "any Negro male student" would be changed to read "any male student." The unanimous decision to change the constitution happened in 1945 and was the first official action by a BGLO to allow the admission of all colors and races. Bernard Levin became the first non-black member in 1946, and Roger Youmans became the first non-black member to address the fraternity at the 1954 general convention.[]

After the in 1941 and the nation's entry into , the fraternity fought to secure rights for its membership within the ranks of officers in the . The encountered evidenced the nexus between education and war, with illiteracy decreasing a soldier's usefulness to the Army that could only be addressed with the inclusion of a large number of college educated men among the ranks of officers. Alpha men served in almost every branch of the and civilian defense programs during World War II. The leadership of the fraternity encouraged Alpha men to buy , and the membership responded with their purchases. The fraternity's long tradition of military service has remained strong. Alpha's military leaders and were followed by other fraternity members who lead and serve in the armed forces.

Paul Robeson

In 1946, fraternity brother , in a published in , referring to apartheid and South Africa's impending request to annex South-West Africa, a , appealed:

to my fellow Americans to make known their protest against such conditions to the South African Ministry in Washington; to send to the Council on African Affairs, an expression of support for these grievously oppressed workers in South Africa; to keep the South African situation in mind against the time when General will come to the to demand the annexation of South West Africa, which means more Africans for him to exploit.

In 1947, Alpha Phi Alpha awarded Robeson the Alpha Medallion for his "outstanding role as a champion of freedom."

History: 1950–1969[]

The general convention in 1952 was the venue for a significant historical action taken regarding the Seventh Jewel Founder. The decision "of placing Brother [Eugene] Jones in his true historical setting resulting from the leading role which he had played in the origin and development of the early years of the fraternity history" was made by a special committee consisting of Jewels Callis, Kelley and Murray and fraternity historian . James Morton was removed as a founder, yet continues to be listed as one of the first initiates. This convention created the Alpha Award of Merit and the Alpha Award of Honor, for appreciation of the tireless efforts on behalf of African Americans, and were awarded to Thurgood Marshall and Eugene K. Jones.

God grant from this assembly, this noble assembly of fraternity men, some of the leaders of our nation will emerge.

,
(Address to ΑΦΑ at )

In 1956, the fraternity made a "" to Cornell in celebration of its which drew about 1,000 members who traveled by chartered train from to Ithaca. Fraternity brother Martin Luther King Jr. delivered the speech at the 50th anniversary banquet, in which he spoke on the "Injustices of Segregation". There were three living Jewels present for the occasion, Kelley, Callis and Murray.

Alpha Phi Alpha member successfully argued the U.S. Supreme Court case styled Brown v. Board of Education which declared segregation unconstitutional.

Alpha men were pioneers and at the forefront of the during the 1950s. In , Martin Luther King Jr. led the people in the as a minister, and later as head of the SCLC. saw organize for civil rights in . Thurgood Marshall managed the landmark US Supreme Court case , in which the Court decided against segregation in public schools. Marshall employed mentor and fraternity brother Charles Houston's plan to use the de facto inequality of to attack and defeat the . The actions by Alpha activists provoked death threats to them and their families, and exposed their homes as targets for .

In 1961, became the executive director of the National Urban League. In 1963 the NUL hosted the planning meetings of civil rights leaders for the . The Alpha Phi Alpha delegation was one of the largest to participate in the March on Washington.

residents viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, attorney and Alpha Phi Alpha member, on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded the previous day.

In 1968, after the of fraternity brother Martin Luther King Jr., Alpha Phi Alpha proposed erecting a permanent memorial to King in Washington, D.C. The efforts of the fraternity gained momentum in 1986 after King's birthday was designated a . They created the Washington D. C. Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation, Inc. to collect funds of 0 million for construction.

History: 1970–2000[]

Beginning in the 1970s, new goals were being introduced to address the current environment. The older social programs and policies were still supported, however; under the direction of General President the fraternity turned its attention to new social needs. This included the campaign to eliminate the on numerous fronts with housing development and entrepreneurship initiatives.

The requested non-profit organizations to get involved with providing housing for families, individuals and senior citizens. Alpha Phi Alpha was poised to take advantage of this program with government in improving urban housing living conditions. The Eta Tau Lambda chapter created Alpha Phi Alpha Homes Inc. with as the chairman to address these needs in . In 1971, Alpha Homes received an .5 million grant from to begin groundbreaking on Channelwood Village with the Henry Arthur Callis Tower as its centerpiece. Channelwood contains additional structures named after General Presidents James R. Williams and Charles Wesley, and streets named for fraternity founders Tandy and Ogle. The Alpha Towers in Chicago and three other urban housing developments in — the Alpha Gardens, Alpha Towne and Alpha Village saw completion through Alpha Phi Alpha leadership.

In 1976, the fraternity celebrated its 70th anniversary with dual convention locations: New York City and Monrovia. The fraternity launched the Million Dollar Fund Drive with three prime beneficiaries —

The Executive Director of the NAACP stated, "Alpha Phi Alpha provided the largest single gift ever received by the civil rights group."

In 1981, the fraternity celebrated its in , Texas, featuring a presentation of the New Thrust Program consisting of the Million Dollar Fund Drive, the Leadership Development and Citizenship Institutes, and the quest to obtain a for fraternity brother Martin Luther King Jr.

We will go to great lengths to lend our voices, our time, our expertise and our money to solve the problems that humankind must solve as we move into the 21st century.

— Henry Ponder, 28th General President ΑΦΑ

As the 21st century approached, Alpha Phi Alpha's long-term commitment to the social and economic improvement of humanity remained at the top of its agenda. The fraternity's 28th General President, , said, "We would like the public to perceive Alpha Phi Alpha as a group of college-trained, professional men who are very much concerned and sensitive to the needs of humankind; We will go to great lengths to lend our voices, our time, our expertise and our money to solve the problems that humankind must solve as we move into the 21st century."

In 1996, the World Policy Council (WPC) was created as a to expand the fraternity's involvement in politics, and social and current policy to encompass important global and world issues. The United States Congress authorized the to permit Alpha Phi Alpha to establish a memorial to Dr. Martin Luther King on Department of Interior lands in the District of Columbia.

Twenty-first century[]

Alpha Phi Alpha member and Congressman Chaka Fattah

In 2006, more than 10,000 Alpha Phi Alpha members gathered in Washington, D.C. to participate in the fraternity's to lay the groundwork for another 100 years of service. The fraternity developed a national strategic plan which outlines the processes that Alpha Phi Alpha will utilize in its continuing efforts to develop tomorrow's leaders, and promote brotherhood and academic excellence. The Centenary Report of the World Policy Council was published in connection with the centenary of Alpha Phi Alpha.

In 2007, General President Darryl Matthews addressed demonstrators at a protest rally touted as the new civil rights struggle of the 21st century. The rally for six teenagers, the "", was a poignant reminder of incidents which punctuated the civil rights struggles begun in the 1950s.

On the eve of the , the fraternity under the new leadership of 33rd General President Herman "Skip" Mason hosted a Martin Luther King Holiday program at the "to honor yesterday's 'firsts'—those in history who paved the way for the nation to be able to celebrate the first African-American president." Alpha Congressman said "The life and legacy of Dr. King [was] a predicate for the election of Barack Obama," "The two are inextricably linked." Alpha Phi Alpha responded to President clarion call to Americans to remake America by implementing a public policy program to focus on saving America's black boys. General President Mason on behalf of the fraternity appealed to President Obama to create a "White House Council on Men and Boys" and partner with Alpha Phi Alpha to specifically address the needs of this group on a national level.

Alpha Phi Alpha responded to the by sending a humanitarian delegation of Alpha men led by President Mason to on a fact-finding mission to assess the situation and develop a long-term support plan for the Haitian people. The organization views its future plan to 'adopt' a school in Haiti as "a great opportunity for the first black intercollegiate fraternity to stand in solidarity with the first ."

The fraternity protested the passage of which it believes may lead to by relocating its 2010 national convention from to . The bill makes it a state crime for an to be in without carrying legal documents, steps up state and local law enforcement of , and cracks down on those sheltering, hiring and transporting illegal immigrants. The bill has been called the broadest and strictest anti- measure in decades.

With global expansion as a platform, the fraternity chartered new chapters in the eastern hemisphere at the 2010 National Convention in Las Vegas, NV. The two new chapters are in London, England and Johannesburg, South Africa, further expanding the fraternity's global footprint.

In 2012, Herman "Skip" Mason was suspended from the fraternity amid allegations of financial improprieties and was summarily removed as General President. Mason filed a lawsuit that contended the violated the fraternity's constitution and by-laws when it suspended him. The lawsuit requested a that would have, in effect, reinstated him as general president. This was denied.

National programs[]

Alpha Phi Alpha asserts that through its community outreach initiatives, the fraternity supplies voice and vision to the struggle of African Americans, the , and the countless special problems that affect Black men.

ΑΦΑ National Programs Mentoring World and National Affairs Education Continuing the Legacy Project Alpha Leadership Training Institute Alpha Academy Go To High School, Go To College Commission on Business A Voteless People is a Hopeless People Alpha and the NAACP Alpha Head Start Academy Cooperative Programs and Economic Development

The fraternity provides for charitable endeavors through its Education and Building Foundations, providing academic scholarships and shelter to underprivileged families these projects are managed by fraternity brothers; Broderick McKinney, Kenneth Burnside and Gregory Anderson. The fraternity combines its efforts in conjunction with other philanthropic organizations such as , Boy Scouts of America, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, Project Alpha with the , NAACP, , and companies.

We must not shoot in the air, but accomplish results. Each chapter must put its part of the program over with interest and drive.

Lucius L. McGee,
10th General President ΑΦΑ

Alpha's "Designated Charity" benefits from the approximately ,000, one-time contribution fund-raising efforts at the fraternity's annual general convention. The fraternity also has made commitments to train leaders with national mentoring programs.

The Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation is a project of Alpha Phi Alpha to construct the Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial on the in Washington D.C.

Go-To-High School, Go-To-College[]

Established in 1922, the Go-To-High School, Go-To-College program is intended to afford Alpha men, with the opportunity to provide young participants with role models. The program concentrates on the importance of completing secondary and collegiate education as a path to advancement and to provide information and strategies to facilitate success.

Voter education/registration program[]

"A Voteless People is a Hopeless People" was initiated as a National Program of Alpha during the 1930s by the Alpha Omicron chapter (Johnson C. Smith University), when many African Americans had the right to vote but were prevented from voting because of poll taxes, threats of reprisal, and lack of education about the voting process. Voter education and registration have since remained a dominant focus in the fraternity's planning. In the 1990s the focus has shifted to promotion of political awareness and empowerment, delivered most often through use of town meetings and candidate forums. Members are required to be registered voters, and to participate in the national voter registration program.

The fraternity's Nu Mu Lambda chapter of , held a voter registration drive in in 2004, from which Secretary of State rejected all 63 voter registration applications on the basis that the fraternity did not follow correct procedures, including obtaining specific pre-clearance from the state to conduct their drive.

The Court finds and hereby DECLARES that the rejection of voter registration applications on the grounds that they were submitted in a bundle, or by someone who was not a registrar or deputy registrar, violates the .

— U.S. Court of Appeals, Wesley v. Cox.

Nu Mu Lambda filed Charles H. Wesley Education Foundation v. Cathy Cox on the basis that the Georgia Secretary of State's long-standing policy and practice of rejecting mail-in voter registration applications that were submitted in bundles and/or by persons other than registrars, deputy registrars, or the individual applicants, violated the requirements of the (NVRA) by undermining voter registration drives. A Senior upheld earlier federal court decisions in the case, which also found private entities have a right under the NVRA, to engage in organized voter registration activity in Georgia at times and locations of their choosing, without the presence or permission of state or local election officials.

Project Alpha[]

Alpha Phi Alpha, Iota Delta Lambda Chapter (Chicago) and the March of Dimes began a collaborative program called Project Alpha in 1980. The project consists of a series of workshops and informational sessions conducted by Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity brothers to provide young men with current and accurate information about prevention. Alpha Phi Alpha also participates in the March of Dimes' WalkAmerica and raised over 1,000 in 2006.

Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial[]

Main article:

Memorial site, shown in relation to areas including the National Mall, West Potomac Park, and the Tidal Basin

The memorial is a result of an early effort of Alpha Phi Alpha to erect a monument to King.> King was a member of the fraternity, initiated into the organization via Sigma Chapter on June 22, 1952, while he was attending . King remained involved with the fraternity after the completion of his studies, including delivering the speech at the fraternity's 50th anniversary banquet in 1956. In 1968, after , Alpha Phi Alpha proposed erecting a permanent memorial to King in Washington, D.C. The fraternity's efforts gained momentum in 1986, after King's birthday was designated a .

In 1996, the authorized the to permit Alpha Phi Alpha to establish a memorial on Department of Interior lands in the District of Columbia, giving the fraternity until November 2003 to raise 0 million and break ground. In 1998, Congress authorized the fraternity to establish a —the Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation—to manage the memorial's fundraising and design, and approved the building of the memorial on the National Mall. In 1999, the (CFA) and the (NCPC) approved the site location for the memorial.

The memorial's design, by , a San Francisco-based architecture firm, was selected out of 900 candidates from 52 countries. On December 4, 2000, a marble and bronze plaque was laid by Alpha Phi Alpha to dedicate the site where the memorial was to be built. Soon thereafter, a full-time team began the fundraising and promotional campaign for the memorial. A ceremonial groundbreaking for the memorial was held on November 13, 2006, in .

In August 2008, the foundation's leaders estimated the memorial would take 20 months to complete with a total cost of 0 million USD. As of December 2008, the foundation had raised approximately 8 million, including substantial contributions from such donors as the , Foundation, the , and filmmaker . The figure also includes  million in provided by the United States Congress.

World Policy Council[]

Main article:

General President established the World Policy Council in 1996 as a and with a mission as stated in its centenary report "to address issues of concern to our brotherhood, our communities, our Nation, and the world."

Organizing a World Policy Council, Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity suddenly made global headlines when the group asked to release political prisoners.

Simeon Booker

The Council is headed by and communicates its position through which are disseminated to policymakers, politicians, scholars, journalists, and chapters of the fraternity. Since its founding the Council has issued five reports on topics such as the crisis, , and . The fifth report was published in 2006 and examines the , and .

Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, Inc.[]

The Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, Inc. is the non-profit charitable arm of the fraternity, which focuses on scholarship, programs, and training and development of the membership. The Education Foundation encompasses the implementation of Go-to-High School, Go-to-College, Project Alpha, voter education / registration efforts, The Belford V. Lawson Oratorical Contest, The John Hope Franklin Collegiate Scholars Bowl, The Hobart Jarrett Debate Competition, Leadership Development Institutes, and the professional and personal development thrusts of the fraternity via Alpha University.

Pan-Hellenic membership[]

Further information: and

The fraternity maintains dual membership in the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and the North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC). The NPHC is composed of nine international black Greek-letter sororities and fraternities, and Alpha Phi Alpha is the only member founded at an school. The council promotes interaction through forums, meetings, and other mediums for the exchange of information, and engages in cooperative programming and initiatives through various activities and functions.

The NIC serves to advocate the needs of its member fraternities through enrichment of the fraternity experience; advancement and growth of the fraternity community; and enhancement of the educational mission of the host institutions.

Membership[]

The chief significance of Alpha Phi Alpha lies in its purpose to stimulate, develop, and cement an intelligent, trained leadership in the unending fight for freedom, equality and fraternity. Our task is endless.

,
ΑΦΑ Founder
6th General President

Alpha Phi Alpha's membership is predominantly African-American in composition with brothers in over 680 college and graduate chapters in the United States, District of Columbia, the Caribbean, Bermuda, Europe, Asia and Africa. Since its founding in 1906, more than 290,000 men have joined the membership of Alpha Phi Alpha and a large percentage of leadership within the African-American community in the 20th century originated from the ranks of the fraternity.

wrote in his book The King that God Did Not Save, which was a commentary on the life of Alpha Phi Alpha member Martin Luther King Jr., "a man clawing out his status does not stop at education. There are attendant titles he must earn. A fraternity is one of them." The mystique of belonging to a Greek letter group still attracts college students in large numbers despite lawsuits that have threatened the very existence of some fraternities and sororities.

Initial Membership Development Process (IMDP)[]

The period in which a candidate for membership in the fraternity engages in before applying and being initiated as a member. This period is the time the candidate learns the organization's history, objectives, aims, and the tenacity of brotherhood.

As of June 2013, the fraternity only inducts members through the Initial Membership Development Process (IMDP), and all membership development activities for the fraternity are overseen by the National Membership Services Director and conducted by regionally appointed Chief Deans. Pledging has been officially abolished as a means of obtaining membership in Alpha Phi Alpha and pledge "lines" have been officially abolished by the fraternity. Aspirants must not submit themselves, or agree to submit themselves, to any membership activities that are prohibited by the fraternity. Individuals involved in hazing face severe disciplinary action by the fraternity and are referred to the local legal authorities.

Let there be no complaints about brutality. The emphasis should be upon history and purposes of the Fraternity rather than upon physical punishment.

,
15th General President ΑΦΑ

There are periods in the history of the fraternity where was involved in certain pledge lines. The fraternity has never condoned hazing, but has been aware of problems with "rushing" and "initiations" dated as far back as the 1934 General Convention when the fraternity founders communicated their concern with physical violence during initiation ceremonies. At the 1940 General Convention, a pledge manual was discussed that would contain a brief general history, the list of chapters and locations, the achievements of Alpha men, outstanding Alpha men, and pledge procedures.

In 2001 and 2007, the chapters at and were suspended for two and five years respectively for hazing and incidents involving prospective members injured seriously enough to require medical care. In 2010, the fraternity suspended new membership intake indefinitely in response to hazing activities in 2009 that again caused pledges to be hospitalized. In 2012, the chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was also accused of hazing. The allegations claimed that members of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity repeatedly struck and paddled pledges hard enough to cause bruises, and one pledge was paddled so hard that he was unable to sleep on his back for several nights.

Alpha Phi Alpha honorary member was the 38th Vice President of the United States.

In the selection of candidates for membership, certain chapters had not escaped challenges of racial stereotyping and allegations of . In a biography of Justice Thurgood Marshall, the authors recounted how certain chapters of the fraternity used a "brown paper bag test" and would not consider students whose skin color was darker than the bag. General President Belford Lawson Jr. lamented this attitude and condemned initiation practices of snobbery and exclusivity, and said " could not make Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity today; they would Him because He was not hot enough."

The fraternity once provided classifications for honorary and exalted honorary membership. Honorary members include Vice President Hubert Humphrey (who is Caucasian), jazz musician , and activist W. E. B. Du Bois. is distinguished as the only member initiated when he became an exalted honorary member of the fraternity's Omega chapter in 1921. The Fraternity no longer has honorary membership, a practice that stopped in the 1960s.

Notable members[]

Main article:

The fraternity's membership roster includes activist , Professor , , Secretary , celebrity physician , entrepreneur , athlete , musician , United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, the first , and Atlanta Mayor .

became the only black member of the 2009 when he assumed the seat vacated by President .

Alpha Phi Alpha member is the CEO of the National Urban League.

Alpha men were instrumental in the founding and leadership of the NAACP (Du Bois), (PNP) Norman Manley, (ASALH) (), UNCF (), and the SCLC (King, and ). The National Urban League has had eight leaders in its more than 100 years of existence; six of its leaders are Alpha men: George Haynes, Eugene K. Jones, , Whitney Young, and .

We are counting on Alpha men to show their true colors.

Antonio M. Smith,
17th General President ΑΦΑ

From the ranks of the fraternity have come a number of pioneers in various fields. Honorary member was the first African American to be admitted to . was the first actor to play "Porgy" in . During the Washington run of Porgy and Bess in 1936, the cast — as led by Todd Duncan — protested the audience's segregation. Duncan stated that he "would never play in a theater which barred him from purchasing tickets to certain seats because of his race." Eventually management would give into the demands and allow for the first integrated performance at the .

Charles Houston, a graduate and a law professor at Howard University, first began a campaign in the 1930s to challenge racial discrimination in the federal courts. Houston's campaign to fight Jim Crow Laws began with Plessy v. Ferguson and culminated in a unanimous Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.

' campaign to end the racist, policies of South Africa succeeded when the passed Dellums' anti-apartheid calling for a trade against South Africa and immediate divestment by American corporations.

Alpha Phi Alpha member is congratulated by President at the Ceremony for the 2004 Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, The of the White House.

Martin Luther King Jr. was a laureate, awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." The , designed to recognize individuals who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors", has been awarded to many members including Edward Brooke and . The , the highest civilian award of the United States Congress, was awarded to Jesse Owens and Vice President Hubert Humphrey. The , awarded annually by the NAACP for outstanding achievement by a Black American, has been awarded to brothers John Hope Franklin, Rayford Logan and numerous fraternity members.

Premier Norman Manley was a (1914), awarded annually by the Oxford-based Rhodes Trust on the basis of academic achievement and character. , Andrew Zawacki, and are other Rhodes Scholar recipients.

A portion of the Morial Convention Center Complex in New Orleans, of Alpha Phi Alpha General President Ernest Morial

A number of buildings and monuments have been named after Alpha men such as the , , , , , and the W. E. B. Du Bois library at the . The has honored fraternity members W. E. B. Du Bois, Duke Ellington, Martin Luther King Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Paul Robeson and Whitney Young with a in their Black Heritage Stamp series.

General Presidents of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.[]

  • Moses A. Morrison, 1908–1909
  • Roscoe C. Giles, 1910
  • Frederick H. Miller, 1911
  • , 1912–1914
  • Henry L. Dickason, 1914–1915
  • , 1915
  • Howard H. Long, 1916–1917
  • William A. Pollard, 1917–1918
  • Daniel D. Fowler, 1919
  • Lucius L. McGee, 1920
  • Simeon S. Booker, 1921–1923
  • Raymond W. Cannon, 1924–1927
  • Bert A. Rose, 1928–1931
  • , 1932–1940
  • , 1941–1945
  • , 1946–1951
  • Antonio M. Smith, 1952–1954
  • Frank L. Stanley, 1955–1957
  • Myles A. Paige, 1957–1960
  • William H. Hale, 1961–1962
  • T. Winston Cole Sr., 1963–1964
  • Lionel H. Newsom, 1965–1968
  • , 1968–1972
  • , 1973–1976
  • , 1977–1980
  • Ozell Sutton, 1981–1984
  • Charles C. Teamer, 1985–1988
  • , 1989–1992
  • , 1993–1996
  • Adrian L. Wallace, 1997–2000
  • , 2001–2004
  • Darryl R. Matthews Sr. 2005–2008
  • , 2009 – April 2012
  • Aaron Crutison Sr. (acting), April 2012 – December 2012
  • Mark S. Tillman, 2013–2016
  • Everett B. Ward, 2017–present

Egyptian symbolism[]

Alpha Phi Alpha chose to use Egyptian symbolism more representative of the members' African heritage. The Great Sphinx and Great Pyramids of Giza are fraternity icons.

Alpha Phi Alpha utilizes motifs from Ancient Egypt and uses images and songs depicting the Her-em-akhet (), , and other artifacts to represent the organization. The Great Sphinx of Giza was made out of one unified body of stone which represents the fraternity and its members. This is in contrast to other fraternities that traditionally echo themes from the golden age of . Alpha's constant reference to in hymns and poems are further examples of Alpha's mission to imbue itself with an African cultural heritage. Fraternity brother Charles H. Wesley wrote, "To the Alpha Phi Alpha brotherhood, African history and civilization, the Sphinx, and Ethiopian tradition bring new meanings and these are interpreted with new significance to others." The , symbols of foundation, sacred geometry and more, are other African images chosen by Alpha Phi Alpha as fraternity icons.

I have stood beside the Sphinx in Egypt in Africa in July on my third visit there, and I brought greetings to this silent historical figure in the name of Alpha Phi Alpha and I crossed the continent to Ethiopia.

,
14th General President ΑΦΑ

The fraternity's 21st General President, Thomas W. Cole once said, "Alpha Phi Alpha must go back to her ultimate roots; only then can she be nurtured to full bloom." Fraternity members make to its spiritual birthplaces of Egypt to walk across the sands of the Giza Plateau to the Great Sphinx of Giza and the Great Pyramids of Giza, and to Ethiopia.

Centennial celebration[]

Alpha Phi Alpha Board Members at Centennial Banquet, July 2006 in Washington, D.C.

Alpha Phi Alpha declared 2006 the beginning of its "Centennial Era" as it readied for its , framed by the slogan "First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All". These preparations consisted of nationwide activities and events, including the commissioning of intellectual and scholarly works, presentation of exhibits, lectures, artwork and musical expositions, the production of film and video presentations and a Centennial Convention July 25–30, 2006, in Washington, D.C.

The 2006 Centennial Celebration Kickoff launched with a "pilgrimage" to Cornell University on November 19, 2005. That event brought over 700 fraternity members who gathered for a day-long program. Members journeyed across campus and unveiled a new centennial memorial to Alpha Phi Alpha. The memorial—a wall in the form of a "J" in recognition of the Jewels — features a bench and a plaque and is situated in front of the university's Barnes Hall.

Alpha Phi Alpha Men: A Century of Leadership is a historical documentary on Alpha Phi Alpha's century of leadership and service. The film premiered in February 2006 on as part of the 2006 theme, "Celebrating Community: A Tribute to Black Fraternal, Social and Civic Institutions." In 2009, the fraternity donated its repository of interviews with prominent Alpha members that were collected for the documentary to Cornell University Library.

, it is an honor and special privilege to address this great body on such an auspicious occasion. As a proud member of this fraternity, I feel special esteem in joining the entire to recognize the historical significance of the centennial anniversary of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

The Centennial Convention, called "Reflects on Rich Past, Looks Toward Bright Future", began on with Congressman and fraternity member David Scott stating to the House of Representatives, "this week men from every discipline and geographic location convene to chart and plan for the fraternity's future, celebrate its 100th anniversary, and reinvigorate its founding principles of scholarship, fellowship, good character, and the uplifting of humanity." The House of Representatives passed House Concurrent Resolution 384, approved 422–0, which recognized and honored Alpha Phi Alpha as the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African Americans, its accomplishments and its historic milestone.

Alpha Phi Alpha members were among the list of some of the 600 expected guests of lawmakers, prominent black leaders and civil rights veterans on the South Lawn of the as talked about the reauthorization of the .

The was co-sponsored by the eight members of the House of Representatives who are members of Alpha Phi Alpha which included , and . While in Washington, fraternity members such as National Urban League head Marc Morial and Congressman witnessed the renewal of the by President in a signing ceremony at the White House. A tribute to Martin Luther King Jr. with an hour-long reflection at the site of the King Memorial was witnessed by Alpha's General President(s) and a host of the fraternity members assembled for the convention. winning singer gave a performance for his fraternity at the .

The House of Alpha, the Centennial Exhibit of Alpha Phi Alpha, opened its doors at the convention. Herman "Skip" Mason served as of the exhibit, which has been described as a "fraternal masterpiece." The featured materials are part of the records of Alpha Phi Alpha and local chapters, and the personal collections of fraternity members. Mason was inaugurated as the fraternity's 33rd General President in January 2009.

Black college Greek movement[]

Alpha Phi Alpha delegate's pin from the 1940 Pan-Hellenic convention of ΑΚΑ, ΑΦΑ and ΚΑΨ

Blacks call themselves Greek because "Greece was a culturally diverse pluralistic society of various ethnic and racial groups—much like the United States of today. However, the citizens were mostly dark-skinned black and brown people" according to journalist and Alpha member .

Alpha Phi Alpha is the first intercollegiate Greek-lettered fraternity in the United States established for people of African descent, and the paragon for the Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs) that followed. was founded in 1908 at as both the first African-American sorority and the first BGLO founded at a black college. Four other BGLOs were in quick succession founded at Howard: (1911), (1913), (1914) and (1920). was founded at in 1911. (1922) and (1963) were founded at and , respectively.

In 1940, Alpha Phi Alpha, Alpha Kappa Alpha, and Kappa Alpha Psi hosted conventions in the Municipal Auditorium of and held a historic joint BGLO session.

Notable controversies[]

In 1989, Joel Harris an Alpha Phi Alpha aspirant, age 18, a student at Morehouse College died following suspected hazing. The medical examiners report “didn't declare the hazing to be a "direct cause" of Joel's death, but it stated that he was "under an intensive amount of anxiety and stress" that night. It was reported that Harris had been punched in the chest and slapped in the face multiple times as part of a so-called "thunder and lightning" ritual hours before his death

In 1992, Gregory R. Batipps, age 20, a student at the University of Virginia, died in a car accident after falling asleep at the wheel. Hazing was investigated as a factor in his death as he was pledging Alpha Phi Alpha.

In 1995, a pledge seeking to join the fraternity's founding chapter, the Alpha Chapter at Cornell University, developed a "life-threatening infection in his buttocks" after being paddled repeatedly. He sued the fraternity for million and the fraternity was banned from campus for several years for violating the school's code of conduct.

In 2003, a 21-year-old pledge at Southern Methodist University (SMU) went into a coma after being coerced to in an Alpha Phi Alpha initiation ritual. The chapter was temporarily expelled from campus and eight Alpha Phi Alpha members were indicted on felony charges. In 2006, the first trial in the case, of Raymond Lee (SMU fraternity member), resulted in a conviction and a sentence to 180 days in jail, ten years of probation, and a ,000 fine.

In 2008, Mcandy Douarin, age 26, a student at the University of Central Florida (UCF), died from "heart-related failure less than 12 hours after a punch to his chest," Douarin shared with his family that he was frequently punched in the chest by members of Alpha Phi Alpha as part of the pledging process and his family released photos of bruises on his chest to validate that was the reason why he died. UCF students released photos and statements substantiating that Douarin was pledging the fraternity, but the university refused to launch an investigation on any allegations against them after the fraternity stated Douarin had not officially applied for membership. The family hired an attorney to help hold the fraternity accountable for his death.

In 2009, a fraternity member at Fort Valley State University was arrested and charged with felony aggravated battery for hospitalizing a pledge with acute renal failure.

In 2010, the fraternity was banned from the campus of Mercer University for three years for hazing. Pledges were sleep deprived, paddled, and forced on a strict diet.

In 2010, Alpha Phi Alpha suspended membership intake "after decades of hazing-related controversies plaguing Black Greek Letter Organizations despite their anti-hazing/anti-pledging policies."

In 2011, Emory University suspended the fraternity for four years due to several hazing violations.

In 2013, 15 Alpha Phi Alpha members pleaded guilty to charges arising from off-campus hazing at Jacksonville State University in 2011, in which pledges were beaten, humiliated, hospitalized, and forced to drink toxic drinks until they vomited. The members involved were all sentenced to 365 days in jail. One of the pledges filed a civil suit against the fraternity.

In 2013, four Alpha Phi Alpha members were arrested and plead guilty to severely beating pledges (misdemeanor charge) and violating Virginia State University's code of conduct.

In 2014, a million lawsuit was filed against the fraternity by a former pledge who was subject to humiliation and abuse. While pledging at Bowie State University, it was reported that he endured verbal assaults, punches, slaps, paddling, and body slams on a consistent basis.

In 2014, six Alpha Phi Alpha men at the University of Akron were arrested and charged with assault for severely beating pledges. One known pledge was hospitalized due to excessive bleeding.

In 2014, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville suspended the fraternity for paddling and pouring hot sauce on the genitals of pledges. The fraternity was placed on suspension until August 2016.

In 2015, the University of Texas at San Antonio suspended the fraternity until at least December 31, 2018 for beating pledges with paddles and failure to report hazing.

On January 29, 2016, Bradley Doyley, a senior and basketball player at Buffalo State College was pronounced dead allegedly of a hazing related pledging ritual. Family and friends reported that Doyley was asked to drink an unidentified toxic cocktail off campus by members of Alpha Phi Alpha that caused him to suddenly vomit blood according to a close family friend. Doyley was taken to a local hospital for an emergency surgery where he eventually died. The chapter connected with the death of Doyley was suspended by the college and members of the fraternity while under investigation for homicide charges. A report published, citing a preliminary autopsy and unnamed police sources, stated that “there is no evidence of hazing in the death last week of a student at Buffalo State College in New York.”

In 2016, Virginia Tech University banned the fraternity until 2026 for severely abusing pledges and misconduct. One known pledge was hospitalized due to beatings he endured.

Publications[]

The history, leadership, membership, activities, and continued progress of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Incorporated has been documented in a number of publications.

Publication Year Title Author 1997 The Talented Tenth: Biographical Sketches of the Seven "jewels" of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc Mason, Herman 1999 The Talented Tenth: The Founders and Presidents of Alpha Mason, Herman 2006 Jewels: The Story of the Founding of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Gourdine, Darrius J. 2012 Alpha Phi Alpha: A Legacy of Greatness, The Demands of Transcendence Parks, Gregory and Stefan M. Bradley 2016 Jewels: Town Hall Meeting Gourdine, Darrius Centennial Book of Essays and Letters: Excerpts from the Brotherhood of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity The History of Alpha Phi Alpha: A Development in College Life (History Book, Volume I) Wesley, Charles H. The History of Alpha Phi Alpha: A Tradition of Leadership and Service (History Book, Volume II) Harris, Robert L. Henry Arthur Callis: Life & Legacy Wesley, Charles H.

Documentary films[]

  • Alpha Phi Alpha Men: A Century of Leadership, 2006, producer/directors: Alamerica Bank/Rubicon Productions

Membership fees[]

  • Alumni – ,400
  • College freshmen – ,276
  • College sophomores – ,201
  • College juniors – ,126
  • College seniors – ,051

A non-refundable administrative fee of 5 is included in the above fees.

See also[]

    • a. The NNA estimated that by 1940, the group had secured 5,106 jobs for blacks because businesses could not afford to lose sales during the Depression.
    • b. South Africa formally excluded from the mandate and annexed it as a South African . It took until after the date for the first fully democratic elections in South Africa in 1994 had been set, before over Walvis Bay was formally transferred to at midnight on February 28, 1994.
    • c. Darryl R. Matthews Sr., 32nd General President of the fraternity defined a pilgrimage as "a personal, spiritual, historic and significant journey, which one takes to a place and for a purpose that has profound meaning to that individual."
    • d. President The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986; however, Congress' override of his veto was the first presidential veto in the 20th century.

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    Further reading[]

    • Davis, Michael D.; Clark, Hunter R. (2001). Thurgood Marshall: Warrior of the Bar, Rebel on the Bench. Replica Books.  . 
    • Mason, Herman (1999). The Talented Tenth: The Founders and Presidents of Alpha (2nd ed.). Winter Park, FL: Four-G.  . 
    • (1981). The History of Alpha Phi Alpha, A Development in College Life (14th ed.). Chicago, IL: Foundation. ASIN: B000ESQ14W. 
    • Wesley, Charles H. (1950). The History of Alpha Phi Alpha: A Development in Negro College Life (6th ed.). Chicago, IL: Foundation. 
    • Gourdine, Darrius Jerome (July 2006). Jewels: The Story of the Founding of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity (1st ed.). Artisan House.  . 

    External links[]

    Images

    A Century of Leadership PBS video