Закрыть ... [X]

African American History Collectioni
The Freeman Institute®
Black  History  Collection


C E L E B R A T I N G    T H E    E N T R E P R E N E U R I A L    S P I R I T
Displayed  Over  the  Centuries...                           
                            ...by  People  of  African  Descent







Powerful Images of Black History from the Ancient to the Modern




South American


.....t r u t h c e n t r i s t.....t r u t h c e n t r i c.....t r u t h c e n t r i s m.....t r u t h c e n t r i c.....t r u t h c e n t r i s t.....

"t r u t h   s m a s h e d   t o   t h e   g r o u n d   w i l l   r i s e   a g a i n,   l i k e   b l a d e s
o f   g r a s s   s p r i n g i n g   u p   t h r o u g h   t h e   c o n c r e t e."    



"se wo were fi na wosan kofa a yennki" (translation below)
"There is nothing wrong with going back to fetch what one has forgotten."  -- Ashanti saying



Please wait for images to load -- It's worth the wait. If you were to print this entire website, it would be about 100+ pages...
The TFI Black History Collection you will review below is not for sale...with 3,000+ authentic documents and artifacts -- oldest piece is 1553 (see #21). The ® (est. 1993 by ) administers its use. (® ).  The Freeman Institute® Black History Collection is being used to open Black History galleries -- under the umbrella of ® , in strategic alliance with the , in major American cities and selected cities internationally...designed to educate and inspire young people.

No images or content on this page may be used without .
© 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

Dr. Joel A. Freeman is the keynote speaker at many Black History presentations and cross-cultural competency
training events around the world. At the Black History Month event (pictured above) in the Washington, DC region, many
participants stayed afterwards to review documents and artifacts from The Freeman Institute® Black History collection.

  Documents and artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History collection have been exhibited in a
number of venues around North America, including the White House Communications, US Department of Justice,
Frostburg State University and also at the United Nations commemoration of the
International Day of Remembrance of the victims of slavery and the transatlantic slave trade.

The "Transatlantic Slave Trade" Exhibition at the United Nations

20 documents & artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History Collection were showcased.
March - May 2011    &    March - May 2012

A photo of the huge area in the main hall near the United Nations visitor's entrance
at the United Nation's "Transatlantic Slave Trade" exhibit in NYC (March - May, 2011).
20 documents & artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History Collection were showcased.
More items from the Collection are exhibited behind the walls.


Fox News Channel segment about Joel Freeman, the
United Nation exhibition, & the Black History Gallery Project


If you are interested in learning more about the Black History Gallery Project, here is a presentation
Dr. Joel Freeman made to a group interested in establishing a Black History gallery in their community. Before this video is over, you
will have captured a glimpse into Joel Freeman's heart and vision for helping to establish Black History galleries in communities
across America and also in selected cities internationally.

Dr. Freeman at the United Nations "Transatlantic Slave Trade" Exhibit.
Twenty documents & artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History Collection were showcased.

Dr. Freeman giving a bit historical background on the
significance of the discovery of the famous Rosetta Stone




Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

If you want to ask Dr. Freeman to speak at a Black History or
Cultural Diversity event...or for more information about
establishing a Black History gallery in your community, his
contact information is way down at the bottom of this page.

The White House Communications Agency (WHCA), Secret Service,
Association of International Schools in Africa (AISA),
Association for the Study of African American Life & History (ASALH),
Federal Executive Board, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL),
Maryland Association of Mental Health Counselors,
Tri Association (South / Central America & Caribbean),
European Council of International Schools (ECIS),
Montgomery County Community College, Howard County Community College,


US Army Reserves
Central Clinic
US Dept of Justice
Ft. Belvoir
Ellington Field
US Army
Howard University
Eastfield College

Blacks In Government
National Security Agency
National Science Foundation
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Defense Threat Reduction Agency
Baltimore City Community College
Mountain States Health Alliance
Wright Patterson Air Force Base
Frostburg State University
DLA Troop Support


Some of the many organizations who have invited
Dr. Joel Freeman to present on the topics of
Black History and/or Cross-Cultural Communication:


Click on the logo to read
an overview of
The Freeman Institute® Foundation

Thanks to the many people who have been mentors, cultural / historical guides, and an inspiration to Dr. Freeman along the way
(in no particular order):
Mark Mitchell, Don Griffin, Jeffrey Wright, Ivan Van Sertima, Ben Carson, Clarence Walker, Darryl Colbert, Steve Fitzhugh, Patricia Ware, Marcus Brundage, Lenny Moore, Adrian Branch, Errol Griffith, Marcella Hinton, and many others...



Defense Threat Reduction Agency
Department of Defense
Ft. Belvoir, VA


Dear Dr. Freeman
    I would like to personally thank you for your interest, support, and participation in our observance of African American History Month and for sharing your personal thoughts, and sincere and warm concerns for the men and women in our Agency.

    Your inspiring and educational speech was the highlight of this year's observance. You were able to help us understand and feel the gandeur and importance of the historical times in which we live. It enhanced our comprehension of African American's participation in contemporary society. We are indeed fortunate to have citizens such as you who are willing to give of their personal time and lend their talents to ensure the success of such programs. Your participation attests to your character and professionalism.

    Again, many thanks for your interest and support, and outstanding presentation.

                  Willisa Donald
                    Willisa Donald
                    Chief, Equal Opportunity and
                        Diversity Programs


Check out the 4 minute Return To Glory film clip (just before #11, below). Order Black History and other
resources by clicking on the Return To Glory book cover to the right (a new window will open) >>>>>>>



Some Questions -- Addressed Below


View the "You Be The Judge" mystery piece. Could this be a lost painting of Harriet Tubman? -- a few pages down...

   -  What was the first book written by an African American? -- see #1.
   -  What was the name of the first recorded song (1926) in which Louis Armstrong actually sang? -- see #4.
   -  Was Alexander Dumas (Three Musketeers, Count of Monte Cristo, etc.) of African descent? -- see #11
   -  Who manufactured a line of beauty products for Black women before Madam C. J. Walker? -- see #14
   -  Who published 16 volumes of Black History comics from 1966-1977? -- see #25.
   -  What was Pearl Bailey paid for her role in the film, Porgy and Bess? -- see #27.
   -  What was the name of one of the Life Insurance companies that insured the slaves brought over from Africa -- see #30.
   -  What role did the Royal African Company play in the African Slave Trade? -- see #35.
   -  What was Frederick Douglass doing in Dundee, Scotland in 1846? -- see #37.
   -  Who were the early Lindy Hoppers? -- see #40.
   -  What is the oldest identifiable slave ship wreck in the world? -- see #44.
   -  How did a famous British actress effect the outcome of the Civil War? -- see #61.
   -  Who was the emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 to 1868 and what did he accomplish? -- see #66.
   -  How many compositions could "Blind Tom" play on the piano? -- see #70.
   -  What is the true history behind the African American lawn jockey images? -- see #72.
   -  What was the primary catalyst behind the mass exodus of Blacks from the Republican Party after 1922? -- see #76.
   -  What sponsored the "three-fifths" concepts regarding slaves in the South? -- see #95.
   -  What slave won his freedom in a Louisville, KY horse race...36 years before the Kentucky Derby? -- see #96.
   -  What US industry employed over 3,000 African Americans (1/6 of labor force) from 1803-1860? -- see #99.
   -  Out 44 States reporting lynchings, how many States reported more whites being lynched than blacks? -- see #102.
   -  How did George Washington's visit to Barbados (1751-51) impact the outcome of the Revolutionary War? -- see #103.
   -  Who had his heart buried in Africa and his body buried in Westminster Abbey almost a year later? -- see #105.
   -  Who helped the escape of the first black man to be seized in New England under the Fugitive Slave Act? -- see #111
   -  How did the term "Jim Crow" get started? -- see #113
   -  What is the name and story of the slave owned by a Native American Indian in Louisiana? -- see #121
   -  Who employed Frederick Douglass as a ship caulker in New Bedford, MA? -- see #122
   -  What is the oldest piece (1553) in this collection? -- see #21
   -  Who was the African American juror in the 1882 trial for Guiteau, the one who assassinated President Garfield? -- see #120
   -  Check out the "Did You Know" segment at the bottom of this web page.
   -  Much, much more...

     This collection:
  1. Tears down barriers between Blacks and Whites, young and old...
  2. Opens hearts and changes minds...
  3. Surrounds Black people with their ancestors, giving a sense of awe and wonderment for people of all nationalities and ethnicities...
  4. Causes people to think and want to learn more, leading to continuing achievement, scholarship and education...
  5. Leaves a truthcentric legacy...


Donation Ideas



  If you have any relevant historic documents, artifacts, old books or photos to donate, please a description of the piece and your contact information. All donations of historical artifacts, documents, photos or books are used for educational purposes and public display only. Donors will receive a letter of acknowledgement from The Freeman Institute Foundation and will be recognized for their contribution through the listing of the item when on display.

  Some of the donors are:
- Robert Cornuke
(set of authentic, vintage slave shackles bought in Ethiopia)
- Martha Ann Simmons
(historic cards/items of African American history)
- Gerry Slessinger
(set of authentic, vintage slave shackles from the Congo region and also a British Slave ad)
- Mark E. Mitchell
(signed Frederick Douglass document and 1748 Barbados invoice for sugar, produced by slaves, being shipped to Philadelphia)
- Dr. Joanna Kirkpatrick
(vintage sheet music copy of The Verdict March-1882) -- (#120 below)
- Jack & Kathy Spencer
(scrimshaw of four African slaves and a slave ship on an 18th Century whale's tooth)
- Stephen Dankwah
(authentic slave shackles used by his ancestors to hold African slaves at the Slave Coast and Elmina slave castles in Ghana)
- Christian Van den Broeck (two foreign 78rpm records by Josephine Baker and Rex Stewart and his Footwarmers)
- Jon Christiana (1854 -- William A. Dearing,  a physician's hand-written ledger detailing his charges for helping 5 different "negro" women)...
- Gary Blevins (a plethora of "Toddy Pictures" film company dedicated to "race" films in the 1940s) -- (#125)



"We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the appalling silence of the good people."       Martin Luther King Jr.



T H E   F R E E M A N   I N S T I T U T E®
Black  History  Collection



Press Release

World renowned motivational speaker, Les Brown, and Joel Freeman examining an African American historical document.

Severn, MD (Press Release) -- Over the past decade, Joel Freeman has combined his entrepreneurial skills and love for history to develop The Freeman Institute® Black History Collection. The collection is currently comprised of over 3,000 authentic documents and artifacts and artifacts (oldest piece dated 1553) that communicate a story of creativity, inventiveness and perseverance.

  When Freeman makes Black History Month presentations at government agencies, corporations, educational institutions and faith-based organizations he generally brings 20-30 pieces from his collection to form a small portable exhibit for...


Own a full-size, museum-quality,
3-D Rosetta Stone replica

Schedule Dr. Joel A. Freeman for your next
, or Event


What would ever motivate a White Man to be interested in Black History?
for a brief response.

Contact info for Dr. Freeman is at the bottom of this page.

Joel A. Freeman and The Freeman Institute® on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+, Thumbtack, and YouTube



black history, African American, black heritage, black history month, egypt, pyramids, rosetta stone, frederick douglass, george washington carver, booker t. washington, slave ship, abolition, british slave trade, phillis wheatley


- An Ever-Expanding Black History Collection -

No images or content on this page may be used without .
© 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

black history, African American, black heritage, black history month, egypt, pyramids, rosetta stone, frederick douglass, george washington carver, booker t. washington, slave ship, abolition, british slave trade, phillis wheatley


"African American History and the Entrepreneurial Spirit"

Lessons from Blades of Grass in a Concrete Jungle


fugitive slave laws  racism  prejudice  bigotry  slave trade  jim crow  slavery



There are many historical reasons why people have been and continue to be challenged by the hardships that accompany racism, prejudice and bigotry. Those hardships can be likened to the claustrophobic layers of concrete that gradually seek to nullify all viable options available to an individual under such weight.
But as Russian historian and novelist, Alexander Solzhenitsyn once remarked, "If the whole world were covered in concrete, a single blade of grass would sooner or later break through."
A truth-centric view of history will graphically describe the concrete of the Slave Trade, slavery, fugitive slave laws, reconstruction, Jim Crow and the struggle for civil rights.
However, there are many examples of people who, like blades of grass, have broken through and defied the power of the concrete. These are the stories we will tell.
Blades of grass cracking the mighty concrete from beneath.
Can't keep the entrepreneurial spirit down.

The Freeman Institute Black History Collection and galleries will be dedicated to
sharing some of the most powerful wisdom lessons gleaned from the many
"blades of grass" who have patiently worked their way through the concrete.
Let's take a look below at one special blade of grass -- Phillis Wheatley -- the first of many...


Objective: The Freeman Institute Foundation wants to help establish Black
History galleries in communities across America and selected cities internationally.
Purpose: to educate and inspire young people with the "C.P.A. CONCEPT".

C. P. A. Concept

     Capturing Hearts & Minds through the inspiration received from and knowledge contained in Return To Glory resources (film, book, etc.).  A combined strategic focus on this step, will allow RTG to be even more deliberate in achieving its goal of changing the distorted image of Black people by starting from their ancient beginnings instead of the traditional starting points of slavery, colonization or apartheid.
     Proving the Point with documents and artifacts. Phase One has been completed by the development of The Freeman Institute Black History Collection of 3,000+ documents & artifacts -- with many already being exhibited . The following, more comprehensive Phases will be implemented once a few Black History Gallery sites are located and additional finances are secured. Verification of the history will be established through the exhibition of genuine historical documents and artifacts, representing the respective nation in which the Foundation has a presence.
     Affecting Change & Future Life Goals is realized through partnerships with national and community-based service organizations with missions to impact behavior and alter life outcomes. The Foundation's desire is to assist by providing resources to help facilitate the kind of lasting change that will help individuals realize their true potential, regardless of race, gender or generation.      Any ideas? (cell: 410-991-9718) -- CPA concept was developed by Patricia Ware

The Freeman Institute® Black History Collection

Phillis Wheatley

  1. The rare 1838 edition of Phillis Wheatley's Memoir and Poems (Isaac Knapp, Boston, 1773 was the year of the First Edition funded by Selina, Countess of Huntingdon...see below) -- A 28 page memoir of Wheatley by Margaretta Matilda Odell, a collection of Wheatley's poems, and perhaps most importantly, it contains the third publication of the poems of the North Carolina slave George Moses Horton, preceded only by a pamphlet published in Raleigh, NC (originally entitled The Hope of Liberty, an unobtainable volume), and a reprint in 1837 in Philadelphia (no copies in American libraries). The first appearance together of the two of the first three published African-American poets (separated only by Jupiter Hammon). An exceptionally scarce title.   Wheatley, born in Africa around 1753, was enslaved and brought to America in 1761. Tutored by the Wheatley family, Phillis was able to read the most difficult passages from the Bible within sixteen months. She started writing poetry at the age of twelve and by 1770 was well known in Boston and England for her elegies. Her published poetry initiated both African-American literature as well as the strong tradition of literature by African-American women --


   George Moses Horton, though of pure African parentage, was born a slave in North Carolina in 1797. In the little spare time he had he taught himself to read and began to compose poems, which he had to commit to memory because he was unable to write. Though his efforts were unappreciated by both the slave owner and his fellow slaves (who considered him "a vain fool"), he convinced his master to send him weekly to the nearby campus of the University of North Carolina, where he was able to sell produce. Soon he was composing love poetry on commission (ranging from twenty-five to seventy-five cents per poem) for students, who would claim it as their own when wooing Southern belles. Horton's business thrived and in a short time some of the academics helped him to learn to write and aided in his getting published. Sadly, his master continuously refused to allow him or others to buy his freedom. Freed by Union troops after sixty-seven years of slavery, he spent the remainder of his life in Philadelphia and died in 1883. Among his distinctions, he was the first published black Southern poet, the first black male writer to have a book published in America (Hammon's works were all published as pamphlets), the first black poetic voice to protest against slavery, and the first black author to earn money from his writings. A marvelous assemblage of two seminal figures in African-American literature, whose works are preserved for their quality as well as their historical importance.

BACKGROUND: In 1767, the Newport Mercury published Phillis Wheatley's first poem, a tale of two men who nearly drowned at sea, and of their steady faith in God. Her elegy for the evangelist George Whitefield, brought more attention to Phillis Wheatley. This attention included visits by a number of Boston's notables, including political figures and poets. She published more poems each year 1771-1773, and a collection of her poems was published in London in 1773. The introduction to this volume of poetry by Phillis Wheatley is unusual: as a preface is an "attestation" by seventeen men of Boston that she had, indeed, written the poems herself:

WE whose Names are underwritten, do assure the World, that the POEMS specified in the following Page, were (as we verily believe) written by Phillis, a young Negro Girl, who was but a few Years since, brought an uncultivated Barbarian from Africa, and has ever since been, and now is, under the Disadvantage of serving as a Slave in a Family in this Town. She has been examined by some of the best Judges, and is thought qualified to write them.

The collection of poems by Phillis Wheatley followed a trip that she took to England. She was sent to England for her health when the Wheatley's son, Nathaniel Wheatley, was traveling to England on business. She caused quite a sensation in Europe. On 13 May 1773 Selina Hastings, the Countess of Huntingdon, wrote to Susannah Wheatley (Mrs. John Wheatley), concerning religious matters -- "Your little Poetess remember me to her may the Lord keep her & hope  comfort her heart alive with the fire of that altar that never goes out, & may all under your roof dwell safe under the shadow of Jesus with great delight..."  She mentioned Phillis (little poetess), who sailed that month with Nathaniel Wheatley for England. The Countess of Huntingdon (1707-1791) was a Methodist religious leader in England, and Phillis's Poems on Various Subjects is dedicated to her. While Phillis met many people of interest in England, she was unable to connect with the Countess. She had to return unexpectedly to America when they received word that Mrs. Wheatley was ill. Sources disagree on whether Phillis Wheatley was freed before, during or just after this trip, or whether she was freed later. Mrs. Wheatley died the next spring.
-- An intriguing vintage "Negroe Slave Girl Appraisal" document mentioning a girl, Phillis...dated April 14th, 1766 -- Philadelphia. A one-of-a-kind Early American document; entirely hand-penned on laid, watermarked paper, especially since the typical spelling of the girl's name is "Phyllis." It appears as though Dr. Robert Elton settled the account and/or estate of Thomas Hart ---most important was the inclusion of the appraisal of a "Negroe Girl named Phillis" for the amount of thirty pounds. Measures about seven by twelve inches. After cursory research it has been determined that the "Phillis" mentioned in this document is not the Phillis Wheatley, even though the first name is spelled the same. Our initial thought was that perhaps John Wheatley had purchased Phillis from the estate of Thomas Hart. Phillis Wheatley was purchased by John and Susanna Wheatley in Boston a few years earlier. We are still researching to determine the identity of Phillis Wheatley's seller. The same first name of Phillis and same approximate time period of the 1760s and approximate age are items of interest. This document gives us a glimpse into early American life and the life of a young girl with the same first name as the famous, Phillis Wheatley.

-- The September 1773 edition of the Gentleman's Magazine -- first published mention of Phillis Wheatley's book.
         COUNTESS OF HUNTINGDON (1707-1791)
-- Vintage engravings (3 copies) of Selina, Countess of Huntingdon. She funded many organizations and people, including John Newton. Even though the Countess and Phillis never actually met, she funded the printing of the first edition of Phillis Wheatley's book.
-- A 1.5" brass 1937 commemorative coin of the founding of Huntingdon, PA. On the front of the coin is a Bust of Selina Hastings  Countess of  Huntingdon. On the reverse is a Quaker shaking hands with an Indian chief at Standing Stone Monument.  Around the edge  is  Sesquicentennial  adoption of the constitution of the United States. Coin shows aging patina  but in excellent condition.
: Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, was born in 1707, married in 1728 and became a Christian at around the age of 32. She became a widow seven years later and began to devote her energies wholeheartedly to the Lord's work. Like the Wesley's and George Whitefield, she was a member of the Church of England.

Selina used her influence to arrange the appointment of evangelical clergymen in numerous parishes and appointed George Whitefield and other clergy as her chaplains, which was a way of supporting them in their ministry. The Countess opened private chapels attached to her residences, which she was allowed to do as a peeress of the realm. These were used for the public preaching of the gospel, but they became a source of contention from the local Anglican clergy, with the result that she reluctantly seceded from the Church of England in 1781. The Countess was very interested in missionary work towards the American Indians. (George Whitefield was frequently in America preaching along the east coast, in particular in Georgia, where he established the orphanage 'Bethesda', near Savannah. He left this to the Countess in his will, when he died in 1770.) When the slaves who fought for the British were given their freedom after the American War of Independence, students who had been at Trevecca went to minister to them in Nova Scotia. Some of these freed slaves returned to Africa in 1792 - to Freetown in Sierra Leone. There they started up churches of their original denominations. This was how the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion in Sierra Leone began. It was not until 1839 that the lines of communication really were established between the two Connexions. A strong bond has existed between them ever since. When the Countess died in 1791 there were over 60 causes associating themselves with the Countess of Huntingdon.

Countess of Huntingdon

  Selina became an heir of the (Earl of Ferrer) fortune, along with inheriting the fortune of her husband (Earl of Huntingdon). Selina had become a Christian in 1739 and after the death of her husband (1741) she used the funds for the establishment of the Methodist church and the propagation of the gospel. The Countess funded Phillis Wheatley's book (London first edition) in 1773 without even actually meeting Phillis during her famous trip to England in 1773. This is the story behind the story.

-- An absolutely rare original autographed letter from London dated December 7, 1728 and signed by Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers (1677-1729). Washington Shirley died on April 14, 1729. This letter appears to be concerning estate matters. Another contemporary hand has added a note at the top of the second page regarding the showing of this letter to his son-in-law and daughter the Earl of Huntingdon & Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, on October 11, 1730...which was signed Jos Hayne. The additional writing on the top of the second page seems to indicate that this letter was an important aspect as the estate was being settled. In the letter is mention of Mr Shepperton, Mr Maunder, Dr Mead, mention of Northampton....mention of Springwood, Dorchester, etc.
BACKGROUND: Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers was born on 22 June 1677.1 He was the son of Robert Shirley, 1st Earl Ferrers and Elizabeth Washington. He married Mary Levinge, daughter of Rt. Hon. Sir Richard Levinge. He died on 14 April 1729 at age 51, without any sons to inherit the estate. Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers succeeded to the title of 8th Baronet Shirley, of Staunton Harold on 25 December 1717.1 He succeeded to the title of 2nd Viscount Tamworth, of co. Stafford on 25 December 1717. He succeeded to the title of 2nd Earl Ferrers on 25 December 1717.
Children of Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers and Mary Levinge
: Lady Selina Shirley+ d. 17 Jun 1791. Lady Elizabeth Shirley. Lady Mary Shirley d. 12 Aug 1784.
-- 1851 biography page of Phillis Wheatley, with her famous image prominently placed at the top (Illustrated Biographies)
-- 1855 wood engraving of Phillis Wheatley from Lossing's "Our Countrymen, Brief Memoirs of Eminent Americans."  It is a half-page portrait engraving, with biography of Phillis.
-- First Edition copy (1886) of Chips from the White House 1886 by Jeremiah Chaplin. A large collection of responses from the presidents starting with Washington to Cleveland. One response was to Phillis Wheatley slave who wrote poetry to George Washington.
-- Vintage 1909 edition of "The Poems of Phillis Wheatley", published by Richard R. Wright, Jr. and Charlotte Crogman Wright (A.M.E. Book Concerns, Philadelphia)
-- A hard-to-find 1930 hardcover edition of Phillis Wheatley's book, published by the Wrights and printed by A.M.E. Concern, Philadelphia...with Introduction and Notes by Charlotte Ruth Wright.
-- Scarce First Edition copy of, "The Story of Phillis Wheatley" (New York: J. Messner, 1949) by Shirley Graham Du Bois, 2nd wife of NAACP mentor, W.E.B. Du Bois.

-- Limoges platter, upon which the SS Phillis Wheatley ship was beautifully hand painted. It is signed on the back of the platter by the painter, Mrs. E.F. Cantrill (Chicago, IL dated Aug. 1921). It measures 12 inches by 17 1/2 inches and is in great condition. There is quite a story behind this image.
BACKGROUND: On September 17, 1919 the Black Star Line (run by Marcus Garvey) signed a contract to purchase its first ship, the "S. S. Yarmouth," later renamed the "Frederick Douglass," for 5,000. On November 5, 1919, plans were announced to float a second Black Star Line ship, the "S. S. Phillis Wheatley." Marcus Garvey was arrested and later deported for mail fraud and other charges. In spite of all the controversy that swirls around him, Marcus Garvey legacy is rather inspiring. Out of the destitute of a society built on White supremacy in 19th century Kingston, Jamaica; Marcus Garvey literally pulled himself up by the boot straps and became one of the most recognized symbols in the fight for the liberation of Africa. Based on his ideology, the idea of Pan-Africanism not only emerged world-wide, but started to become a reality. His legacy provided vision to such giants as W.E.B. Dubois, George Padmore, Kwame Nkrumah, Nnamdi Azikiwe, and Jomo Kenyatta at the 5th Pan-African Congress which ultimately led to the liberation from the colonization of African nations such as Ghana and Kenya. Most importantly, Marcus Garvey’s life and philosophy is still inspiring millions upon millions of present day freedom fighters from Africa, America, Europe and the Caribbean to make sacrifices that will one day in the near future make his dream of Africa for the Africans realized. On October 3, 2002 Jamaican Prime Minister  P.J. Patterson has reiterated his strong support for current legislation, pending in the United States House of Representatives, that would vindicate National Hero, Marcus Mosiah Garvey, thus clearing the way for an official absolution of the Jamaican patriot by the American President.

-- Extremely rare 78 rpm 10" Pathe Actuelle disc no. 032053 with blues singer Hazel Meyers in 1923 sings 'Black Star Line', a homage to Marcus Garvey's Black Star Line, a shipping company formed by Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association for the transport of goods and people from the USA to Africa. Garvey's plan failed for a variety of reasons, not least the fact that Garvey was sold ships that were in very poor condition. Here Hazel Meyers, with accompaniment by Fletcher Henderson and trumpeter Howard Scott, dreams of 'Going home on the Black Star Line'. The reverse is 'Pipe Dream Blues."
Here are the lyrics to "Black Star Line" (a West Indian Chant):

1. Brothers and sisters, country man, you'd better get on board,

Big steamship gwine to sail away, Lord, with a heavy load,

It's gwine to take us all back home, yes every native style

And when we get there what a time, down on the West Indies isle.


(chorus) Get on board country man,

I say, get on board, leave this land,

A-get on board, country man,

Gwine back on be Black Star Line.

2. Take my Bowie knife in hand and lay around de dock,

Jump right in the deep blue sea, pick fights with the sharks,

I'm gwine see Brother Abraham, go catch that "Sly Mongoose,"

I'm going down to see my downtown gal, and then we'll raise the deuce.


3. We'll eat monkey hips and rice, tomato, garlic, too

Then we'll grab out favorite sport, child, chasing monkey, too,

I done put my last dime down on dis great steamship,

Lord, I hope that it won't sink, I wanna take this trip.


Historian and writer, John Cowley, states that references in "Black Star Line" to the song, "Buddy Abraham," recorded by the Banda Belasco, Trinidad (1914) and "Sly Mongooses" (1923) -- together with the derogatory comments regarding "monkey chasers" -- exemplifies antagonism between elements in black North America and migrant workers. The description "country man" is an allusion to Garvey's followers and his avowed intention of organizing the repatriation of black people to their place of origin, Africa.


A N   I N T R I G U I N G   M Y S T E R Y   P I E C E
Y O U   B E   T H E   J U D G E

 Is this a long lost painting of the conductor of the
Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman?

Harriet Tubman?

 the body structure





Harriet Tubman



Harriet Tubman?

the facial features






Harriet Tubman?

the lips and chin

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman?

the nose and cheeks

19th Century painting of a corn-cob-pipe-smoking African American woman who bears a
remarkable resemblance to the five-foot-tall "Moses" of the Underground Railroad -- Harriet Tubman.
( more comparative photos of the real Harriet Tubman below )

  A large (18" wide x 24" tall), unsigned 19th century oil painting of an American Slave woman, most likely painted during her life. Though we are not experts on paintings we feel this is realism. Realists render everyday characters, situations, dilemmas, and objects, all in a "true-to-life" manner. Realists tend to discard theatrical drama, lofty subjects and classical forms of art in favor of commonplace themes. We are not sure who painted this woman, but we can see for certain this portrait was meant to be very realistic.

  In person, this artwork is compelling, a viewer cannot help but feel the meaning in this work. We are intrigued by the similarities between this oil painting and the famous Harriet Tubman. We researched artwork and famous women slaves of that era in America and found many characteristics are shared between the woman in the painting and Harriet herself. Learn more ...

Large 19th Century painting (18" x 24") that experienced some water damage on the middle right-hand side. The painting bears
a remarkable resemblance to Harriet Tubman.
Judge for yourself...

Harriet Tubman








Could this be a lost, genuine painting of the real Harriet Tubman?
Intrigued? Curious?
Before reviewing the rest of the Black History Collection, read more details .

Dr. Freeman discussing the painting at a
US Department of Justice Black History Month event

We have fine art canvas/varnished giclee' reproductions
of this image (unframed, in stock) in three sizes
Click on sizes below to make your order

us with your interest in quantities.


Click on either image above to read more
of the story behind this intriguing painting

[ Any ideas? If you can offer expert advice, we will send you a number of other close-up photos of this painting. ]
Dr. Joel Freeman's contact info is at the bottom of this page.


Dr. Joel A. Freeman

By the way, what would ever motivate a White Man to be interested in Black History?
Before reviewing the fine collection below, for a brief response.





  2. Wedgwood jasperware Abolitionist, Anti-Slavery cameo medallion (3 medallions in collection), with the bound slave on the front, and the words "Am I Not A Man and A Brother?" around it. From 1787 until his death in 1795, Josiah Wedgwood actively participated in the British Abolition of Slavery cause. Josiah’s most important contribution to the movement for the Abolition of Slavery, the so-called Slave Medallion, was one which brought the attention of the public to the horrors of the Slave trade. (There are varying views on the portrayal of bound slave and slogan.)

  Josiah Wedgwood sent a large number of cameos to Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia who also remarked on the value of the medallion as a means of bringing awareness of the existence if slavery to the public. What is particularly amazing is that the climate of the Revolutionary War was hostile to good British/American relations. In this context the abolitionist movement was born and people came together to fight the evils of the Slave Trade.
-- Also, an absolutely rare mid-1800s antique bronze figure of man (weighs 18 oz.) pictured to the right -->



   BACKGROUND:Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) is considered by many as one of the most influential figures in the history of Western civilization ceramics, and was a successful and renowned innovator, scientist and businessman. He was also a supporter of the 18th century Anti-Slavery Committee and designed a cameo medallion depicting a slave kneeling in chains surrounded by the inscription, “Am I not a man and a brother?” Benjamin Franklin said of Wedgwood’s tokens, “they may have an effect equal to that of the best written pamphlet.” Although thousands were freely given to anyone who shared Josiah’s sentiments on slavery, thousands more were manufactured and sold. Wedgwood showed that one could promote social change while building a business. Doing good while doing well.  This symbol was the first and most identifiable image of the 18th century abolitionist movement: a kneeling African man. Members of the Society of Friends, informally known as Quakers, were among the earliest leaders of the abolitionist movement in Britain and the Americas. By the beginning of the American Revolution, Quakers had moved from viewing slavery as a matter of individual conscience, to seeing the abolition of slavery as a Christian duty. Quakers, who believe in simplicity in all things, tended to view the arts as frivolous; but when the Quaker-led Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade met in London in 1787, three of its members were charged with preparing a design for "a Seal to be engraved for the use of this Society." Later that year, the society approved a design "expressive of an African in Chains in a Supplicating Posture." Surrounding the naked man was engraved a motto whose wording echoed an idea widely accepted during the Enlightenment among Christians and secularists: "Am I Not A Man and A Brother?" The design was approved by the Society, and an engraving was commissioned.
ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND: The design was symbolic both artistically and politically. In addition to evoking classical art, the figure's nudity signified a state of nobility and freedom, yet he was bound by chains. Black figures, usually depicted as servants or supplicants, typically knelt in the art of the period, at a time when members of the upper classes did not kneel when praying; this particular image combined the European theme of conversion from heathenism and the idea of emancipation into a posture of gratitude. In 1788, a consignment of the cameos was shipped to Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia, where the medallions became a fashion statement for abolitionists and anti-slavery sympathizers. They were worn as bracelets and as hair ornaments, and even inlaid with gold as ornaments for snuff boxes. Soon the fashion extended to the general public. Although the intent and the effect of the emblem was to focus public opinion on the evils of the African slave trade (which it did accomplish), its ultimate effect was to underscore the perception of black inferiority. The supplicant posture of blacks persisted as a standard feature of Western art long after slavery was abolished. Ironically, although the image became the emblem of the anti-slavery movement, the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was emphatic that its only goal was the abolition of the slave trade, not of slavery itself. That position was vigorously protested by individual members such as Granville Sharp, the most influential abolitionist of his time.

-- Unique vintage brass door knocker with an image of William Wilberforce on the knocker. On the part affixed to the door is an image of the African slave with the words, "Am I Not A Man and A Brother?".

-- Deluxe Ruskin Folio Limited Edition JMW Turner R.A. - The Slave Ship -- Fine Laid Paper with full Intaglio plate mark VERY RARE 1 of only 160 published plates. Beautiful JMW Turner R.A. illustration from the work in the Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, U.S.A." published in 1900 as one of only 160 de-luxe folio edition illustrations compiled by Frederick Wedmore as an "Exposition of the Work of Turner from the Writings of Ruskin" and published by George Allen, Charing Cross, London.

   3. 7" figurines of Tom Molineaux and Tom Cribb (repros of Straffordshire -- 3 sets). Born 1784, Tom Molineaux was the first unofficial American Boxing Champion. Tom Molineaux was born a slave but fought his way to freedom and ultimately a shot at the heavyweight title. He began boxing other slaves while plantation owners wagered on the bouts. Finally after defeating a slave from a rival plantation, he was given his freedom and 0. He traveled to New York and then, in 1809, he left for England and began boxing. Molineaux was trained by Bill Richmond, another freed American slave who became a notable prize fighter in England. Molineaux won two bouts in England and the ease with which he won quickly lined him up for a title shot against British heavyweight champion Tom Cribb.


  In December 18th, 1810, Molineaux challenged Crib in a classic encounter. After some 39 rounds of give and take, Molineaux finally collapsed from exhaustion. The great Pierce Egan, who described the American as "The Tremendous Man of Colour," wrote of the contest: "Molineaux proved himself as courageous a man as ever an adversary contended with ... [Molineaux] astonished everyone, not only by his extraordinary power of hitting and his gigantic strength, but also by his acquaintance with the science, which was far greater than any had given him credit for." The two Cribb fights made Molineaux a celebrity in England. But he fought only sporadically, opting to engage in numerous sparring exhibitions. In 1818, he died in Dublin, Ireland.

-- October 13, 1818 edition of the New-York Spectator reporting the death of Tom Molineaux, the celebrated pugilist at Galway, Ireland. Tom was the first American boxer to fight for the London Prize Ring championship. A former slave, Molineaux reportedly got his freedom after winning a boxing match on which his owner (Algernon Molineaux) had placed a large bet.


  • Boxing champions of this era were England’s very first sport stars; hitherto only exceptional animals had been household names in the sporting world. Boxing (or milling, as it was commonly called) was patronized at the highest level of society, but it appealed to all classes because fights indulged the national propensity to gamble.
  • Boxing matches were illegal in the early 19th century. The ideal site was a remote outdoor location that accommodated thousands of spectators and eluded magisterial detection.
  • The boxing ring was a roped-off area, usually from twenty to forty feet square, and it was surrounded by an outer ring accessible only to umpires, officials, select friends, and those charged with keeping the crowd at bay. A sea of standing spectators surrounded the outer ring, and carriages and wagons circled the field to form a grandstand of sorts. Sometimes crowd control necessitated constructing an elevated wooden stage for the ring.
  • Boxers did not wear gloves. Each boxer, stripped to the waist, was assisted by only his bottle-holder and his second. The latter lent his knee as a seat, offered advice, administered ringside surgery, and generally did whatever it took—biting ears was common—to keep his man conscious.
  • Unlike today’s fights, matches were unlimited in length, and rounds ended only when a boxer went down. A downed boxer had a thirty-second count, and then he had to be at the scratch, the name given a square chalked in the ring center. If he could not make it, he was defeated. Fights were protracted slugfests in which men pummeled away at each other interminably. Blood flowed freely as bare fists shredded faces, swelled eyes shut, and reduced hands and knuckles to painful pulp, despite careful pre-fight “pickling” in astringent. Matches could last very many rounds, very many hours. Boxers fought relatively few times in their lives because the human body can only take so much.

-- Joe Louis, The Brown Bomber Little Big Book, dated 1936, is approximately 3 1/8" x 4 1/2" and it has 238 pages. There are many photos of Joe in training, talking with his manager, being certified medically fit, fight scenes, etc. These old books of sports figures like Joe Louis do not come along very often.
-- A vintage, original 1935 Joe Louis vs. King Levinsky boxing poster. Poster measures approx. 6" x 12" and is printed on pulp paper.
-- Boxing gloves personally signed by Muhammad Ali, Joe Frazier, George Foreman, Mike Tyson, Sugar Ray Leonard & others...

Negro Actor's Guild

 4. One-of-a-kind signed letters/albums/contracts/sheet music from Nat King Cole, Dizzy Gillespie, Duke Ellington, Lionel Hampton, Louis Armstrong, B. B. King, Ethel Waters, Pearl Bailey, Miles Davis, Lindy Hoppers, Sarah Vaughan, Fats Domino, Quincy Jones, Earl Hines, Etta James, S. Coleridge-Taylor, Ella Fitzgerald, Sammy Davis, Jr., Grover Washington, Jr., Count Basie, Mills Brothers, Ozzie Davis, Lena Horne, Four Tops, Cicely Tyson, James Brown, Charley Pride, Bo Diddley, Bobby Blue, Chubby Checkers, and others...Negro Actor's Guild 1945 Program (NAG, with Noble Sissle as president) is pictured to the left.
-- AFTRA Contract signed by Cicely Tyson for her appearance on the Nancy Wilson Show pilot, Mar. 18, 1973. Paid 1.
-- AFTRA Contract signed by Lena Horne for her appearance on Kraft Music Hall, Nov. 17, 1969. Paid 00 and per diem, plus 2 First Class R/T air tickets from LA to NY.
-- AFTRA Contract signed by the Four Tops for their appearance on Kraft Summer Music Hall, signed April 10, 1968. Paid 00 for show to be aired August 21, 1968.
-- Waiver for late AFTRA filing signed by Diahann Carroll on Dec. 9, 1987.
-- Employment contract signed by Ella Fitzgerald on October 31, 1960.
-- 1989 NBC contract signed by Lionel Hampton, no compensation for appearance. November 15, 1989.


-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by Bo Diddley for his appearance in Jacksonville, Orlando, and Tampa Feb. 20 - March 1, 1970.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by Duke Ellington and his Orchestra for appearance in Shrine Auditorium, LA on June 4th, 1960. Headline billing, paid 00, but paid an extra 00 if promoter grosses over ,000.
-- Original signed engagement contract for jazz legend Lionel Hampton at Mansfield State College, PA on March 9, 1963 (band was paid 00 for the gig!).
-- KABC radio contract for the Michael Jackson Show, signed by Robert Guillaune, states that "he discussed his career as Benson in Soap and as Benson in his own sit-con, Benson." No compensation for his appearance. November 19, 1979.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by Charley Pride for an event at the Ozark Mountain Amphitheatre in Branson, MO. Rider states that he is to receive 100% top billing and that his name is to be spelled correctly (Charley). Paid ,000 plus 60/40 split over ,000. Neal McCoy is opening act. June 25, 1988.
-- Original 4-Page contract (1935) between the Lindy Hoppers and Samuel Goldwyn. Signing twice are George "Shorty" Snowden, Freddie Lewis, Madeline Lewis, Beatrice Gay, Beatrice Elam and Leroy Jones. They were paid 00 for a week's service. Research has determined that this document is most probably the contract for the film short, "Ask Uncle Sol".
-- Actors Television Motion Picture contract signed by Leslie Uggams for her role as "Amanda Price" in the movie "Hotel -- Discoveries." Paid ,000. October 13, 1986.
-- Standard AFTRA Engagement Contract for Single TV Broadcast signed by Leslie Uggams for her appearance on the Glen Campbell Show. Paid 00. December 20, 1968. Show aired March 2, 1969.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by jazz great, Donald Byrd (Blackbyrd Productions), to appear at the Great American Music Hall, San Francisco. Ticket price, , paid ,000 against the rights to 70% of the gross. July 30, 1979.
-- Standard AFTRA Exclusive Agency Contract (1 year) with CNA & Associates, signed by Richard Roundtree (Shaft). June 6, 1989.
-- Contract signed by Sarah Vaughn for performing 100% Sole Star Billing at the Van Wezel Performing Arts Cebter, Sarasota, FL. Paid ,000. Includes stage plot. May 1, 1987.
-- Standard AFTRA exclusive agency contract (3 years) with The Artists Agency signed by Ossie Davis. May 4, 1987.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract by blues great B.B. King for his appearance at Shea's Buffalo Theater, Buffalo, NY. Paid a flat 00, with 100% top billing. Signed July 30, 1976. Show was March 19, 1977. Rider, with letter and check receipt included.
-- Standard AFTRA Network TV contract for the Harlem Globetrotters TV Special shot at The Forum in LA, signed by Pearl Bailey. Paid 00. Jan. 28, 1972.
-- Agency For The Performing Arts agreement signed by Isaac Hayes for his appearance on the "Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour." July 16, 1973.
-- William Morris Agency contract (10%) signed by Pearl Bailey to represent her in relation to the motion picture industry and the Screen Actor's Guild (SAG). March 30, 1945.

-- 1971-Standard Aftra Engagement Contract, signed and agreed to by Pearl Bailey and Roncom Productions. Perry Como was producer of the Pearl Bailey Show. Pearl Bailey was paid ,500 plus ,500 in expenses for this show. The contract is dated Jan 28, 1971. Signed in blue ink by Pearl Bailey, (Pres). Exc. cond. This contract was part of the archives from the office of Perry Como.
- William Morris contract signed by Earl "Fatha" Hines vintage and dated January 15, 1941. Earl Hines was known as one of the most famous jazz pianist's of the 20th Century and created many standards of today. This vintage signed contract is in excellent condition with a bold autograph of Earl Hines in vintage fountain pen. The contract is also signed by Charles Carpenter sometimes known as Charlie Carpenter who wrote and worked closely with Earl Hines on many songs including the famous song "You Can Count On Me". He has signed under Earl Hines as Witness. The contract is actually signed by two famous Jazz musicians which makes this contract very rare and unique.
-- William Morris Agency contract, signed by Earl "Fatha" Hines (10% -- representing him from 10/1943 - 1/1948). Signed 10/12/1943. Signed contracts by Earl Hines are very rare.
-- AGVA Standard Form for Artists Engagements Contract, signed by Eartha Kitt (Catwoman) for an appearance in San Bernardino, CA on March 20, 1964. Paid 00. This contract would've been cancelled if  Las Vegas event opened up for her on the same day.
-- WPIX "Clay Cole's Diskotek Program" NY appearance signed by the Shirelles, Addie Harris (3/27/1967)
-- An historical 33 page recording contract (1983) between Jennifer Holliday and David Geffen. This was at the height of her career...for a six year period. The contract stated seven years, but Jennifer changed it to six years and initialed it in three different places. The contract discusses the number of masters Jennifer must complete and the payment from the Geffen Group. In 1979 Jennifer joined the Broadway show, Dreamgirls on its successful four year run...winning a Tony Award. Dreamgirls was followed by the Broadway show, Mahalia, and a Number One charted hit, And I Am Telling You. Jennifer won multiple Grammys as well as Tony Awards. She had many hits in the 1980s, including five Number One Billboard hits. Jennifer boldly signs on the last page of the contract.
-- Signed contracts for the Detroit music scene from 1956-1971 (R&B, Soul, Jazz and Blues):  Ron Butler and the Ramblers (1971), James Holland and The Holidays (1971), Lloyd Sims & The Untouchables Promo Kit/Contracts (1961), Sammy Bryant Group Press Kit/Photo/Contract (1966)...Roulette recording artists, Lonnie Woods (1965), Jon Bartel & Soul Masters (1968), Jesse Ullmer (1966), Dwight (Jon D) Pettiford (1971), Billy Allyn "Laff of the Party" on Dooto Records, with appearances on Sanford & Son (1961), Bill Murry, Comic (1966), Tommy Hunt and The Flamingos (1956-1960), Albert King Promotional Lot -- Stax Records (1970).

T E S T   P R E S S I N G S  --  78 rpm   R E C O R D S  (vintage, one-of-a-kind)

The following 78s came from the private collection of Mr. Rudy May who was an employee of Decca Records for about
40 years. During that time Rudy was involved in nearly every aspect of recording and record manufacturing at Decca.

A test pressing was generally heard by the artist and key decision-makers to determine if
the song was viable as the final take -- to be mass-produced for the general public.
The Freeman Institute Black History Collection owns well over 100 original test pressings:

                 LOUIS JORDAN
  --- One-of-a-kind, original one-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Jordan & his Tympany Five, "I Like 'Em Fat Like That." Decca #71819, recorded March 15, 1944 in New York. Jordan's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five: Eddie Roane, tp; Louis Jordan, as, voc; Arnold Thomas, p; Al Morgan, b; Wilmore "Slick" Jones, d.
    BIO: Louis Jordan (1908-1975) was one of the most successful African-American musicians of the 20th century, ranking fifth in the list of the all-time most successful black recording artists according to Billboard Magazine's chart methodology.
Lyrics: Let the cats all criticize, joke about my baby's size, she's reet with me because you see, I likes 'em fat like that.
When she bounces down the street, she's a whole heap of honey and ain't she sweet, feels so fine to know that she is mine, I likes 'em fat like that. You can have all those lean chicks tender and tall, but when it comes to mean kicks,
a big fat momma's the best of all, after I get through working well I reach and grab my hat, and I hurry home, don't want her to be alone, coz I likes 'em fat like that.
  >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record (#71819) with "I Like 'em Fat Like That" by Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five. Part of the Decca Personality Series #23810.
  --- One-of-a-kind, genuine double sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Jordan and Ella Fitzgerald, "Baby, It's Cold Outside" and "Don't Cry Baby." Decca #unknown, recording date is 1949. Jordan's name and Fitzgerald's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. Possibly a unique item! The a-side is the classic "Baby, It's Cold Outside". I'm not sure what the standard version of this tune sounds like but this one is nearly all vocal with very subdued instrumental accompaniment barely audible through most. Piano is really the only instrument we can make out. The b-side has regular instrumental accompaniment. These could be alternate takes - We have no way of knowing for sure. One-of-a-kind? We think so!
                 MAURICE ROCCO
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Maurice Rocco's song "Little Rock Getaway" Decca #93584A -- recorded March 11, 1941. Rocco's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.
  >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record (#8544) with "Little Rock Getaway" by Maurice Rocco.
    BIO: Born in Oxford, Ohio, Maurice Rockhold (1915-1976) later became known as a jazz musician who played the piano while standing up. He performed briefly with Duke Ellington before adopting the stage name Maurice Rocco.
                 COLEMAN HAWKINS
  --- Pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Coleman Hawkins with The Ramblers -- song "What Harlem is To Me." Decca #AM 179. Date of recording is August 26, 1935. Coleman's name and song title are hand-written in pencil. Here are the musicians on this song: George Van Helvoirt, Jack Bulterman (tp), Marcel Thielemans (tb), Wim Poppink (cl, as, bar), Andre Van Den Ouderaa (cl, ts, vn), Coleman Hawkins (ts), Nico de Rooy (p), Jack Pet (g), Toon Diepenbroeck (sb), Kees Kranenburg (dm). Casino Hamdorff, Laren,
    BIO: Coleman Randolph Hawkins (1904–1969), nicknamed "Bean," or simply "Hawk," was the first important tenor saxophonist in jazz. Sometimes called the "father of the tenor sax," Hawkins is one of jazz's most influential and revered soloists. An improviser with an encyclopedic command of chords and harmonies, Hawkins played a formative role over a 40-year (1925-1965) career spanning the emergence of recorded jazz through the swing and bebop eras.
  --- Pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "For Dancer's Only" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #62263, dated 1937. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  --- Scarce smaller master recording (8" 33 1/3rpm) of the songs "T'aint What You do, It's the Way Cha Do It" (Uptown Blues, Pro-533) and "Walkin' Thru
" (For Dancer's Only, Pro-534) by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Capitol, dated 1-24-1958. Lunceford's name is listed on both sides.
  --- Three test pressings (12" discs) of the song "Blues in the Night" aka "My Mama Done Told Me" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra for the Jerry Lawrence Show...to be aired on Saturday, August 20, 1955. 
  Disc #1 -- (12" 78rpm) Part 1 Taped August 6th, 1954 and aired August 7th, 1954. #4932-S2 -- metal disc
  Disc #2 -- (12" 78rpm) Part 2. Taped on August 6th and aired August 7th, 1954 -- metal disc
  Disc #3 -- (12" 33rpm). Taped on August 19, 1955 and aired Saturday, August 20, 1955. #6110 (S411-HWB) acetate disc
  BACKGROUND:  Jerry Lawrence
, early radio and television quiz show host, disc jockey and announcer of such shows as "Truth or Consequences. Born in Rochester, N.Y., and brought up in Long Beach, CA, Lawrence developed his radio career in the 1930s at New York City radio stations WOR, WNEW and the CBS network. During World Was II he was recognized for hosting the music and interview show "Moonlight Savings Time," broadcast to troop ships and war industry workers from 2:30 a.m. to 5 a.m. As a disc jockey, he promoted the music of a young singer named Frank Sinatra and was an early announcer on "The Frank Sinatra Show" in 1944. Lawrence returned to the Los Angeles area in 1945 and worked in radio and early television at KTLA, KCOP and KFWB. He hosted CBS' "The Spade Cooley Show" featuring the orchestra leader in 1951, and helped develop local quiz shows, including "Play Marco" for KTLA. He was an announcer for television's popular game show "Truth or Consequences" when it was hosted by Jack Bailey on NBC in 1954 and 1955.
  --- Pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "My Blue Heaven" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #60277, dated 1935. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  --- Another pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "The Melody Man" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #60277, dated 1935. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  --- Yet another pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Organ Grinder's Swing" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #61246A, dated 1936. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record (#61246) with "Organ Grinder's Swing" by Jimmie Lunceford and His Orchestra.
    BIO: James Melvin "Jimmie" Lunceford (–) was an American jazz alto saxophonist and bandleader of the swing era. Lunceford was born in Fulton, MO, but attended school in Denver and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree at Fisk University. In 1927, while teaching high school in Memphis, TN, he organized a student band, the Chickasaw Syncopaters, whose name was changed to the Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra when it began touring. The orchestra made its first recording in 1930. In 1947, while playing in Seaside, Oregon, Lunceford collapsed and died from cardiac arrest during an autograph session. Allegations and rumors circulated that Jimmie had been poisoned by a fish-restaurant owner who was unhappy at having to serve a "Negro" in his establishment.
                 LIONEL HAMPTON
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Pink Champagne" and "Oh Well Oh Well!" by Lionel Hampton & his Orchestra. Decca #5758, date is unknown. Lionel Hampton's name and song titles are hand-written in period ink. Rare and possibly one of a kind acetate test pressing of this jazz great! Label on the a-side only states the artist and the title "Oh! Well Oh! Well". "Pink Champagne" is written but has been crossed out. The b-side label states the title and a portion of it has been torn off. 
                 FLOYD RAY & HIS ORCHESTRA
  --- Single-sided shellac test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the immensely popular song "Skeleton in My Closet" recorded and released in 1939 by Floyd Ray and His Orchestra (1885-1941). Floyd Ray (1909-1985). Test pressing of Decca 2618-B, matrix 65393-A. Floyd Ray and his Orchestra formed and played around 1925-1950. There were 3 female singers (The V's), from whom it is said that the Andrew Sisters derived their singing style. Floyd Ray's son, Stephen Ray, recalls their names: Lavern (Vern) Whittaker; Willie Lee (Von) Floyd, and (Ivy) Jones. Floyd's first band was called "The Harlem Dictators". Floyd played saxophone and bass, but not in his bands. He was primarily the leader, arranger and songwriter. During the years 1918-1930, they played at New York's famed Apollo Theater and also at the Cottonwood Club, among other places.
  ---  AN ABSOLUTELY UNIQUE ITEM! --A single-sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, "Georgia Grind." This song is Louis Armstrong's first genuine vocal performance. No record matrix present, but it was listed as 9533A. The date February 26, 1926 is hand written on the label.

   Armstrong recorded this song with the Hot Five in Chicago on this date. This is the first line-up featuring Kid Ory, Johnny Dodds, Johnny St. Cyr, and Louis' wife, Lil Armstrong. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink on a blank white label. The entire album that was produced around that time had a great set of great recordings including Louis' first genuine vocal performances on Georgia Grind and Heebie Jeebies. Armstrong's wife Lil also does vocal work on Georgia Grind. Following this day's work, four two-sided discs are ready for release. Oriental Strut / You're Next and Muskrat Ramble / Heebie Jeebies are given consecutive release numbers by OKeh; Georgia Grind is paired with Come Back, Sweet Papa (from February 22); and Cornet Chop Suey finds its mate with My Heart, recorded back in November. This group of songs includes some truly landmark recordings, especially Kid Ory's Muskrat Ramble, which immediately takes its place as a jazz standard.
  >>> A genuine Hot Jazz Club of America 78rpm record (#HC21) with "Georgia Grind" by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five.

Listen to "Georgia Grind"


  --- A two-sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, "You Made Me Love You" and "Irish Black Bottom." No record number is listed and no matrix present, but it is listed as 9980A and 9981A. The date November 27, 1926. Armstrong recorded these songs with the Hot Five in Chicago on this date. These songs featured Louis Armstrong (Cornet, Vocal), Henry Clark (Trombone), Johnny Dodds (Clarinet), Johnny St. Cyr (Banjo), and Louis' wife, Lil Armstrong (piano).
                 LOUIS ARMSTRONG


Louis Armstrong: Elder Eatmore's Sermon on Throwing Stones

  ------- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Mahogany Hall Stomp." Decca #6111A, recording date is January 28, 1933 (Chicago). Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.
  ------- A genuine (British) Parlaphone 78rpm record (#01691B) with "Mahogany Hall Stomp" by Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra.
  ------- Original one-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Elder Eatmore's Sermon on Generosity." Decca #64437, recording date is August 11, 1938. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. This song was on the Louis and the Good Book album.
  ------- One-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Elder Eatmore's Sermon on Throwing Stones." Decca #64436A, recording date is August 11, 1938. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. This song was also on the Louis and the Good Book album.


  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "She's the Daughter of a Planter from Havana." Decca #62335, recording date is July 7, 1937 (New York City, Chaplin; Kahn). Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Yours and Mine." Decca #62329, recording date unknown. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.

  ---  A GROUND-BREAKING ITEM! --A single-sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong, "Skeleton in The Closet." This song is Louis Armstrong's first featured role in a Hollywood musical -- alongside Bing Crosby. No record matrix present, but it was listed as Decca DLA 539-A. The date August 7, 1936. Louis Armstrong with Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra. Louis Armstrong plays trumpet and does the vocals.
: Armstrong plays Henry, a hired musician at the Haunted House Cafe. Servants and subserviant roles were pretty much the only options available to blacks in the pre-civil-rights Hollywood - even for as big a star as Armstrong. The song comes from Pennies From Heaven, Armstrong’s first major studio picture. He was hired for the film at the insistence of its star, Bing Crosby, a lifelong student, friend, collaborator and admirer of Pops. When the film came out, Armstrong got his own credit during the main titles, making him the first African-American to get featured billing alongside white actors. So Pops was pioneering, though some critics have frowned upon the way Armstrong was used in the film.

Watch the movie clip

   Playing a bandleader who is hired by Crosby to perform at his nightclub, Armstrong’s “role, as written, makes one cringe,” according to Lawrence Bergreen. Bergreen quotes an exchange between Armstrong and Crosby in the film, comedically playing on the ignorance of Armstrong’s character, who asks for seven percent instead of accepting Bing’s offering of ten percent because his is a seven-piece band, “And none of us knows how to divide ten percent up by seven.” Bergreen writes that this banter dwells “on black inferiority and subservience” but what he doesn’t mention is that Pops legitimately loved this scene, quoting it in front of friends on one of his later private tapes. One of Armstrong’s last television appearances was made with Crosby on the David Frost Show from February 10, 1971. During the interview portion, Armstrong talks about how much fun they had making the film and though 35 years had gone by, Armstrong quotes the entire “percent” scene, line by line, as it originally appeared in the film. Thus, it’s easy for us to “cringe” while watching Pennies From Heaven but for Pops, funny was funny and he cherished the gags he was asked to deliver. Armstrong gets one music number to himself in the film and it’s a great one.
   “The Skeleton in the Closet” was written by Arthur Johnston and Johnny Burke, the same two men wrote the rest of the Pennies From Heaven score. Filmed in California, Armstrong was seen leading a contingent of some of the finest west coast jazzmen, including trumpeter (and Armstrong disciple) Teddy Buckner, saxophonist Caughey Roberts, future Nat Cole bassist Wesley Pince and as already advertised, the grand reunion of Armstrong and Lionel Hampton. Hampton was in the midst of a steady engagement as a leader at the Paradise Nightclub in Los Angeles and was just about to explode. Pennies From Heaven was filmed in August 1936 and while out there, Armstrong asked Hampton to sit in on drums and vibes on two Hawaiian cuts made with “The Polynesians” on August 18. One week later, on August 24, Hampton took part in a Teddy Wilson session with Benny Goodman on clarinet and just a few months later, in November, Hampton joined Goodman’s Quartet and, well, you know the rest! But for “Skeleton in the Closet,” Hamp sticks to the drums, wearing a mask to keep the whole “haunted house” motif going. This is Armstrong at his finest: storytelling, acting, singing, swinging and playing beautifully. On January 14, 1937, Armstrong underwent a throat operation, spending the next two weeks in the hospital. Satchmo was having throat issues (perhaps polyps?) because he sounds a hundred times more raspy later than he did on the original “Skeleton” record of just a few months earlier. The surgery might have been a success but when he returned, Armstrong’s voice was still pretty raspy and well, that was pretty much it for that. The rasp turned to gravel over the years, resulting in the true Satchmo voice most of the human race associates with Armstrong.
  ---  WINIFRED ATWELL - "Piano Liner's Boogie" was a ragtime piece recorded in London by Winifred Atwell in 1956 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing -- #F10681, Decca Records).
BACKGROUND: Born in Trinidad (1914), Winifred Atwell was an accomplished and versatile pianist who was idolized by the British public throughout the 1950s. She had studied the piano since she had been a small child although she later became trained as a dispenser in the expectation that she would be employed in her father's pharmacist shop. By the age of 30 she became aware that other local musicians had gained further musical training abroad and, encouraged by this, in 1945 she left for the USA. By the late 1940s she had gained a place at London's Royal Academy of Music with ambitions of becoming a concert pianist. However, in order to finance this initiative she worked during the evenings at London's clubs playing piano rags. By 1950 her popularity had spread nationally and she began recording with Decca during 1951- before the advent of any record sales 'chart'. Her music also worked well on TV where she made regular appearances. She would normally start her act by playing a classical piece on a grand before transferring herself to what she called 'my other piano' which was an old 'honky tonk' upright. It was on this that she recorded many of her most successful numbers including her two #1's and the now legendary 'Black And White Rag' which has been used as the signature tune of BBC's 'Pot Black' snooker program for several decades.
  ---  JIMMY RUSHING with COUNT BASIE & HIS ORCHESTRA  - "The Blues I Like to Hear" (one-sided shellac test). This song was recorded in New York City with Jimmy Rushing on vocals -- November 16, 1938 (released on Decca 2284, Matrix #64748. Composed by Jimmy Rushing and arranged by Buster Smith. Count Basie and his Orchestra : Ed Lewis, Harry Edison, Buck Clayton, tp; Dicky Wells, Dan Minor, BennyMorton, tb; Earl Warren, as; Lester Young,Herschel Evans, ts; Jack Washington, bs, as; Count Basie, p; Freddie Green, g; Walter Page, b; Jo Jones, drums.
   BACKGROUND: Born James Andrew Rushing on August 26, 1903, in Oklahoma City, OK; died June 8, 1972, in New York, NY. Jazz vocalist. Pianist. Played in Southern California with Jelly Roll Morton, Harvey Brooks, and Paul Howard, 1920s; member of Walter Page Blue Devils band, 1927-29; joined Bennie Moten's orchestra, 1929-35; member of Count Basie Orchestra, 1935-50; toured with his own septet, 1950-52; as a solo act, 1952-72; Europe with Humphrey Littleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, 1961; Japan and Australia with Eddie Condon, 1964; appeared in film The Learning Tree, 1969; appeared at the Half Note in New York City playing with Al Cohn and Zoot Sims, early 1970s. Jimmy Rushing, also known as "Mr. Five by Five," (short height and wide girth) possessed ajoyous, booming voice that could be clearly heard over the swinging jazz orchestras of the big band era and beyond. He began his career as a piano player in the 1920s, but soon found his voice. He made his name with the Count Basie Orchestra in the 1940s, and enjoyed an active career singing solo and with jazz and big-band greats such as Humphrey Lyttleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, Eddie Condon, Al Cohn, and Zoot Sims, among others. He toured the United States and abroad, and his voice can be heard on countless recordings, including the most recent compilations The Essential Jimmy Rushing (1978), Mister Five by Five (1980), and The Classic Count (1982).
  --- Acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the classic Louis Armstrong song, "When The Saints Go Marching In." This song is for Louis Armstrong's role in the film, New Orleans. Record matrix number is C-19, with C. Webb (Chick Webb) hand written on the label. Record Disc corporation recording disc is used. The date 1947. There have been over 1,000 recorded versions of this famous song, but Louis Armstrong's version is the best.
    BACKGROUND: This version of "When The Saints Go Marching In" was for the motion picture New Orleans, a piece of Hollywood fluff that purported to tell the story of the origins of jazz in the titular city. It’s a mess of a movie but Pops lights up the screen and the music is often good. Three short takes of “The Saints” exist, all strictly instrumental and featuring Pops mainly playing the melody in a band that featured his former boss Kid Ory on trombone and future All Star Barney Bigard on clarinet. Armstrong sounds in wonderful form but the large group doesn’t exactly swing, instead marching along on top of heavy tuba beats. Armstrong sounds great riding over the ensemble. By April of 1947, New Orleans was getting ready to make its debut so Armstrong did a lot of promotion including an appearance on Rudi Blesh’s WOR radio show This is Jazz. The broadcast reunited Armstrong with many of his New Orleans cohorts, including clarinetist Albert Nicholas, bassist Pops Foster and drummer Baby Dodds. The song hadn’t exactly become a staple yet and Armstrong doesn’t seem to have played it much since the original recording nine years earlier. Thus, the arrangement follows the Decca record to a tee.

================= TEST PRESSINGS FROM OTHER LABELS =================

                 NAT KING COLE TRIO

  --- One-of-a-kind, historic test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Nat's first big hit "Straighten Up and Fly Right" (sold over 500,000 copies) and on the other side, I Just Can't See For Lookin'  by the Nat King Cole Trio. Recorded in Los Angeles on the brand new label, Capital Records (CAP 142A / CAP 123B), date is November 30, 1943.
: Nathaniel Adams Coles (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965), known professionally as Nat "King" Cole, was an African American musician who first came to prominence as a leading jazz pianist. Although an accomplished pianist, he owes most of his popular musical fame to his soft baritone voice, which he used to perform in big band and jazz genres. He was one of the first African Americans to host a television variety show, and has maintained worldwide popularity since his death; he is widely considered one of the most important musical personalities in United States history.

Listen to Nat King Cole sing this song

   Nat King Cole's first mainstream vocal hit was his 1943 recording of one of his compositions, "Straighten Up and Fly Right," based on a black folk tale that his father had used as a theme for a sermon. Johnny Mercer invited him to record it for the fledgling Capital Records label. It sold over 500,000 copies, proving that folk-based material could appeal to a wide audience. Although Cole would never be considered a rocker, the song can be seen as anticipating the first rock and roll records. Indeed, Bo Diddley, who performed similar transformations of folk material, counted Cole as an influence.

   RACISM: Cole fought racism all his life and refused to perform in segregated venues. In 1956, he was assaulted on stage during a concert in Birmingham, AL, (while singing the song "Little Girl") by three members of the North Alabama White Citizens Council (a group led by Education of Little Tree author, Asa "Forrest Carter, himself not among the attackers), who apparently were attempting to kidnap him. The three male attackers ran down the aisles of the auditorium towards Cole and his band. Although local law enforcement quickly ended the invasion of the stage, the ensuing melée toppled Cole from his piano bench and injured his back. Cole did not finish the concert and never again performed in the South. A fourth member of the group who had participated in the plot was later arrested in connection with the act. All were later tried and convicted for their roles in the crime.
In 1956 he was contracted to perform in Cuba and wanted to stay at the Hotel Nacional de Cuba, Havana, but was not allowed to because it operated a color bar. Cole honored his contract, however, and the concert at the Tropicana was a huge success. The following year, he returned to Cuba for another concert, singing many songs in Spanish. There is now a tribute to him in the form of a bust and a jukebox in the Hotel Nacional.

                 DAN GRISSOM
  --- Hard-to-find two-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs, "Recess in Heaven" and "Why I Must Adore You" by Dan Grissom -- Matrix #JRC 275 and JRC 276, on the relatively new label, Columbia Records. Recorded in Los Angeles on December 13, 1947. On the songs are Bumps Myers (ts), Sylvester Scott (p), Buddy Harper (g, hca, ldr), Joe Comfort, and (b) Earl Hyde (d) -- with Dan Grissom on vocals.
  >>> Two genuine Columbia Records 78rpm record (#38351) with "Recess in Heaven" and "Why I Must Adore You" by Dan Grissom.
    BACKGROUND: Dan Grissom is best-known as a vocalist and alto sax player with the Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra, but also sang with Duke Ellington for a half-dozen years and released an occasional single under his own name on labels such as Imperial. He was rather uncharitably nicknamed “Dan Gruesome” by jazz fans who were less than enamored by his song stylings. From 1945 onwards he made records as a vocalist for various small labels in Los Angeles. Actually, Grissom represented a new type of jazz vocalist who came about more because of technological innovations than progressive musical thinking.

Dan Grissom


  Around 1933, microphones came into use, allowing singers such as Dan Grissom or the Claude Hopkins frontman Orlando Robeson to carry on over the sound of a full band; neither man had the lungs to belt out lyrics over the top of the band the way pre-microphone "blues shouters" did. There was nothing loud about Grissom's singing style, described in a survey of Ellington vocalists as displaying "pinched-tones and heavy vibrato." Actually, he wasn't the only big-band singer in the Grissom lineage. His uncle Jimmy Grissom also sang with Lunceford, and was just about as busy on records as his nephew, with somewhat less negative critical feedback. Dan Grissom joined the Lunceford band in 1935 and stayed on through the early '40s. The Sy Oliver arrangement of "By the River Sainte Marie" was supposedly Grissom's personal favorite amongst the stacks of songs he interpreted for Lunceford, though that might not mean it is any less gruesome. It was roughly a decade later that Grissom joined Ellington, staying through 1957, and among other accomplishments, recording a version of Ellington's tune "Love (My Everything)," also known as "My Heart, My Mind, My Everything." Vocal wonder boy Johnny Mathis was reportedly influenced by Grissom from this period. Under his own name, Grissom pitied the "Poor Butterfly" in the mid-'40s with backing from the Flennoy Trio, a combo led by Lorenzo Flennoy on piano. Dan Grissom & the Ebb Tones put out a single on Million in 1955 featuring the same song on this test pressing "Recess in Heaven," and there is also a rare Imperial single featuring Grissom's tribute to the "King of Fools."


  --- A British test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "The Boll Weevil" (side A) and "The Bourgeois Blues" (side B) by blues musician, Huddie Ledbetter...better known as Leadbelly (1885-1949), October 15, 1934, Both songs were written and performed by Leadbelly. Working as a driver and field assistant, Leadbelly recorded the song, Boll Weevil for Alan Lomax in Shreveport, LA and again the following year in Wilton, CT. This version has since been covered by dozens of artists, from Tex Ritter to Woodie Guthrie to the White Stripes, who ended almost every live performance with the tune. A 1961 version by Brook Benton became a #2 pop hit.

Listen to "The Bourgeois Blues"

  >>> A genuine Musicraft 78rpm record with "The Bourgeois Blues" and "The Boll Weevil" by Leadbelly.
"The Bourgeois Blues" was written after Lead Belly went to Washington, DC at the request of Alan Lomax, to record a number of songs for the Library of Congress. After they had finished, they decided to go out with their wives to celebrate, but were thrown out of numerous establishments for being an interracial party. The song rails against racism, classism, and discrimination in general, with such verses as "The home of the Brave / The land of the Free / I don't wanna be mistreated by no "bourgeoisie."
Lyrics:  Me and my wife went all over town, And everywhere we went people turned us down. Lord, in a bourgeois town. It's a bourgeois town, I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. Well, me and my wife we were standing upstairs, We heard the white man say'n I don't want no niggers up there. Lord, in a bourgeois town. Uhm, bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. Home of the brave, land of the free. I don't wanna be mistreated by no bourgeoisie. Lord, in a bourgeois town. Uhm, the bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. Well, them white folks in Washington they know how To call a colored man a nigger just to see him bow. Lord, it's a bourgeois town. Uhm, the bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. I tell all the colored folks to listen to me. Don't try to find you no home in Washington, DC, 'Cause it's a bourgeois town. Uhm, the bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around.
  --- Test Pressing (10" 78rpm) of Lead Belly's  "Frankie and Albert (Part One)" and the acapella version of "Looky, Looky, Yonder / Black Betty / Yellow Woman's Doorbell" medley. 1939. Lyrics: Looky looky yonder, Looky looky yonder, Looky looky yonder, Where the sun done gone. The cap'in' (captain) can't hold 'em ("him" or "them"), Cap'in' can't hold 'em, Cap'in' can't hold 'em, The way I do. Yes Addie gotta (got a) gold mine, Addie gotta gold mine, Addie gotta gold mine, Way above her knee.
"Frankie and Albert"
tells the story of a woman, Frankie, who finds that her man Johnny was "making love to" another woman and shoots him dead. Frankie is then arrested; in some versions of the song she is also executed. The first published version of the music to "Frankie and Johnny" appeared in 1904, credited to and copyrighted by Hughie Cannon. At least 256 different recordings of "Frankie and Johnny" have been made since the early 20th century, including the Leadbelly version with "Frankie and Albert."
    BIO: Ledbetter, born on Jan. 29, 1885 on the Jeter Plantation near Mooringsport, La., would spend several stints in jail, once reportedly lived as a recluse from the law under an assumed name, and was known to resolve every-day conflict with violence right up until his early passing on Dec. 6, 1949. He had a huge impact upon British rock-n-roll musicians.
                 LIONEL HAMPTON  &  LOUIE JORDAN
  --- Extremely rare test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song (unissued take) "On The Sunny Side of the Street" by Lionel Hampton & his Orchestra and on the other side "Ain't That Just Like a Woman" by Louie Jordan & his Tympany Five, which was #4 on the "Most Played Juke Box Race Records" Billboard charts in 1947. Recorded on Duo Disc, date is March 29, 1947. Lionel Hampton and Louie Jordan's names and song titles are hand-written in period ink. Rare and possibly one of a kind acetate (aluminum) test pressing of two jazz greats on one test pressing! Acetate only has a certain number of plays before it becomes unsable.
  >>> A genuine RCA/Victor 78rpm record (#25592) with "On The Sunny Side of the Street" by Lionel Hampton and His Orchestra.
  Lionel Hampton:On the Sunny Side of the Street” appeared on the pop charts first by Ted Lewis and His Orchestra in February of 1930. Shortly after, Harry Richman’s recording (which had “Exactly Like You” on the B-side) climbed to number thirteen. The strength of “On the Sunny Side of the Street” is its surprising and inventive melody. Regardless of who wrote the music, there is no denying the song’s tone is cheerful, buoyant, and bouncy. With Dorothy Fields’ casual, optimistic lyrics, “On the Sunny Side of the Street” was a perfect pick-me-up for depression-weary listeners. In spite of its occasional characterization as a bumptious novelty song, “On the Sunny Side of the Street” has been a favorite of jazz greats, musicians and instrumentalists since its publication -- including Lionel Hampton!
  Louie Jordan: His first recordings were released under the name "Louie Jordan and his Elks Rendez-vous Band" but by the time of the next recording session, the name became "Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five"  This new name maintaining the misspelling of "tympani" from their club billing.  From this time forward, his band was always known as the "Tympany Five" regardless of the actual number of members. As early as 1946 Jordan was adding electric guitar to the mix resulting in songs such as "Ain't That Just Like a Woman." The humor and energy that permeates so many of Jordan's recordings is a hallmark of the early Rock 'n' Roll sound.
                 SARAH VAUGHAN
  --- Scarce one-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "Make Yourself Comfortable," #10745 Mercury Records. Sarah Vaughan with orchestra conducted by Hugh Peretti, dated September 24, 1954. Recorded in New York City. Vaughan's commercial success at Mercury began with this particular song...one of her biggest hits.
  >>> A genuine Mercury 78rpm records with "Make Yourself Comfortable" by Sarah Vaughan.
  --- Acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of one of her signature tunes of surrender, "Everything I Have Is Yours," #C-19 Musicraft Records. Sarah Vaughan with the George Treadwell Band, dated November 8, 1947. Matrix #5615. George was Sarah's first husband and she was married to him from 1946-1957. This song was recorded during their first year of marriage.
  >>> Two genuine Musicraft 78rpm records (#5615) with "Everything I Have is Yours" by Sarah Vaughan.
     BIO: Possessor of one of the most wondrous voices of the 20th century, Sarah Vaughan ranked with Ella Fitzgerald and Billie Holiday in the very top echelon of female jazz singers. She often gave the impression that with her wide range, perfectly controlled vibrato, and wide expressive abilities, she could do anything she wanted with her voice. Sarah Vaughan's legacy as a performer and a recording artist will be very difficult to match in the future. Her parents were Asbury, a carpenter, and Ada, a laundress. She began studying music when she was seven, taking eight years of piano lessons (1931-39) and two years of organ. As a child, she sang in the choir at the Mt. Zion Baptist Church in Newark, and played piano and organ in high school productions at Arts High School. She developed into a capable keyboardist. After she won an amateur contest at the Apollo Theater, she was hired for the Earl Hines big band as a singer and second vocalist. Unfortunately, the musicians' recording strike kept her off record during this period (1943-44). When lifelong friend Billy Eckstine broke away to form his own orchestra, Vaughan joined him, making her recording debut. She loved being with 's orchestra, where she became influenced by a couple of his sidemen, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, both of whom had also been with Hines during her stint. Vaughan was one of the first singers to fully incorporate bop phrasing in her singing, and to have the vocal chops to pull it off on the level of a Parker and Gillespie. Other than a few months with John Kirby from 1945-46, Sarah Vaughan spent the remainder of her career as a solo star. Although she looked a bit awkward in 1945 (her first husband George Treadwell would greatly assist her with her appearance), there was no denying her incredible voice.
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "All My Life" by a very young 18-year-old Ella Fitzgerald with Chick Webb and His Orchestra (1905-1935). Recorded in New York City on March 17, 1936. The orchestra included Mario Bauza, Bobby Stark, Taft Jordan, tp; Sandy Williams, Nat Story, tb; Pete Clark, Edgar Sampson, as; Teddy McRae, ts; Wayman Carver, ts; fl; Don Kirkpatrick, p; John Trueheart, g; Bill Thomas, b; Chick Webb, d; Ella Fitzgerald, voc.
    BIO: Ella Fitzgerald (1917-1996). A performance at the Apollo Theater’s famed Amateur Night in 1934 set Fitzgerald’s career in motion. Over the next seven decades, she worked with some of the most important artists in the music industry including Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie and Frank Sinatra. She was dubbed “The First Lady of Jazz” for her mainstream popularity and unparalleled vocal talents—even though her less–than–svelte appearance and upbeat singing style was in contrast to the sultry and bluesy female singers of her day. Her unique ability for mimicking instrumental sounds helped popularize the vocal improvisation of “scatting,” which became her signature technique. Ella recorded over 200 albums and around 2,000 songs in her lifetime, singing the works of some of the most popular composers such as Cole Porter, Gershwin and Irving Berlin. Ella Fitzgerald died in 1996 at the age of 79, and is remembered as one of the most influential jazz artists of the 20th century.
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "A Kiss Goodnight" by Ella Fitzgerald with Randy Brooks and His Orchestra (MX #73020 Decca, Label #18713). This song was recorded on August 29, 1945. There is a slight hairline crack on one half of the disc, but it still playes.
                 MORTON'S RED HOT PEPPERS

  --- Two-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs, "Beale Street Blues" and "The Pearls" -- #20948-A & #20948-B, Victor Records. Morton's Red Hot Peppers, dated July 10, 1927 Recorded in Chicago. The recordings made in Chicago featured some of the best New Orleans sidemen like Kid Ory, Barney Bigard, Johnny Dodds, Johnny St. Cyr and Baby Dodds. A native of New orleans, Jelly Roll Morton was the first great composer and piano player of Jazz. He was a talented arranger who wrote special scores that took advantage of the three-minute limitations of the 78 rpm records. But more than all these things, he was a real character whose spirit shines brightly through history, like his diamond studded smile.
  --- Two-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Beale Street. Blues" and "The Pearls" (vinyl test for a HJCA reissue)

Jelly Roll Morton's Red Hot Peppers 1926
Morton's Red Hot Peppers


                 LEROY CARR
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Black Gal (What Makes Your Head So Hard?)" by Leroy Carr (1905-1935), blues singer, songwriter and pianist, best known for his first release on Vocalion in 1928 at 23 years of age. Bluebird #15646, 1934.Joe Pullem wrote this particular song and recorded it first, but Leroy came out with his own version that very same year -- a year before he died. Lyrics: Black gal, black gal, What makes yo' head so hard? Black gal, woman, What makes yo' head so hard? Lord, I would come to see you, But your bad man has got me barred.
  --- Very rare acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the unreleased tune "My Old Flame" by band leader Bennie Moten (1894-1935), noted American jazz pianist and band leader born in Kansas City, MO. Dated May 15, 1946. On the label is written that the other players on this song are: Ben Webster, Barney Bigard, Ben Webster and the super bassist, Israel Crosby (Ahmad Jamal and George Shearing fame).
  --- Hard-to-find single-sided vinyl test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "South" by Bennie Moten's Kansas City Orchestra (1894-1935). Bennie was a noted American jazz pianist and band leader born in Kansas City, Missouri. Moten's popular 1928 recording of "South" (V-38021) stayed in Victor's catalog over the years (as #24893) and became a big jukebox hit in the late 1940s (by then, reissued as #44-0004). It remained in print (as a vinyl 45) until RCA stopping making records.
  >>> A genuine Victor 78rpm record (#24893) with "South" by Bennie Moten's Kansas City Orchestra.
BIO: Bennie Moten led the Kansas City Orchestra, the most important of the itinerant, blues-based orchestras active in the Midwest in the 1920s, and helped to develop the riffing style that would come to define many of the 1930s Big Bands. His first recordings were made (for Okeh Records) in 1923, and were rather stiff interpretations of the New Orleans style of King Oliver and others. They also showed the influence of the Ragtime that was still popular in the area. His OKeh sides (recorded 1923-1925) are some of the more valuable acoustic jazz 78's of the era and continue to be treasured records in many serious jazz collections. They next recorded in 1926 for Victor Records in NJ, and were influenced by the more sophisticate style of Fletcher Henderson, but more often than not featured a hard stomp beat that was extremely popular. Moten remained one of Victor's most popular orchestras through 1930. By 1928 Moten's piano was showing some Boogie Woogie influences, but the real revolution came in 1929 when he recruited Count Basie, Walter page and Oran "Hot Lips" Page. Walter Page's walking bass lines gave the music an entirely new feel compared to the 2/4 tuba of his predecessor Vernon Page, colored by Basie's understated, syncopated piano fills.
                 REV. J. M. GATES
  --- Rare single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the sermon "Scat to the Cat and Suie to the Hog" recorded in 1930 by Rev. J. M. Gates (1885-1941), Master test pressing of Okeh matrix 480014-A, which is a transfer of matrix 403932-B. It was issued on Okeh 8844. Why did the curiously titled "Scat to the Cat and Suie to the Hog" get such a limited release? Perhaps it was too much comedy and charm to match Okeh's idea of even a rustic sermon? The main message of the sermon was simply that people ought not to snap, nark, and claw at one another.
    BIO: The Baptist preacher J. M. Gates was one of the most prolifically recorded black artists of the early century, with over 200 sides on wax between the mid-'20s and his death in 1940 (he once recorded 23 titles in a week, at just two sessions). His sermons and musical numbers appeared on a variety of labels (Victor, Bluebird, Okeh, Gennett), though Gates often re-recorded his most popular sermons — "Death's Black Train Is Coming," "Oh Death Where Is Thy Sting," "Goin' to Die with the Staff in My Hands" — for multiple labels. Gates ministered at Atlanta's Calvary Church and first recorded in 1926. Beginning in April, he recorded almost 100 sides by the end of the year. Understandably, his output slowed slightly during the rest of the late '20s, and the advent of the Great Depression resulted in a four-year period off records. He returned in 1934, and recorded about 20 more sides until his death in 1941. Experts estimate that Gates recorded at least a quarter of all the sermons that appeared before 1943. Gates is credited with introducing the gospel music of former blues artist, Thomas A. Dorsey, into the black gospel market via his crusades. His funeral drew the largest crowd of any memorial service in the city before Martin Luther King, Jr.

  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Thriller Blues" by Clarence Williams' Blue Five. (1893 - 1965), with wife, Eva Taylor on vocals.  RCA/Victor #BS-071199-1, 1941.
  >>> A genuine Bluebird 78rpm record (#11368) with "Thriller Blues" by Clarence William's Five, with vocals by Eva Taylor.
    BIO: Although he was quite spirited playing jug, Clarence Williams was a decent pianist, composer and dancer. He was a likable but limited vocalist. He was also a business manager for other Black entertainers, and an independent entrepreneur (who had his own Music Publishing firm). A fascinating figure and one of the most successful black businessmen of the era, Clarence Williams had a real ear for talent. During 1923 to 1928, he was the artist and repertoire director for Okeh Records. Before he was in his teens, he had decided upon a career in show business and ran away from home to work with a traveling minstrel show. By the time he was 21 he had started composing, formed his first publishing company, and was married to Blues singer Eva Taylor (1923).

Clarence Williams

   At the height of his power in the early '30s, Clarence Williams' importance waned as the decade continued and swing took over. After 1937, he only appeared on one final session (two songs in 1941), concentrating on the business side of music. In 1943, he sold his company to Decca and became a shop owner in Harlem. Williams was seriously injured when hit by a taxi in 1956 and passed away in 1965.

                 EARL HINES
  --- Fascinating single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Rosetta" by Earl "Fatha" Hines. (1903 - 1983),  RCA/Victor #BS-040480-3, 1939. Pianist/composer/bandleader Earl “Fatha” Hines first recorded “Rosetta” with his orchestra on October 21, 1939. The lyrics were written by his band’s arranger Henri Woode. Western swing bandleader Bob Wills contributed to the popularity of “Rosetta,” which he first recorded in 1938 and which became the theme song of his Texas Playboys as well as the name of his daughter, born in 1940. As the simple lyric attests, “Rosetta” is a love song: Rosetta, my Rosetta, In my heart, dear, there’s no one but you. You made my whole life a dream, and I pray you’ll make it come true...

Earl Hines plays "Rosetta"

  >>> A genuine RCA/Victor 78rpm record (#040480-3) with "Rosetta" by Earl "Fatha" Hines.
                 TITUS TURNER
  --- Scarce double-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Jambalaya" (side A) and "Please, Baby" (side B) by Titus Turner (1933 - 1984), with Danny Kessler orchestra while he was only 19 years of age. Okeh #4-6907, 1952. Turner – though no slouch in the performing department – made his mark as a writer of some of absolutely dynamite songs, among them ‘Sticks and Stones’, ‘All Around the World’ (aka Grits Ain’t Groceries), and ‘Leave My Kitten Alone’. Turner himself had a two decade long career as a recording artist, spending most of the 50s recording mostly for Okeh and King, and then the 60s recording for no less than a dozen different imprints. Turner originally recorded ‘People Sure Act Funny’ for the Enjoy label in 1962.
  --- An almost-impossible-to-find single-sided shellac test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Squeeze Me Tight" by Merline Johnson "The Yas Yas Girl" (1912 - ?), with George Barnes (el guitar) prob. Blind John Davis (piano) and unknown (bass) Apparently made by or for Vocalion #C-2170-1, 1938.
    BIO: During the late '30s, one Chicago-based blues woman cut more records than either Memphis Minnie or Georgia White, and even edged in on Blue Lu Barker with a smart cover of her most famous hit, "Don't You Make Me High." The aunt of R&B vocalist LaVern Baker, Merline Johnson was usually billed as the Yas Yas Girl, a bawdy nickname that utilized a favorite early blues euphemism for your butt. Little is known of this singer's origins, her life during a brief but productive heyday, or her eventual fate. Legend has it she first saw the light of day somewhere in the state of Mississippi during the year 1912. After making her way to Chicago, she established herself as a sanguine, straightforward blues vocalist whose backup bands were often peppered with seasoned jazz musicians who were capable of swinging hard when necessary, and sometimes launched into full-strength boogie-woogie. After cutting six sides as Merline Johnson for Bluebird in May 1937, she commenced recording for the American Record Corporation a few weeks later as the Yas Yas Girl, already demonstrating an innate ability to put across blues and jazzy dance tunes convincingly, with a combination of honesty and warmth that is still very effective. Between 1938 and 1941 Merline Johnson waxed more than 50 titles for Vocalion and OKeh, covering the standard topical range of Chicago blues. She sang of passionate and at times turbulent interpersonal relationships, of unencumbered sexuality, and of unapologetic alcohol consumption. Her accompanists, drawn from a pool of experts from New Orleans and Chicago, included trumpeters Punch Miller and Lee Collins; saxophonists Buster Bennett and Bill Owsley; guitarists Big Bill Broonzy, George Barnes, and Lonnie Johnson; Vocalion's resident steel guitarist Casey Bill Weldon; pianists Blind John Davis, Black Bob Hudson, and Aletha Robinson; string bassists Ransom Knowling and Bill Settles; an interesting character named Alfred Elkins who carried a bassline really well using only his voice; and a rock-solid drummer by the name of Fred Williams. Aside from one final session in 1947, most of this woman's recorded legacy dates from the years and months prior to the U.S.A.'s direct involvement in the Second World War.
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Blue Jeans Blues" (side A) and "Have You Ever Been Lonely?" (side B) by Ernie Wilkins & his Orchestra. Savoy #1524, September 6, 1957, recorded in New York City. Ernie's orchestra members: Jim Dahl, Al Grey, Rod Levitt, Melba Liston (tb) Ernie Wilkins (as, arr, dir) Don Abney (p) Al Lucas (b) Charlie Persip (d) 6 unknown (vo)
  --- Extremely rare test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "Blue Ramble," #B11866B. Duke Ellington and his orchestra, dated May 18, 1932. Columbia.
                 MARVIN GAYE & SISTER SLEDGE
  --- Test pressing remix import (12'' LP) B-Boy House edit #HEDIT001A. Side A: Marvin Gaye -- "Too Busy Thinking About My Baby." Side B: Sister Sledge -- "All American Girls."
                 ANITA BAKER
  --- One-sided test pressing (12" LP) of "Watch Your Step" by Anita Baker. Specialty Records #ED-5132, dated February 4, 1986.
  --- Extremely rare test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "All of Me" (side A) and "Romance in the Dark" (side B) by Billie Holiday & her Orchestra. Okeh #6214, 1941, written by Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons.  Lyrics: You took my kisses and all my love. You taught me how to care. Am I to be just remnant of a one side love affair. All you took, I gladly gave, There is nothing left for me to save. All of me, Why not take all of me, Can't you see I'm no good without you. Take my lips, I want to loose them. Take my arms, I'll never use them. Your goodbye left me with eyes that cry. How can I go on dear without you. You took the part that once was my heart, So why not take all of me
                 ETHEL WATERS
  --- One-of-a-kind test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "Come Up and See Me Sometime," Brunswick #6885, Matrix: B-14956-C. Ethel Waters and the Brunswick Studio Band, in New York City, dated March 16, 1934. Brunswick. Frank Guarante or Charlie Margulis, Bunny Berigan (tp), Frank Luther Trio (Frank Luther, Zora Layman, Leonard Stokes).
   BIO: Ethel Waters was one of the most popular African-American singers and actresses of the 1920s. She moved to New York in 1919 after touring in vaudeville shows as a singer and a dancer. She made her recording debut in 1921 on Cardinal records with "The New York Glide" and "At the New Jump Steady Ball," but switched over to African-American owned Black Swan label, and recorded "Down Home Blues" and "Oh Daddy" the first Blues numbers for that company. She frequently sang with Fletcher Henderson during the early 1920s, but by the mid-1920s Waters had became more of a pop singer. She performed in a number of musical revues throughout the rest of the decade and appeared a couple of films, including "Check and Double Check" with Amos 'n' Andy and Duke Ellington. By the end of the 1930s she was a big star on Broadway. In 1949, she was nominated for an Oscar for best supporting actress in the film "Pinky", and the next year she won the New York Drama Critics Award for best actress. Waters became a Christian in the late Fifties and performed and toured with evangelist Billy Graham until her death in 1977.
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the jazz/blues songs, "Powder Puff," and "Ping Pong" #4687, Matrix #K9320. Tiny Bradshaw, his Piano and Band, dated 1950s. Dee Jay King Special. Sylvester Austin on tenor sax.
  --- Extremely rare master single-sided test pressing (11" 78rpm) of the song "Home (When Shadows Fall)" by Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra. Columbia control #405132, January 27, 1932, recorded in Chicago, IL. with Louis Armstrong (Trumpet, Vocal). Zilner Randolph (Trumpet), Preston Jackson (Trombone), Lester Boone (Clarinet, Alto Saxophone), George James (Reeds), Albert Washington (Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone), Charlie Alexander (Piano), Mike McKendrick (Banjo, Guitar), John Lindsay (Bass) and Tubby Hall (Drums).

                 LUIS RUSSELL'S HOT SIX


   --- Scarce double-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Sweet Mumtaz" (side A) and "Dolly Mine" (side B) by Luis Russell and his Hot Six. Okeh #8454, November 17, 1926. Turner – though no slouch in the performing department – made his mark as a writer of some of absolutely dynamite songs, among them ‘Sticks and Stones’, ‘All Around the World’ (aka Grits Ain’t Groceries), and ‘Leave My Kitten Alone’. Turner himself had a two decade long career as a recording artist, spending most of the 50s recording mostly for Okeh and King, and then the 60s recording for no less than a dozen different imprints. Turner originally recorded ‘People Sure Act Funny’ for the Enjoy label in 1962.


  BACKGROUND: The Luis Russell Orchestra started in Chicago and then moved to New York. They were one of the most innovative bands of their day, but never had the commercial success that they deserved. They are generally considered to be one of the first Swing bands. The outfit featured some of the best hot musicians from New Orleans, such as Barney Bigard, Omer Simeon and Pops Foster. The band first backed up Louis Armstrong in 1929 on the record "Mahogany Hall Stomp" -- which this collection also owns (see above).

                  SUGAR RAY ROBINSON
  --- One-sided audio test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the famous boxer, Sugar Ray Robinson's appearance in "Excursion" an NBC TV series of 26 shows for young people ages 8-16, designed to give them stimulating views of world literature, science, sports, art, theater, career-building, and government, with Americans who have made distinguished contributions in these fields acting as guests. This particular show aired during the week of August 25th, 1953. Dick Charles Recording Studios, located at 729 Seventh Avenue, New York. These were test scenes for the 1953 TV Episode of Huckleberry Finn, which co-starred boxing champion Sugar Ray Robinson as Jim. Sugar Ray Robinson was expanding on his career by branching out in print advertising, television and film. Mr. Robinson was a handsome natural, that the cameras adored. Robinson retired from professional boxing in December 1953 to become a dancer.
  DICK CHARLES RECORDING STUDIOS: By the 1950s, Dick Charles had opened a recording studio on Seventh Avenue in New York City, a block away from Broadway. It was here that a good number of demos of up and coming stars were cut before the stars were signed by the big record labels. Here, both Dick Charles (Richard Krieg and Richard Waldspurger) worked with many famous and not quite so famous musicians and performers.
                 FATS WALLER

  --- Scarce double-sided Gramophone test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Breakin' The Ice" (side A) and "Honeysuckle Rose" (side B) by Fats Waller and His Rhythm (1904 - 1943). A British test pressing. Brunswick #24826, November 7, 1934.
BACKGROUND: Born in New York City with the given name Thomas Wright Waller, "Fats" Waller was the son of a churchman. He learned how to play the organ in church with his mother, Adeline Waller, who gave him a background in classical music. Fats' first musical experience was playing harmonium for his father's Abyssinian Baptist Church at 10 years of age. The music which Fats later picked up around Harlem was viewed by his father as "music from the Devil's workshop."

Waller singing "Honeysuckle Rose"


           Fats Waller

In 1918 Waller won a talent contest playing James P. Johnson's "Carolina Shout" which he learned from watching a pianola play the song. Later, when Johnson met Fats for the first time and heard him play the pipe organ, he told his wife, "I know I can teach that boy." So Johnson took Waller under his wing and within months had improved his play and introduced him to his first Harlem rent party. Waller was such a diligent and lonesome pupil that he would practice on the Johnson's piano until 3 or 4 o'clock in the morning--when Mrs. Johnson would finally order him to go home. In 1922, Johnson had been asked to take over the piano at Leroy's, a club at Fifth Avenue and 135th Street where Willie the Lion Smith had been playing. But Johnson was going out of town with a show and he recommended his 18 year old protégé for the job. This was Waller's night club debut. But he was ready because by this time, Fats had developed into an all-around keyboard dynamo who was playing theater organ for silent movies and stage shows (at Harlem's Lincoln Theater), accompanying singers, backing up dancers in chorus lines, vaudeville revues and nightclubs, and playing blistering stride piano at rent parties. Though his skills on the piano introduced him to fame, it wasn't until after Fats started to sing that he became famous. From 1930 to 1943, Fats made over five hundred recordings and he was recognized from the streets of Harlem to Danish nightclubs as he toured extensively and appeared on numerous radio broadcasts as well as in some Hollywood feature films. Fats unexpectedly died on board a train near Kansas City, Missouri of pneumonia on Dec 15, 1943. Usually remembered as a genial clown, he is of lasting importance as one of the greatest of all jazz pianists and as a gifted songwriter, whose work in both fields was rhythmically contagious.


  •   --- DON BYAS & HIS RE-BOPPERS - "How High the Moon" and "Dynamo A" (#ST1896 & ST1900, by Don Byas -- white label two-sided shellac test of recordings made on January 27, 1947 at Studio Technisonor in Paris). Peanuts Holland (tp) Don Byas (ts) Billy Taylor (p) Jean-Jacques Tilche (g) Jean Bouchety (b) Buford Oliver (d).
  •   --- EARL BOSTIC - Sleep (#4444 single-sided vinyl test pressing recorded in 1951). Earl Bostic (1913-1965) was an American jazz and rhythm and blues alto saxaphonist, and a pioneer of the post-war American Rhythm and Blues style. He was a major influence on John Coltrane. He had a number of popular hits such as "Flamingo", "Harlem Nocturne", "Temptation", "Sleep" and "Where or When", which showed off his characteristic growl on the horn. Bostic recorded for Cincinnati-based King Records, a small label that was well known for releasing "R and B" and Bluegrass records. In fact, the biggest star on the King label was "the Godfather of Soul," James Brown. Bostic was also popular among R&B and jazz followers in the United Kingdom, thanks to his records that were released on the Parlophone label. King Records was rewarded for its devotion to Bostic and his music in 1951, when “Sleep” (a song from the 1920s) went to Number Six on the R&B chart.
  •   --- JACK TEAGARDEN & ORCHESTRA - "River Home" (#ST1867-1, white label one-sided shellac test of recordings made on July, 1940. In 1940, Jack Teagarden recorded sixteen sides for Varsity, which were reissued in 1986 by Savoy Jazz. During these sessions, his orchestra included Nat Jaffe on piano.
    BACKGROUND: (Weldon Leo Teagarden), 1905–1964, American jazz trombonist and singer, b. Vernon, Tex. One of the earliest White bluesmen, he came from a jazz-playing family and was mainly self-taught. He sometimes played with his brothers, trumpeter Charlie and drummer Cub, and sister, pianist Norma. In his twenties Teagarden wandered across America's Southwest, playing in several jazz groups, and arrived in New York in 1927. He played in bands led by Ben Pollack (1928–33), Paul Whiteman (1933–38), and Louis Armstrong (1947–51), and also led his own groups (1939–47; 1951–57). He began recording in the late 1920s and made many albums throughout his career. Teagarden was one of the great horn players of the mid-20th cent.; his trombone playing, seemingly effortless yet extremely accomplished technically, was uniquely smooth and lyrical. In addition, his somewhat gruff, drawling voice was ideal for singing the blues.
  •   --- DAVEY DEX on DA SET - "Dee Dottie Day" Test pressing (AV8 Records) by Davey Dex of this and other rap/hip hop songs (1996). Instrumental Cut-up/DJ. He is a producer, DJ from NYC. A DJ for 20 years, He plays Hip-Hop/R&B, Reggaeton Classic House, Classic Freestyle, Smooth Jazz. As a Producer, He produces mostly Hip-Hop Beats and Party Records but has produced House as well. With over 30 records under his belt. He has produced records since 1990.
  •   --- ORO "TUT" SOPER - "Right Kind of Love" by Oro Spher. (Steiner-Davis acetate recorded in Jack Gardner's apartment with drummer Warren "Baby" Dodds on January 31, 1944 in Chicago). John Steiner and Hugh Davis teamed Soper up with Dodds in pianist Jack Gardner’s apartment for the session. Gardner owned a particularly fine piano, which is why the session was held in his place, at 102 East Bellevue, a basement apartment located in the same apartment complex as John Steiner. Jazz fans tend to revel in improvisation, and Down Beat columnist George Hoefer loved the idea at how "impromptu" the recording was, as Soper and Dodds had never met before, and had feel each other out in the recording process. Little is known about Tut Soper, and he seems to have made very few recordings. Tut proceeded to develop his career as a popular solo act. He found additional work with reedmen Bud Freeman, Boyce Brown, and Orville "Bud" Jacobson, and with trumpeter Johnny Mendel.  Tut also performed with drummer Danny Alvin and with Frank Snyder, who played drums with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings in 1922. While hot jazz was artistically rewarding, Tut found greater monetary security working with popular hotel-orchestra leader George Olsen. The great recorded legacy of this grievously overlooked pianist consists of six duets he recorded with master percussionist Warren "Baby" Dodds. Five of these sides, recorded January 31, 1944, can be found on Jazz & Blues Piano Vol. 2: 1924-1947. With Tut sounding at times a bit like Earl Hines, these tasty stomps provide a tangible context for his reputation as a mainstay of traditional Chicago jazz. The only other session involving this pianist that has come to light is a 1957 Dixie revival date led by guitarist/vocalist Marty Grosz, released on Riverside as Hooray for Bix!  and reissued in 2000 on the Good Time Jazz label. Tut's impact upon the evolution of jazz in Chicago was greater than this handful of obscure phonograph records can ever demonstrate. His story serves as a reminder that the real history of this music is a mosaic of many individual lives; it runs much deeper and is far more intricate than the standard pantheon of famous names and familiar faces.
  •   --- BUSTER BAILEY - "Eccentric Rag" (single-sided shellac test recorded in New York, dated 1940). Buster Bailey (1902-1967) was a brilliant clarinetist who, although known for his smooth and quiet playing with John Kirby's sextet, occasionally really cut loose with some wild solos. Expertly trained by the classical teacher Franz Schoepp (who also taught Benny Goodman), Bailey worked with W.C Handy's band in 1917. Eccentric Rag was the first big hit written by J. Russel Robinson in 1912.
  •   --- MILLS BROTHERS - "Caravan" (single-sided vinyl test pressing recorded in 1942) by the Mills Brothers.

   Music reviewer, Paghat writes about this song and arrangement that can be seen here. >>> "Offensive to a forgiveable degree, the Mills Brothers perform this song in the garb of hillbillies as they vocally recreate Duke Ellington's classic instrumental Caravan (1942). It's doubtful the brothers had anything to do with the costuming, but had done their arrangement of the swing tune strictly in honor of Ellington, thus sophisticated rather than hick imagery would've been more apropos. To recreate a big band swing sound with just their mouths is damned clever, but they've also given us a very fine piece of classic harmony. Given the sophistication of Ellington's composition and the cosmopolitan wittiness of the Mills Brothers' vocal arrangement, dressing them up in a hick setting seems hardly to fit the music. To heighten the unfortunate stereotype there are three 'lazy darkies' lounging nearby, a guy and two gals. These lazy persons have complained that a dance band was supposed to show up for a dance, but isn't going to make it. Only when the Mills Brothers recreate the band vocally does everyone perk up."

Read review by Paghat & then watch "Caravan"

·            Paghat continues, "Slowy one and then the other two and then additional dancers from off screen all get up to dance to "Caravan." It pretty much turns into a 'dancie' instead of a soundie, and if you overlook the stereotyping costuming, this is pretty fine performing, including some breakdance moves from the guy who wins a trophy, though he has to stop eatin' dat watermelon to receive it. Director Josef Berne worked with many black entertainers and should've known better. But in the context of soundie content of the time, one of the most popular 'thread' of soundies content was fake hillbilly music by the likes of the Korn Kobblers and scores of others. So rather than thinking 'lets have some lazy rural darkies with watermelons' I'm sure the point was to have black entertainers horn in on the generally popular honky-hillbillie imagery in many a soundie. And without the weight of history of such imagery crushing down upon it, it would've been no worse (but also no more clever) than when white performers did such acts. The music at least is good, and the later Mills Brothers soundies to come would forgo storytelling in favor of recording the performance." (review by Paghat)

  •   --- DINAH WASHINGTON - "Cat On a Hot Tin Roof" and "The First Time" by Dinah Washington (1924-1963) -- both songs recorded in 1956 with Mercury Records (Matrix #70868) white label two-sided test pressing. Dinah was a blues, R&B, and jazz singer. She is a 1986 inductee of the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame. Washington was well known for singing torch songs. Recordings by Dinah Washington were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, which is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old, and that have "qualitative or historical significance.
  •   --- KING CURTIS - "Games People Play" by King Curtis (real name Curtis Ousley, 1934-1971) -- one-sided 45 test pressing recorded in 1969 with Atlantic/Atco Records (Mono, Matrix #69-C-16320-1, #6664). In 1970, Curtis won the Best R&B Instrumental Performance Grammy for this song, "Games People Play."
       >>> A genuine Atlantic/Atco 45rpm record (#69-C-16320) with "Games People Play" by King Curtis.
    BACKGROUND: Saxophonist, songwriter and producer. Successful both as a solo artist (best known for his 1967 hit Memphis Soul Stew) as well as a session musician and producer. Curtis mainly played and composed rhythm and blues or soul but also some Rock and roll and great bop or soul jazz. He was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. Around midnight on August 13, 1971 Curtis was lugging an air-conditioning unit towards his brownstone apartment on West 86th Street in New York City when he noticed two junkies were using drugs on the steps to his home. When he asked them to leave, an argument started. The argument quickly became heated and turned into a fist-fight with one of the men, 26-year old Juan Montañez. Suddenly, Montañez pulled out a knife and stabbed Curtis in the chest. Curtis managed to wrestle the knife away and stab his assailant four times before collapsing. Montañez staggered away from the scene and Curtis was taken to Roosevelt Hospital, where he died from his wounds less than an hour later. Montañez was arrested at the same hospital Curtis had been taken to. When police officers investigating the murder learned that another man had been admitted to Roosevelt hospital with stab wounds around the same time as Curtis, they quickly realized that the two events were connected. Montañez was charged with Curtis' murder and subsequently sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
  •   --- SUE CHALONER - "Answer My Prayer" by Sue Chaloner (born 1953) -- one-sided 33 test pressing recorded in 1991 with Pulse-8 Records (UK). Sue is an English-Dutch pop singer, best known for the '70s duo Spooky and Sue. She is living in Holland these days and tours Europe constantly.
  •   --- REX STEWART - "Jug Blues" ("ST 2219-2", "M3-113850", "PART 5196" by Rex Stewart -- white label one-sided original shellac test pressing. Recorded at Studio Technisonor, Paris, France on December 9 & 10, 1947. Rex Stewart (1907-1967) liked to experiment with his cornet, creating different sounds. He popularized the half-valve technique and was quite adept at playing just his valve. Both are employed on "Jug Blues," backing the rough-and-ready vocalizing of bass player Wilson Myers. On the song: Rex Stewart (cor) Sandy Williams (tb) George Kennedy (as, cl) Vernon Story (ts) Don Gais (p) Ted Curry (d).
  •   --- BESSIE SMITH - "There'll Be a Hot Time In Town Tonight" (Matrix #21840) white label one-sided original 78 shellac test pressing, with hand-written information about the "Empress of the Blues," Bessie Smith (1894-1937). Recorded in 1927 by Columbia Records.
    BACKGROUND: Bessie Smith's magnificent voice, sense of the dramatic, clarity of diction (you never missed a word of what she sang) and incomparable time and phrasing set her apart from the competition and made her appeal as much to jazz lovers as to lovers of the blues.

Her voice was remarkable, filling the largest hall without amplification and reaching out to each listener in beautiful, earthy tones. Born into poverty in Chattanooga, TN, Bessie Smith began singing for money on street corners and eventually rose to become the largest-selling recording artist of her day. So mesmerizing was her vocal style - reinforced by her underrated acting and comedic skills - that near-riots frequently erupted when she appeared. Those outside the theaters clamored to get in; those inside refused to leave without hearing more of Smith. Guitarist Danny Barker as saying: "Bessie Smith was a fabulous deal to watch. She was a large, pretty woman and she dominated the stage. You didn't turn your head when she went on. You just watched Bessie. If you had any church background like people who came from the [U.S.] South as I did, you would recognize a similarity between what she was doing and what those preachers and evangelists from there did, and how they moved people. She could bring about mass hypnotism." With her earnings, Smith was able to purchase a custom-designed railroad car for herself and her troupe in 1925. This luxury allowed her to circumvent some of the dispiriting effects of the racism found in both northern and southern states as she traveled with her own tent show or with the Theater Owners' Booking Association (TOBA) shows, commanding a weekly salary that peaked at ,000. Twice she was instrumental in helping save Columbia Records from bankruptcy.

Bessie Smith

  •   --- KID ORY - "The World's Jazz Crazy, Lawdy So Am I" and "Creole bo bo" (two-sided shellac test pressing recorded October 21, 1946 by Columbia #37276 and #37277). As a prime surviving trombonist from the dawn of recorded jazz, Edward "Kid" Ory served as the eye of a hurricane driving the resurgence of traditional New Orleans entertainment during the mid-'40s. His radio broadcasts and the excellent studio recordings he cut during the second half of the 1940s helped to repopularize old-fashioned jazz and paved the way for a full-blown Dixieland revival during the 1950s. The "Creole Bo Bo" ("Bo Bo" being a sort of dance) was one of his popular selections, along with "The World's Jazz Crazy," which sounded a lot like "Ballin' the Jack."
  •   --- CHARLIE PARKER - "Big Foot" Part I&II. recorded on December 11, 1948 at the Royal Roost. (two-sided shellac). This is a very nice, near mint 10" (78rpm). Miles Davis and Kinny Dorham are on trumpet, with pianist Al Haig, bassist Tommy Potter and drummer Max Roach.
    BACKGROUND: Arguably the greatest saxophonist of all time, Charlie "Bird" Parker was one of a handful of artists who permanently changed jazz. The altoist's phenomenal technique, ability to play perfectly coherent solos at blinding speeds, array of fresh ideas and phrases and his genius at improvising over chord changes have inspired and been emulated by a countless number of musicians from 1945 up to the present. Most of Bird's most famous solos were made in the studio either for Savoy, Dial or Verve. However, when his band was captured live at clubs, the results were even more stunning. Parker was able to take lengthy solos and his string of ideas never seemed to run out of creativity or excitement. From the Royal Roost with his regularly working quintet.
    ROYAL ROOST: 1580 Broadway (at 47th Street). Peak years: 1946 to mid-’50s. In 1942, a new sound began to be heard in New York City: snappy, staccato phrasing, harmonic leaps and rhythmic elasticity all taken at a breakneck tempo that favored 8th notes (and sometimes 16th notes) for maximum effect. By 1944, this sound that defined a doorway into the modern era of jazz had its heroes—Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie—and a name: bebop. Sept. 1948-March 1949—Bird’s quintet featured weekly at Royal Roost Club in NYC, dubbed the "Metropolitan Bopera House;" stellar sessions taped off radio broadcasts by Boris Rose, others during recording ban by American Federation of Musicians; broadcasts flavored by colorful deep-voiced musings of legendary jazz disc jockey "Symphony Sid" Torin.
  •   --- FLETCHER HENDERSON ORCHESTRA - "Tidal Wave" (single-sided vinyl test pressing recorded on September 12, 1934 in New York by Decca). The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra was the most popular African-American band of the 1920s. The smooth, carefully arranged sound of Henderson's orchestra was a huge influence on the Swing style of the next decade. The Orchestra played at the Club Alabam on West 44th Street in New York from 1922 to July of 1924 and then moved to the Roseland Ballroom when Armand J. Piron's Orchestra vacated the job and returned to New Orleans. In 1924 Henderson  hired Louis Armstrong to replace Joe Smith on trumpet. Armstrong's thirteen months in the band caused quite a stir among New York Jazz musicians who had never heard anything like him. The orchestra also featured Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophone, Buster Bailey on clarinet and Don Redman on alto saxophone and also contributing arrangements. When Armstrong left the band to return to Chicago to join Erskine Tate's Vendome Orchestra a succession of fine cornet and trumpet players played in the band.
  •   --- BILL HARRIS - "Bill Harris and His Guitar" (two-sided vinyl advance/test pressing, recorded in 1956 by Mercury).  EmArcy # MG 36097 from Mercury. This EmArcy Solo Guitar from 1956 is considered to be the first album of solo jazz guitar ever released. The song titles are typewritten on the label...Selections are: Stompin' at the Savoy, Moonglow, Cherokee, Out of Nowhere, Ethel, Possessed, Perdido, I Can't Get Started, Dreaming, K.C. Shuffle, Ivanhoe, and Lover
    : Guitarist Bill Harris was one of the finest solo guitar players to take on classical guitar, jazz and blues. He was lead guitarist, composer/arranger and singer with The Clovers in the early 1950's. Bill Harris was a professor of music at Howard University. During the '70s, Harris operated Pigfoot, a Washington, D.C., restaurant, nightclub, and art gallery.
  •   --- JIM GODDARD of the Foreman Banks - "Heav'n Heav'n" and "Lucky Jim" (very rare two-sided shellac white label pressing of otherwise unreleased 1930 Brunswick masters) by Jim Goddard. Adapted by Harry Thacker Burleigh in 1921 as "Heav'n Heav'n (Gonna Shout All Over God's Heav'n)"
  •   --- JOE LIGGINS & HIS HONEYDRIPPERS  - Joe Liggins (1915 - 1987) with "Little Willie" and "Think of Me" (very rare two-sided Exclusive sample copy (EXC-1139, Master Series: 252, Hollywood, CA). Songs featured "Little" Willie Jackson on alto and baritone; James Jackson on tenor; Joe Liggins on piano; Frank Pasley on guitar; Eddie Davis on bass; Peppy Prince on drums.
    BACKGROUND: Joe was an American R&B, jazz, and blues pianist, who was the frontman in the 19402 and 1950s with the band, Joe Liggins and the Honeydrippers. His band was often the staple on the US Billboard R&B chart in those years, with their biggest hit logging a reported 2 million sales. 
  •   --- UNKNOWN 1930s ORCHESTRA playing W.C. Handy's "Big Stick Blues" (single-sided Metropolitan Recording Studios acetate which seems to be from a radio program on the life & compositions of W.C. Handy -- an announcer speaks at the beginning --- note that "Big Stick Blues" was never recorded prior to this recording and this seems to be a unique item).
  •   --- ALBERT "SCRATCH" PHILLIPS - "Mary Jo" (by the Four Blazes) and "Fancy Meeting You" (by Count Basie) -- two-sided 10" shellac KCOR radio pressing, hand written on the label and signed by Scratch. Albert "Scratch" Phillips was a legendary African American disc jockey in San Antonio, Texas. Hired by KCOR on May 25th, 1951, Scratch hosted a nightly two-hour R&B radio show on KCOR. The listeners were treated to Jackie Wilson, Ray Charles, Bo Diddley, James Brown and many other entertainers. In 1953 KCOR opened up a cafe. Scratch installed a broadcasting booth in the cafe, from which he originated his nightly program. He later hosted a KCOR TV (channel 41) show. Scratch died in December, 2004.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "Big Butter and Egg Man" and "When it's Sleepytime Down South" (two-sided shellac test). "Big Butter and Egg Man" was a 1926 jazz song written by Percy Venable. Venable was a record producer at the Sunset Cafe and wrote the song for Louis Armstrong and singer May Alix. The song is often played by Dixieland bands, and is considered a jazz standard. According to pianist Earl Hines, Alix would often tease the young Armstrong during performances. Armstrong was known to be timid, and had a crush on the beautiful vocalist. At times, Armstrong would forget the lyrics and just stare at Alix, and band members would shout "Hold it, Louis! Hold it." Armstrong's utterly confident cornet solo on the 1926 recording is one of his most highly acclaimed performances. The song name was a 1920s slang term for a big spender, a traveling businessman in the habit of spending large amounts of money in nightclubs. The song is also known as "I Want a Big Butter and Egg Man" or "Big Butter and Egg Man from the West".
      >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record with "When it's Sleeytime Down South" by Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra.
    -- In 1931, Armstrong first recorded "When It's Sleepytime Down South," the tune that became his theme song.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "I'll Walk Alone" and "Kiss of Fire" -- two-sided shellac test pressing, with "Kiss of Fire" adapted from 'El Choclo' (Lester Allen–Robert Hill) Decca 28177, [Master 82703]. Recorded April 19, 1952, Denver, Colorado  -- I touch your lips and all at once the sparks go flying, Those devil lips that know so well the art of lying. And though I see the danger, still the flame grows higher, I know I must surrender to your kiss of fire. In anyone else's hands, the ancient tango Kiss Of Fire would have sounded ludicrous, but Satch gives it the same light-hearted treatment Fats Waller might have given it. Had he heard it, Waller would have nodded in approval of Louis' tag: 'Ah, boin (burn) me!'
    -- "I'll Walk Alone" is recorded the same date (April 19, 1952) in Denver, CO (Styne; Cahn) [master 82702] -- Decca 28177. Armstrong, Louis (Trumpet, Vocal), Phillips, Russ (Trombone), Bigard, Barney (Clarinet), Ruffell, Donald (Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone), Napoleon, Marty (Piano), Jones, Dale (Bass), Cole, Cozy (Drums).
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "I Dream of Jeanie" and "Indian Love Call" (two-sided shellac test). "I Dream of Jeanie" was written by Stephen Foster, originally titled "I Dream of Jenny with the Light Brown Hair." Jenny was the nickname of Stephen Foster's wife to whom - with whom he had an unhappy on-again marriage. And he wrote this when they were estranged, or - it's a little bit unclear - or possibly, just gotten back together again. I dream of Jeanie with the light brown hair. Borne like a vapor on the summer air. I see her tripping where the bright streams play, happy as the daisies that dance on her way. Many were the wild notes her merry voice would pour. Many were the blithe birds that warbled them o'er.
        >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record with "Indian Love Call" and "Jeanine" by Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra.
     -- "Indian Love Call"
    was recorded by Louis Armstrong and Gordon Jenkins & his Orchestra. Written by Rudolf Friml, Herbert Stothart, Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein II. Recorded on November 28, 1951 in Los Angeles: Louis Armstrong, trumpet, vocal; Chris Griffin, George Thow, Bruce Hudson, trumpet; Eddie Miller, Dent Eckels, tenor saxophone; Charles LaVere, piano; Allan Reuss, guitar; Phil Stephens, bass; Nick Fatool, drums; Unknown strings, Gordon Jenkins (arranger, conductor). Originally released on Decca 28076. "Indian Love Call" wasn't the type of song Louis was going to start performing live with the All Stars. Also, it doesn't appear to have made any waves on the charts, either. But on June 8, 1952, over six months after the studio recording, Louis performed it on "The U. S. Royal Showcase," an NBC television show with a studio band conducted for the occasion by Gordon Jenkins. This performance was never issued commercially but it is a fantastic little rarity.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "I Get Ideas" and "It's All in the Game" (two-sided shellac test). The song, "I Get Ideas" was originally a tango-cancion (music with lyrics) called "Adios, Muchachos", composed by Julio Cesar Sanders (often credited in the U.S. as "Lenny Sanders"). The recording by Louis Armstrong was recorded on July 24, 1951 and released by Decca Records as catalog number 27720. It first reached the Billboard magazine charts on August 24, 1951 and lasted 16 weeks on the chart, peaking at #13. It was the flip side to "A Kiss to Build A Dream On."
    -- "It's All in the Game" was a jazz arrangement was recorded by Louis Armstrong (vocals) and arranger Gordon Jenkins, with "some of Armstrong's most honey-tinged singing." Carl Sigman composed the lyrics in 1951 to a wordless 1911 composition entitled "Melody in A Minor," written by Charles Dawes, later VP of the United States under Calvin Coolidge. It is the only #1 pop single (a 1958 #1 hit for Tommy Edwards) to have been co-written by a U.S. Vice President.

  --- DEEP RIVER BOYS - "What Did He Say?" (The Mumbles Song). This is a rare original 10"/78 RPM test pressing of the famous "Mumbles Song" by the Deep River Boys on RCA Records -- serial # D7-VA-2057-1A. This recording was found in a storage facility not far from the original recording studio in Camden, NJ.
BACKGROUND: The Deep River Boys had their genesis on the campus of Hampton Institute in Virginia in the mid thirties. They found their first success in winning radio's "Amateur Hour" competition. This notoriety led to opportunities to appear on stage and in radio. During the Second World War the group did extensive touring for the USO and provided entertainment for American troops overseas. The members for most of the life of the group were Harry Douglas, Jimmy Lundy, Ed Ware, and Vernon Gardner.
In 1948 they released two songs for RCA -- "I'm Sorry I Didn't Say I'm Sorry" and “What Did He Say,” written by Cy Coben. Could this have been the first rap song ever recorded?


  •   --- PAUL ROBESON - "De 'Old Ark's A-Movering" and " Ezekiel Saw de Wheel" were recorded as Echantillon Invendable "Sample Unmarketable" Spirituals by Rapport (Report) de Fusins in Paris, France on March 3, 1927 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing) --K7825, MX #38420, XREF #MW6068.
    BACKGROUND: In 1925 the baritone Paul Robeson became the first major singer to perform Lawrence Benjamin Brown's spiritual arrangement in concert. Robeson also was the first solo singer to offer an entire concert of spirituals
  •   --- INTERNATIONAL SINGERS with CLIFFORD KEMP, CONDUCTOR - "Ave Maria" (Villa-Lobos) was recorded by the International Singers (with Clifford Kemp, conductor) at Carnegie Hall in New York on April 7, 1949 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing -- #H1, Carnegie Hall Recording Co.).
    BACKGROUND: THE INTERNATIONAL SINGERS, with Clifford Kemp as their conductor appeared at Carnegie Hall in concert on April 7, 1949. Under the energetic and sensitive direction of Mr. Kemp, the International Singers are rapidly becoming known as the group likely to bring us realistic interpretations of folk songs from many countries. Consisting of forty voices with as many nationalities represented, the singers were exceptionally persuasive in their rendition of songs like "Ave Maria" and many others. Clifford Kemp once stated, "Music can iron out misunderstandings better than logic."
  •   --- DUKE ELLINGTON - "Blue Skies" and "Squeeze Me But Don't Tease Me" (two-sided shellac). This is a very nice, near mint 10" (78rpm) Mid-1940s era air check of Duke Ellington. Can't tell much more about it, except that the record came from the collection of an advanced Ellington collector.
    BACKGROUND: “Blue Skies” was covered by well over 100 artists, including Duke Ellington. The song was born of more desperation than inspiration. It was introduced in 1926 by well-known vaudeville star Belle Baker in the Broadway musical Betsy, but that doesn’t begin to describe the saga of how an Irving Berlin song ended up in a Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart musical. The young songwriting team of Rodgers and Hart had written the score for Betsy in the new fashion sweeping Broadway musicals, that of integrating songs into the characters and dramatic context of the story rather than stringing together a series of song and dance numbers in the style of a revue, often with little connection to the plotline. Betsy, produced by Florenz Ziegfeld, was scheduled to open on Broadway in December of 1926 after its Boston tryout, where it was moderately well received but was far from being a hit. Berlin’s first child had been born in November of 1926, and the song he had started but not finished was to be gift to his new daughter. All he had was the first eight bars of the refrain, but with the help of Baker and her husband, Maurice Abrahams, working through the night he finished the song, lyrics and all, and it became “Blue Skies.” Herbert Baker recalls, “It’s now about seven in the morning and the show is due to open that night. My mother gets on the phone and calls Florenz Ziegfeld. She wakes him up and she tells him that Irving Berlin has been up all night working on a song for her, and it’s finished, and it’s great, and she wants to sing it tonight, and if she can’t sing it tonight she doesn’t want to open in the show. When Baker sang “Blue Skies” she stopped the show and had to sing twenty-four encores. On the twenty-third time, overwhelmed by the response, she forgot the lyrics, and Berlin, who was in the audience, stood up and gave her the words. They finished the next chorus singing together.
  •   --- DUKE ELLINGTON - "Just Good Fun" was recorded by Duke Ellington (piano solo) at an ARC-Brunswick recording session in New York on March 8, 1939 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing) -- mx #MW-990-1, issued on LP only; FDC-1003.
  •   --- JIMMY RUSHING with COUNT BASIE & HIS ORCHESTRA  - "The Blues I Like to Hear" (one-sided shellac test). This song was recorded in New York City with Jimmy Rushing on vocals -- November 16, 1938 (released on Decca 2284, Matrix #64748. Composed by Jimmy Rushing and arranged by Buster Smith. Count Basie and his Orchestra : Ed Lewis, Harry Edison, Buck Clayton, tp; Dicky Wells, Dan Minor, BennyMorton, tb; Earl Warren, as; Lester Young,Herschel Evans, ts; Jack Washington, bs, as; Count Basie, p; Freddie Green, g; Walter Page, b; Jo Jones, drums.
       BACKGROUND: Born James Andrew Rushing on August 26, 1903, in Oklahoma City, OK; died June 8, 1972, in New York, NY. Jazz vocalist. Pianist. Played in Southern California with Jelly Roll Morton, Harvey Brooks, and Paul Howard, 1920s; member of Walter Page Blue Devils band, 1927-29; joined Bennie Moten's orchestra, 1929-35; member of Count Basie Orchestra, 1935-50; toured with his own septet, 1950-52; as a solo act, 1952-72; Europe with Humphrey Littleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, 1961; Japan and Australia with Eddie Condon, 1964; appeared in film The Learning Tree, 1969; appeared at the Half Note in New York City playing with Al Cohn and Zoot Sims, early 1970s. Jimmy Rushing, also known as "Mr. Five by Five," (short height and wide girth) possessed ajoyous, booming voice that could be clearly heard over the swinging jazz orchestras of the big band era and beyond. He began his career as a piano player in the 1920s, but soon found his voice. He made his name with the Count Basie Orchestra in the 1940s, and enjoyed an active career singing solo and with jazz and big-band greats such as Humphrey Lyttleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, Eddie Condon, Al Cohn, and Zoot Sims, among others. He toured the United States and abroad, and his voice can be heard on countless recordings, including the most recent compilations The Essential Jimmy Rushing (1978), Mister Five by Five (1980), and The Classic Count (1982).
  •   --- COUNT BASIE and ORCHESTRA - "I'm Going to Move Way Out On the Outskirts of Town" was recorded for Columbia Records in Chicago on April 3, 1942 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- #C-4226-1, Columbia Records). Count Basie is on the piano and Jimmie Rushing is on vocals.
  •   --- COUNT BASIE and ORCHESTRA - "Farewell Blues" was recorded for Columbia Records 1942, released in May 1944 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- #36712 HCO-7877-1, Columbia Records). is a 1922 jazz standard written by Paul Mares, Leon Roppolo and Elmer Scoebel. The song was originally recorded on August 29, 1922 in Richmond, Indiana. Count Basie recorded this smooth blues instrumental in 1942.
  •   --- KITTY WHITE - "Cashmere Sweater" and "The River, The Moonlight and You" were recorded in NYC with an unidentified orchestra (Hal Mooney, conductor) on November 9, 1956 (Whitehall Music, Record #70817two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- Master #12452 & #12453).
  •   --- SARAH VAUGHN - "Easy Come Easy Go Lover" was recorded in NYC with the Don Costa Orchestra on March 29, 1954 (Mercury Records, Midway Music, #70299, one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.
  •   --- BILL DAVIS - "Lullaby of Birdland" was recorded by the Bill Davis Trio on January 8th, 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label, #6946, one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test, Matrix CO486771. Songf was written by George Shearing. Birdland was a famous jazz club in New York City located at 1678 Broadway at 44th Street. It had previously been the Clique Club where pianist George Shearing, composer of “Lullaby of Birdland,” first played in 1949 with clarinetist Buddy De Franco. Later that year owner Morris Levy renamed the club Birdland in honor of Charlie "Bird” Parker.
    -- BACKGROUND: In his autobiography, Lullaby of Birdland: The Autobiography of George Shearing, Shearing says that there was nothing special about the small club which seated a maximum of 175 when packed. But it became famous because of the live broadcasts which originated there. In 1952 Levy decided to have station WJZ in New York broadcast a disc jockey program from there, and he asked Shearing to record a theme song for the show. But Shearing didn’t like the song that Levy gave him, so he offered to write one especially for the show. Levy finally agreed with the stipulation that he be given publishing rights while Shearing retain composer rights. For weeks Shearing tried to come up with something but to no avail. Suddenly one night in the middle of dinner he jumped up, went to the piano and wrote the whole thing in about ten minutes. The pianist explains, “Actually quite a lot of my compositions have come this way--very slow going for a week or so, and the finished piece comes together very rapidly, but as I say to those who criticize this method of working, it’s not that I dash something off in ten minutes, it’s ten minutes plus umpteen years in the business.” Shearing recorded his instrumental for the radio show and ultimately adopted it as the theme song for his quintet. Somewhat later George David Weiss added lyrics to the tune, and Sarah Vaughan recorded it in December, 1954, for Mercury with trumpeter Clifford Brown. It was one of her biggest hits and became a standard in her repertoire. In 1956 a Parisian vocal group called the Blue Stars took the song to the charts where it rose to #16. In 1962 Bill Haley and His Comets recorded a version of the tune which they called, “Lullaby of Birdland Twist.”
    -- NOTE: On Feb 14, 2011. George Shearing, the British piano virtuoso who overcame blindness to become a worldwide jazz star, and whose composition, "Lullaby of Birdland" became an enduring jazz standard, died in Manhattan. He was 91.
  •   --- LARRY DARNELL - "I'll Be Sittin' I'll Be Rockin'" and "Crazy She calls Me" were recorded with orchestra (Leroy Kirkland, conductor) in 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6954 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- Master #CO48077 & #CO48060). Composers for I'll Be Sittin': S. Wyche & L Kirkland. Composers for Crazy She Calls Me: C. Sigman & B. Russell.
    -- BACKGROUND: This great R & B performer started out in 1950 with two well received recordings on the Regal label. Number 3236 - "I'll Get Along Somehow" and soon after #3240 - "For you My Love". "I'll Get Along" is an immediate hit on the West coast. In January of 1953 singer Varetta Dillard joins the tour with Darnell and the two Harris blues men. In April "I'll Be Sittin' and I'll Be Rockin'" and "Crazy She Calls Me" is released on Okeh #6954. The famous R & B popularity poll held by the Pittsburgh Courier places Larry Darnell third among all male performers attesting to his lasting appeal despite slumping record sales. Some of the shows on tour offer an all out "Battle Of The Blues" between Wynonie Harris and Larry Darnell.
  •   --- FRANK MURPHY - "Our Song and "What Can I Do?" were recorded with Norman Leyden in January 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6954 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- Master #CO48077 & #CO48060). Composers for I'll Be Sittin': S. Wyche & L Kirkland.
  •   --- BILL DAVIS - ""Nina Never Knew" and "Rhapsody in Blue" were recorded in 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6965 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.
  •   --- JACKIE ROY & the COLLEGIANS - "The Leaf" and "You Made a Fool of Me" were recorded with the Ray Ellis Orchestra in March, 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6954 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.
  •   --- SONNY BOY WILLIAMSON - "Sonny Boy's Cold Chills" was recorded in Chicago on August 6, 1946 (RCA Victor, Record #20-2184, one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.  Willis Lacy on guitar, Ransom Knowling on string bass, and Blind John Davis on piano. Aleck "Rice" Miller (December 5, 1899? – May 25, 1965) was an African American blues harmonica player, singer and songwriter. He was also known as Sonny Boy Williamson II, Sonny Boy Williams, Willie Williamson, Willie Miller, Little Boy Blue, The Goat and Footsie.
  •   --- THE DIXIE STARS - "Sweet Mandy" and "Henry Jones" were recorded on May 10, 1927 by Al Bernard and Russel Robinson (Brunswick Records, #E-23069 & #E-23064, two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test. Al Bernard was born in New Orleans, he became a blackface singer in minstrel shows before starting his recording career around 1916. He was one of the first white singers to record blues songs. W.C. Handy credited Bernard with helping his own career by recording a number of his songs.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG & HIS HOT FIVE - "You Made Me Love You" and "Irish Black Bottom" were recorded on November 27, 1926 (two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- #09981A & #09980A). The song, "Irish Black Bottom" was all the craze in Ireland.
  •   --- BOB MARLEY & THE WAILERS - "Babylon By Buss" and "It's All in the Game" (two-sided 12" 2LP test -- ISLD-11). Babylon By Bus is a live album released by Bob Marley & The Wailers in 1978. The album was recorded mostly at the Pavillion de Paris in June 1978, during the Kaya Tour. Like the 1973 album Catch A Fire, the first release had something of a novelty cover. The windows of the bus on the front cover were cut out, revealing part of the inner sleeve. The listener had a choice of four different scenes to view through the windows.
      --- JIMMY LUNCEFORD & HIS ORCHESTRA ("THE JIMMIES")  - "I Need a Lift" (extremely rare 12" one-sided V-Disc 78rpm shellac test -- VP-1590, No. 568A). This song featured Kirtland Bradford on alto sax, with vocals by "The Jimmies" band.
    BACKGROUND: V-Disc ("V" for Victory) was a morale-boosting initiative involving the production of several series of recordings during the World War II era by special arrangement between the United States government and various private U.S. record companies. The records were produced for the use of United States military personnel overseas. Many popular singers, big bands and orchestras of the era recorded special V-Disc records. These 12-inch, vinyl 78 rpm gramophone recordings were created for the army between October 1943 and May 1949. Navy discs were released between July 1944 and September 1945. Twelve inch discs were used because, when 136 grooves per inch were used, they could hold up to six and a half minutes of music. The V-Disc project actually began in June 1941, six months before the United States' involvement in World War II, when Captain Howard Bronson was assigned to the Army's Recreation and Welfare Section as a musical advisor. Bronson suggested the troops might appreciate a series of records featuring military band music, inspirational records that could motivate soldiers and improve morale. By 1942, the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS) sent 16-inch, 33 rpm vinyl transcription discs to the troops from eight sources: special recording sessions, concerts, recitals, radio broadcasts, film sound tracks and commercial records.


There are two types of 78 pressing: Stock Shellac and Laminated:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
  --- Stock shellac pressings are those produced from a shellac and filler mix (the fillers were put in to both increase the resistance to wear and to keep the price down - shellac was and is expensive!). Because of the quantity of filler used, stock shellac surfaces tend to be noisy and prone to grittiness, e.g. Victor, Brunswick, Vocalion, Decca etc. Most records pressed in the US, Europe and Britain were stock shellac.
  --- Laminated pressings used a low quality filler core but then had a high quality playing surface bonded to it. This playing surface was shellac rich which meant that the surface noise was reduced massively. The main users of Laminated Pressings in the US were Columbia (1923-33 and again in the 1940s) and OKeh (1926-33 and again later in the 1940s). In Britain Columbia (1923-31)and Parlophone (1928-31) used laminated pressings until the merger with HMV into EMI in 1931. Thereafter all EMI records were produced on stock shellac. In continental Europe many Columbia and HMV (1928-1940s) pressings were also laminated. The most interesting exception was Australia, where laminated pressings were the rule rather than the exception from 1923 (Columbia) and 1931 (HMV) right through to the end of 78s. Because of limited pressing facilities, even labels such as Decca appeared as laminated pressings. The superior surfaces of the Australian laminated pressings have thus long been prized by collectors.

  5. 1829 newspaper from Bermuda - The Royal Gazette - Bermuda Commercial and General Advertiser and Recorder - Hamilton, Bermuda: Donald McPhee Lee (first editor) - No. 37 - Vol. 2, dated Tuesday, September 15, 1829 - this paper was started in 1828 and is still in production at the present. This genuine historical 4 page newspaper has typical age toning, foxing and edge wear and is printed on cotton and rag cloth. An intriguing read as it gives first hand news and reflections of life at that time in Bermuda and around the world, such as recently enacted laws, news (on politics, wars and deaths), poetry and advertising were published in the daily paper, with descriptive ads for runaway slaves and the selling of slaves commonplace.
     In this issue is an interesting article about the Abolition of Slavery, "At a meeting held at the Freemason's Tavern, London, on the 14th July last, for the purpose of considering the means of protecting from Slavery the future children born of Negroes in the British Colonies -- Mr. Olway Cave, in the chair. -- A variety of resolutions were proposed and assented to, to the effect that Parliament should be petitioned for the liberation of slaves born after a certain period in the British Colonies: the Rev. Mr. Isaacson of Demerara, a clergyman of the Church of England, in proposing the amendment to the resolution, "which" he said, "if carried into effect, would shew (sic) whether the system of free labour was practicable, and likely to benefit the slaves themselves;" added that "the whole population of Montserrat and Tortola (6000 in number), might be purchased for 600,000 Pounds; and it had been proposed to the Duke of Devonshire to purchase these islands, in order to try a system of free labour, which, if it succeeded, might then be extended to other Colonies..."

  6. Extremely scarce, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (1837 edition). Captured far from the African coast when he was a boy of 11, Olaudah Equiano (1745 - 1797) was sold into slavery, later acquired his freedom. In 1789 Olaudah wrote his widely-read autobiography. The youngest son of a village leader, Equiano was born among the Ibo people in the kingdom of Benin, along the Niger River. He was "the greatest favorite with [his] mother." His family expected to follow in his father's footsteps and become a chief, an elder, a judge. Slavery was an integral part of the Ibo culture, as it was with many other African peoples. His family owned slaves, but there was also a continual threat of being abducted, of becoming someone else's slave. This is what happened, one day, while Equiano and his sister were at home alone. Two men and a woman captured the children. Several days later Equiano and his sister were separated. Equiano continued to travel farther and farther from home, day after day, month after month, exchanging masters along the way. Equiano's early experiences as a slave were not all disagreeable; some families treated Equiano almost as a part of the family. The kind treatment, however, was about to end.

Olaudah Equiano


    About six or seven months after being abducted, Equiano was brought to the coast, where he first encountered a slave ship and white men. As it was for all slaves, the Middle Passage for Equiano was a long, arduous nightmare. In his autobiography he describes the inconceivable conditions of the slaves' hold: the "shrieks of the women," the "groans of the dying," the floggings, the wish to commit suicide, how those who somehow managed to drown themselves were envied. The ship finally arrived at Barbados, where buyers purchased most of the slaves. There was no buyer, however, for the young Equiano. Less than two weeks after his arrival, he was shipped off to the English colony of Virginia, where he was purchased and put to work. Less than a month later, he had a new master -- Michael Henry Pascal, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy. Under this master, who owned Equiano for the next seven years, Equiano would move to England, educate himself, and travel the world on ships under Pascal's command. In 1766, Equiano bought his freedom. He found work in the trade business in the West Indies, then in London. In 1773, he took part in an expedition to try to discover the Northwest Passage, a route through the arctic to the Pacific Ocean. Back in England, Equiano became an active abolitionist. He lectured against the cruelty of British slave owners. He spoke out against the English slave trade. He worked to resettle freed slaves. In 1787 Equiano helped his friend, Offohab Cugoano, to published an account of his experiences, Narrative of the Enslavement of a Native of America. Copies of his book were sent to George III and other leading politicians. He failed to persuade the king to change his opinions and like other members of the royal family remained against abolition of the slave trade. By 1789, the year he published his autobiography, Olaudah Equiano was a well-known abolitionist. In 1792 Equiano married Susan Cullen of Ely. The couple had two children, Anna Maria and Johanna. However, Anna Maria died when she was only four years old. Olaudah Equiano was appointed to the expedition to settle former black slaves in Sierra Leone, on the west coast of Africa. However, he died on 31st March, 1797 before he could complete the task.

Wilberforce signature

 7. Two William Wilberforce signatures (one example seen to the left). Because of this man, slavery ended in England and the abolitionist movement in America was influenced. As a constituency Member of Parliament, he had a lifelong involvement in the campaign to abolish slavery.
-- Handwritten letter by William Wilberforce (dated October 4th, 1808, East Bourne) to a Mr. Ch Idle, Esq., "My friend Mr. John Thornton and I were intending to do ourselves the pleasure of calling on you today, but we found on inquiry that you and Mrs. Idle were both absent. Our object was to confer with you concerning the setting up of a School (whether a Sunday or every day school may be matter of future consideration) in this neighborhood and putting it under the care of some truly pious teacher, ?, besides that general knowledge of your character which would have prompted us to apply to you for your concurrence in any such project...". NOTE: Mr. John Thornton was a wealthy merchant banker who had financially assisted ex-slaver, John Newton and many others.

-- "The Life of William Wilberforce", scarce First Edition book written by Casper Morris, 1857.

-- A Practical View Of The Prevailing Religious System Of Professed Christians, In The Higher And Middle Classes, Contrasted With Real Christianity. Book by William Wilberforce. Boston: Printed by Manning & Loring, For Ebenezer Larkin. 1799. Second American Edition. Publisher’s full calf leather over boards, red morocco spine label titled in gilt. 300 pages. Volume measures 7” x 4 ½”. William Wilberforce was an English philanthropist and anti-slavery crusader, who was instrumental in winning the abolition of the British slave trade in 1807. He was also an M. P. for the county of York and a central figure in the Clapham sect of Evangelicals. His object here is to demonstrate how Christianity, as practiced by the English middle and upper classes, differs from what he considered "true Christianity". This book put him at the forefront of the evangelical movement.
-- A Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System by William Wilberforce, 1824. 6" x 4" x 1", in fair - poor condition -- yellowing/water damage/spotting; binding is solid. Slight old book smell.
-- "A Practical View Of The Prevailing Religious System Of Professed Christians, In The Higher And Middle Classes, Contrasted With Real Christianity", by William Wilberforce (2 copies). Measuring about 3-1/2" x 5-3/4", and 375 pages long, this small hardback book is It is published in New York by the American Tract Society, and is undated, the only clue being that it is "from a late London edition." If I had to guess, I'd say somewhere near the mid-1800s. The only illustration is a steel engraved frontispiece of the author. It is bound in boards covered with peacock paper, and a green leather spine, but I believe this is a re-binding. The boards do not feel as thick and substantial as I would have expected them to be.

-- The Life of William Wilberforce (1872 edition) by his son, Samuel Lord Bishop of Winchester, published by John Murray, London. 452 pages, with engraved frontispiece, marbled page edges and endpapers, bound in blue calf with gilt pattern and lettering on the cover and spine. The writing on the front cover reads 'The Gift of the Haberdasher's Company'. This book tells the life story of William Wilberforce and the struggle to abolish the slave trade. Overall, in good condition - the binding is tight and all the pages are fine. However, the cover has been covered with a clear plastic film. Some wear to the leather can be seen underneath, along the edges of the cover and spine, with some discoloration to the back cover. Inside, a small clipping has been stuck onto the back of the flyleaf and opposite, there is an inscription from Newport Grammar School, dated 1894. Otherwise, apart from some slight yellowing to the pages, the text is in excellent condition.

-- The obituary of William Wilberforce in an intriguing volume of Gentleman's Magazine (July to December, 1833). This is the concluding volume of the original series Volume 103. Some of the items in this volume article running over the months British Empire in India, Saint James Chapel Croydon (with plate) much on Battles in Portugal between brothers of the Royal Family, Charing Palace (Kent), suppression of the slave trade in India, the obituary of ardent abolitionist and tireless anti-slavery advocate, William Wilberforce, and the address to the House of Representatives by President Jackson.  580 pages with 8 engraved plates, bound in half calf, chip to foot of spine, bound tight.
BACKGROUND: Gentleman's Magazine was founded in 1731, ceased publication in 1907, founder Edwin Cave who assumed the pen name of Sylvanus Urban.  The first general interest magazine to be published and the first to use the term magazine for a periodical journal, published monthly. Amongst its early contributors was Samuel Johnson who wrote parliamentary reports under the title "Debates of the Senate of Magna Lilliputia" during times when parliamentary reporting was banned. Each month every conceivable subject was covered plus regular features; parliamentary reports, foreign and domestic news, monthly historical chronicle (a monthly diary of current events), obituaries, marriages, appointments, bills of mortality (all excellent references for the genealogist with many names), reports and reviews of law cases, executions, new publications.  Of particular interest was the monthly section titled London Gazette which was important extracts from the official government newspaper often consisting of military and naval dispatches from commanders in the field.  Early copies were bound as 12 months, later as the magazine grew in size they were bound as 6 monthly sections.  Most months had a variety of engraved plates bound in. History as it happened written by people who were there, a fascinating read or a valuable reference work for the historian.

-- October 1, 1790 Literary Magazine & British Review which is 240 pages long. 8" x 5". Some of the subjects are the stock prices, poetry, Abolition of the Slave Trade, Life of G. Buchanan, General Principals of Political Economy and much, much more. William Wilberforce's famous abolition speech, delivered in the House of Commons on Tuesday, May 12, 1789 is the backdrop to the article about the abolition of the slave trade. In the article on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, the writer states, "At a time when Parliament are agitating the question of the slave trade, it is natural, as well as proper, to enquire into its nature and effect. The project for its destruction reflects an honour on the English, and affords a fresh proof to the world of humanity which has been deemed their characteristic. That a scheme like this should have met with impediments, might have been readily expected, as it concerns a commerce-sanctioned by long usage and supported by strong and powerful interest. I think, however, I can foretell, without prophetic inspiration, that opposition will prove fruitless, and will serve to only complete the triumph..."

-- Rare book entitled "An Abstract of the Evidence Delivered Before a Select Committee of the House of Commons in the Years 1790 and 1791, on the Part of the Petitioners for the Abolition of the Slave Trade".  The title on the front cover reads: "Evidence on the Slave Trade".  This book was published by the American Reform Tract and Book Society (1855) and has 117 pages. The book is about the evils of slavery and of the slave trade.  There are a list of witnesses who give accounts of the capture of people in Africa and the ensuing enslavement.  The book makes a case against slavery.  It is truly a collector's item.

-- Rare engraving of William Pitt published by the London Printing and Publishing Company (1840). Pitt was quite simply one of the most extraordinary politicians in history. For anyone to become Prime Minister at the age of 24 is amazing in itself, but to then go on to become one of the most dominant and long serving of British history puts him in a class of his own. Most disappointing was that his enfeebled physical and political state in his final years meant that he did not ram home his earlier pioneering efforts to abolish the slave trade, something which was secured only the year after his death. Pitt’s great friend William Wilberforce, led the campaign to abolish the slave trade (1833) and then to abolish slavery (1834) in the British Empire as well.

-- Rare edition of book (1787) written by ex-slave trader, John Newton (Rector of St. Mary, Woolnoth, London) -- Letters and Sermons With a Review of Ecclesiastical History and Hymns. This is Volume III of six volumes. Gives an interior view of Newton's thoughts and ideals on various spiritual topics. This collection also has several volumes of the 1824 edition of the series.
-- John Newton's book (very rare 1795 edition, First Edition was 1764) "An Authentic Narrative of some remarkable and interesting particulars in the Life of John Newton." Communicated in a Series of Letters to the Rev. Mr. Haweis, Rector of Aldwinckle, Northamptonshire by Newton, John (1725-1807). Printed in Philadelphia by William Young. The book contains fourteen letters, which covers many topics -- "Voyage to Madeira, Entry on Board a Guineaman, Voyage to Africa,  Voyage from Cape Lopez to England, Danger in the Voyage from Cape Lopez, Voyage to Antigua, Last Voyage to Africa, etc.. Newton was a minister in the Church of England and is best remembered as having written the hymn Amazing Grace. 103 pp.; old leather binding in good+ condition. Contents with foxing, yellowing but still very readable; 2 worm holes at top page edge, not affecting text.

-- Somewhat rare complete set of "The Works of John Newton: The Late Rector of St. Mary Woolnoth and St. Mary Woolchurch Haw, London, With Memoirs of the Author and General Remarks on His Life, Connections, and Character." By the Rev. Richard Cecil, M.A. (Third Edition in Six Volumes). London, MCDCCCXXIV (1824). In the sixth volume there is a very rare 25-page section entitled, "Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade." Condition:  The body and blocks of all the volumes are holding fine.  There is foxing throughout due to age. Rubbing to spine, and splitting of outer cloth and around spine, chipping, etc. Most of the pages are white and crisp, simply hurting a bit cosmetically.  All binding holding fine. 

-- Scarce 1855 edition of "The Life of John Newton" Written for Young Children, no author, published by Carlton & Phillips for the Sunday School Union, NY. 92 pages, with 4 pages of advertisements for publications by the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Corners worn, wear to covers, piece torn out of flyleaf. Slight give to binding. Overall in good shape.
: I. A dream and the dreamer II. The ship of war III. Fresh troubles IV. Deliverance V. Dangers and preservations VI. Conviction VII. Happier prospects of life VIII. The sea-captain IX. Another change in life X. The sailor becomes a minister. 
Hymns and Poems
: a. The kite   b. A thought on the seashore   c. Written at Cowslip   d. A friend   e. The two debtors   f. The Bible   g. Trust in Christ   h. Saturday Evening

-- Extremely hard-to-find 1814 edition of "Letters To A Wife" by John Newton.  Includes letters sent to his wife from 1750 through 1785.  Many of these letters were sent from Africa.  John Newton was a hymn writer who composed the lyrics of "Amazing Grace."  Published by Whitehall in Philadelphia.  There is an appendix in the book about his wife's illness.  Bound into the back of the book in a different type face is a separate thirty-one page publication entitled "A Monument To The Praise of the Lord's Goodness, And to the Memory of Dear Eliza Cunningham.

-- The Minor Poems of the Inner Temple, by William Cowper. Published, 1818 in London for John Sharpe -- 7" x 4", 108 pages. This book includes one of his more famous poems, "The Negro's Complaint", along with an engraved image. This fine volume also includes, "Sonnet to William Wilberforce, Esq.", "To the Rev. Mr. Newton", and "Pity For Poor Africans." Nice gilt tooled full calf leather bound copy with many engraved plates. William Cowper (pronounced Cooper) (November 26, 1731 – April 25, 1800)  was an English poet and hymnodist. One of the most popular poets of his time, Cowper changed the direction of 18th century nature poetry by writing of everyday life and scenes of the English countryside. He suffered from periods of severe depression, and although he found refuge in a fervent evangelical Christianity, the source of his much-loved hymns, he often experienced doubt and fears that he was doomed to eternal damnation. However, his religious motivations and association with John Newton (who wrote the hymn "Amazing Grace") led to much of the poetry for which he is best remembered in the popular mind.

-- Rare 1835 engraving of abolitionists William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson (8.5 x 5.5) -- together in one etching, just one year after the Slave Trade had been officially abolished in England.

-- Very scarce wall plaque measuring 5 ¾ " X 8 ¾ ". The front reads:- William Wilberforce 1759 – 1833 M P For Kingston Upon Hull and Yorkshire, Emancipator. Abolition of Slavery Act 1833. The back of the plaque has the Eastgate Pottery Withernsea stamp. Made in England. We contacted Eastgate Potteries in Withernsea, UK for more information. The Director, John D. Worsdale responded with this note, "This was one of a limited number of plaques manufactured in the 1970's, as a special commission for William Wilberforce House. There were only 50 plaques made. I have never seen one for sale, therefore I cannot give you an estimate on value...It is extremely rare."

-- Thomas Clarkson. A Portraiture of Quakerism. Taken From a View of the Education and Discipline, Social Manners, Civil and Political Economy, Religious Principles, and Character of the Society of Friends. First Edition. New York: Samuel Stansbury, 1806. 3 volumes, 12 mo, 363, 382, and 372 pages. Edge worn, leather covers, foxed and browned paper, owner names handwritten in volume I (Ann Allen, Francis R. Taylor), a decorative gilt stamp of Ann H. Allen’s name is in the other two volumes. Thomas Clarkson (28 March 1760 –  26 September 1846), abolitionist, was born at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, and became a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. As an Anglican, Clarkson’s “Portraiture” looks at peculiar Quaker practices and reverse-engineers them to show how they help Quaker stay in that Christian zone.
 -- While working for the abolition of slavery, the author encountered many Quakers and was impressed by their moral history. Thomas Clarkson wrote, “I felt also a great desire...to do them justice; for ignorance and prejudice had invented many expressions concerning them, to the detriment of their character, when their conduct never gave me reason to suppose, during all my intercourse with them to be true.” These three volumes form a sympathetic history of the Quakers written by a non-Quaker, with a focus on their moral character, discipline, beliefs, peculiar customs, and moral education."

   LAST PUBLICLY SPOKEN WORDS OF THOMAS CLARKSON: (from The Leisure Hour journal, March, 1865) Slavery everywhere was attacked after it had fallen in the British dominions. Joseph Sturge, from the beginning of the new endeavors to the end of his life, was one of the main elements of strength and support. Readers will remember the celebrated conference held at the Freemason's Hall, June 1840, when and where were gathered between 500 and 600 delegates, from all parts of the world, we may say, besides all that was great and good in every philanthropic undertaking. It was a noble assembly. There Thomas Clarkson appeared for the last time in public. We give our readers a condensed account of the scene from the pen of the painter Haydon, who was present as an artist to find materials for one of the greatest pictures.
   "In a few minutes," he says, "an unaffected man got up and informed the meeting that Thomas Clarkson would attend shortly : he begged no tumultuous applause might greet his entrance, as his infirmities were great, and he was too nervous to bear any such expressions for feelings." This was Joseph Sturge. In a few minutes the aged Clarkson came in, gray and bent, leaning on Joseph Sturge for support, and approached with feeble and tottering steps, the middle of the convention. Immediately behind him were his daughter-in-law, the widow of his son, and his little grandson. The old man first appealed to the meeting for a few moments of silent prayer; and says Haydon, "for a minute there was the most intense silence I have ever felt." He spoke a few feeble words : every word was uttered from his heart.
   After urging the members to persevere to the last, til slavery was extinct, lifting his arm and pointing to heaven, his face quivering in emotion, he ended by saying, "May the Supreme Ruler of all human events, at whose disposal are not only the hearts, but the intellects of men -- may He, in His abundant mercy, guide your counsels and give His blessing upon your labours." There was a moment's pause; and then, without an interchange of thoughts or look, the whole of the vast meeting, men and women, said in a tone of subdued and deep feeling, "Amen and amen!"
-- Thomas Clarkson's 1808 First Edition of, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of The Abolition of the African Slave trade by the British Parliament. -- Clarkson starts out by saying, "No subject more pleasing that that of the removal of evils -- Evils have existed almost from the beginning of the world -- but there is a power in our nature to counteract them -- this power increased by Christianity -- of the evils removed by Christianity one of the greatest is the Slave Trade -- The joy we ought to feel on its abolition from a contemplation of the nature of it -- and of the extent of it -- and of the difficulty of subduing it -- Usefulness also of the contemplation of this subject."

-- First Edition (1854) "Life Of Thomas Clarkson" by James Elmes. Thomas Clarkson (1760 – 1846), abolitionist, was born at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, and became a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. This book details his contributions toward the abolition of the Slave-Trade and Slavery. Published by Blackader & Co., London. Hardbound in tan waxed cloth. It is an important piece of social history pertaining to this turbulent period in both British and American History. Author, James Elmes (1782 – 1862) was an English architect, civil engineer, and writer on the arts, he was born in London.

-- Thomas Clarkson's book, "The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament" -- 1836 edition written under the supervision of New York University, 276 pages. Published by John S. Taylor, corner of Park-Row and Nassau-Street, Opposite the City Hall. This is the first of a 3  volume set. "The Cabinet of Freedom" under the supervision of  the Hon. William Ray Rev. Prof. Bush of the University of New York, and Gerrit Smith, Esq. There is an engraving of a slave in chains and above the picture are the words "Am I Not a Man and a Brother?" The size is 7 1/2"  X  5".  The book talks about how the slaves were treated on board the slave ships.

-- James Montgomery-- The Abolition of the Slave Trade: A Poem in Four Parts. Very hard to find. 1814, folio size, 10" x 12.5", with many engravings. London: Printed by T. Bensley. The poem "The West Indies," was written to accompany a series of pictures published as a memorial of the abolition of the slave-trade. In this genial labour, to which the poet says he gave his whole mind, as affording him an opportunity of exposing the iniquities of slavery and the slave-trade.
Importance: In 1807 a commission was delivered from the printer Bowyer to write a poem on the abolition of the slave trade, to be published along with other poems on the subject in a handsome illustrated volume. The subject was well adapted to Montgomery's powers, appealing at once to the philanthropic enthusiasm in which his strength lay, and to his own touching associations with the West Indies. Its poem entitled 'The West Indies' accordingly appeared in Bowyer's illustrated publication in 1809. Although rather rhetoric than poetry, is in general well conceived and well expressed, and skilful as well as sincere in its appeals to public sentiment. On its first appearance in Bowyer's volume it proved a failure, but when published separately (London, 1810, 12mo) it obtained great popularity.
James Montgomery:
  Born November 4, 1771, in Ayrshire, Scotland, James Montgomery was brought up and educated by Moravians near Leeds after his parents left for America, never to return. He became an editorial assistant to the Sheffield Register in 1792. Acquiring the newspaper himself, he renamed it the Isis and in it advocated reformist causes at an unpopular time, during the French Revolution, and went to jail for his trouble twice in 1795-96. He returned to his journalism then and published a book of poems about his imprisonment. This led to an avocation in poetry and letters. He brought out volumes of poems and hymns from 1797 until the mid-19th-century. After 25 years in the news business, Montgomery retired from journalism and lived on a Literary Fund pension until his death on April 30, 1854. Throughout his life he actively worked for humanitarian causes and gained the respect and affection of his fellow poets.
-- An intriguing hand written letter (dated March 12, 1792) from Banff, Scotland, written by George Robinson, sent to Cam Haliburton, Esq. Edinburgh. In the letter Robinson states there is a petition to abolish the slave trade in Scotland......"Sir: I trust that your sentiments will hopefully accord with mine on the subject of the African slave trade. I have taken the liberty to write you this to inform you that I had the honor to transmit to my worthy friend Mr. Alex Brodie, Member for this district of Burroughs, a petition by appointment from the Magistrates of Council of this Burgh, petitions for the xxxxxxxxxxxx inhabitants of this place xxxxxxxxx  xxxxxxxxx to Mr. Brodie, a petition from Free Persons of this County and one from the Presbyterian xxxxxxxxxxxxxx were sent to Sir James xxxxxxxx, Member for this County for abolishing the Slave Trade. I mention this in case you should think it proper to inscribe it in any of your Edinburgh papers. I am very so hopefully, Sir. Your most obedient servant, George Robinson" (There were some key words that are illegible, or were part of the paper that had been torn when opened in 1792.)
   -- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LETTER: William Dickson, a former secretary to the Governor of Barbados (Hon. Edward Hay) and the author of 'Letters on Slavery' (1789), was engaged by the London Anti-Slavery Society to gain support for the abolition movement in Scotland. William Dickson has a diary of a visit to Scotland from January 5th - March 19th, 1792 on behalf of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. It is probable that the writer of this letter had personal contact with William Dickson, who originally came from Moffat, Scotland. 
   Let's get a sense of Dickson's feelings about the Slave Trade -- In an 1787 letter to Thomas Clarkson, Dickson states, "Of the Africans, above one fourth perished on the voyage to the West Indies, and four and a half percent more died on average in the fortnight intervening between the days of entry and sale. To close this awful triumph of the King of terrors, about two in five of all whom the planters bought were lost in seasoning within the first three years and before they could be said to have yielded any productive labour. Now if seven years be the average labouring period of bought slaves, a lot of five should yield thirty five years of labour; and two of them having died, each of the other three must yield nearly twelve years or with the three years of seasoning, nearly fifteen years. But to look for fifteen years of even blank existence, without labour, from each of the survivors of a worse than pestilential mortality, heartless and enfeebled as they must generally be, would be madly romantic."        One scholar states that Dickson "one of the most useful and intelligent observers on the institution of slavery in Barbadoes .. he makes many shrewd sociological assessments of the working of the slave system ... an important book for the study of Barbadoes social history." Dickson was an enlightened man of his day, who argued for an end to the slave trade and gradual, but not immediate, emancipation.

-- An extremely rare 1794 edition of "The Journal of John Woolman", printed in Dublin. It is the first edition printed after his death. 464 pages, leather-bound. Woolman is said to be the very first abolitionist in America.
BACKGROUND: John Woolman (October 19, 1720 – October 7, 1772) was an itinerant Quaker preacher, traveling throughout the American colonies, advocating against conscription, military taxation, and particularly slavery. John Woolman came from a family of Friends (Quakers). His grandfather, also named John Woolman, was one of the early settlers of New Jersey. His father Samuel Woolman was a farmer. Their estate was between Burlington and Mount Holly Township in that state. At age 23 his employer asked him to write a bill of sale for a slave. He told his employer that he thought that slave keeping was inconsistent with the Christian religion. Many Friends believed that slavery was bad — even a sin — but there was not a universal condemnation of it among Friends. Some Friends bought slaves from other people in order to treat them humanely and educate them. Other Friends seemed to have no conviction against slavery whatsoever. Woolman took up a concern to minister to Friends and others in remote places. He went on his first ministry trip in 1746 with Isaac Andrews. They went about 1,500 miles round-trip in three months, going as far south as North Carolina. He preached on many topics, including slavery during this and other such trips. In 1754 Woolman wrote Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes. He refused to draw up wills transferring slaves. Working on a nonconfrontational, personal level, he individually convinced many Quaker slaveholders to free their slaves. He attempted personally to avoid using the products of slavery; for example, he wore undyed clothing because slaves were used in the making of dyes. Whenever he received hospitality from a slaveholder, he insisted on paying the slaves for their work in attending him. Woolman worked within the Friends traditions of seeking the guidance of the Spirit of Christ and patiently waiting to achieve unity in the Spirit. He went from one Friends meeting to another and expressed his concern about slaveholding. One by one the various meetings began to see the evils of slavery and wrote minutes condemning it. In his lifetime, Woolman did not succeed in eradicating slavery even within the Society of Friends in the United States; however, his personal efforts changed Quaker viewpoints. In 1790 the Society of Friends petitioned the United States Congress for the abolition of slavery. The fair treatment of people of all races is now part of the Friends Testimony of Equality. The Journal of John Woolman is considered to be an important spiritual document.

-- Extracts from The Minutes of the Yearly Meeting Of Friends (Quakers) held in Philadelphia 1856. Philadelphia: T. Ellwood Chapman No. 1 South Fifth Street, 1856. 24 pages with front and back cover. Includes following Meetings: Philadelphia; Abington; Bucks; Concord; Caln; Western; Southern; Burlington; Haddonfield; Salem; Fishing Creek. T. Ellwood Chapman was an important publisher of Quaker and Anti-Slavery tracts in the 1850s and 1860s.

-- "William Lloyd Garrison: The Story of His Life", 1st Edition books (I&II), 1885, by his children.

--  Autographed letter (8” x 9 ¾”) signed, front and back, March 7, 1870, from Wendell Phillips to Rev. Francis Hodgson. “…Hearing that our change of my lecture to the Last Acts, has been objected to and some fault found with yourself…I desire to say…that the fault, if any, belongs entirely to me….”
Background: Wendell Phillips
(1811-1884) was a prominent abolitionist. A wealthy graduate of Harvard Law School, Phillips sacrificed social status and a prospective political career in order to join the antislavery movement. His reputation as an inspirational orator was established with his address at an abolitionist meeting in 1837 to protest the murder of Elijah Lovejoy. He became an associate of William Lloyd Garrison and lectured widely at meetings of the American Anti-Slavery Society, serving as its president from 1865 to 1870. He also advocated prohibition, woman suffrage, prison reform, regulation of corporations, and labour reform.
 8. Steel/wood engravings, etchings, handwritten/signed letters, books, and/or CDVs (many with facsimile or genuine signatures) of anti-slavery abolitionists, like John Jay, Henry Thornton (relative of William Wilberforce), Isaac Hopper (founded the Underground Railroad), Charles Dickens, John Greenleaf Whittier, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Daniel Webster, Ben Franklin, William Wadsworth Longfellow, William Henry Seward, William Wilberforce, Granville Sharp, Isaac Hopper, Thomas Clarkson, Salmon P. Chase, Henry Wilson, Alphonse de Lamartine, Horace Greeley, John Andrews, Schuyler Colfax, Edwin Stanton, Philip Sheridan, William T. Sherman, Ulysses Grant, Cassius Clay, Hannah Moore, Owen Lovejoy, Gerrit Smith, Joshua Giddings, John Quincy Adams, Benjamin Lundy, Oliver Howard, William Buckingham, James Montgomery, David G. Farragut, Thaddeus Stevens, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Zachary Macauley, Joseph Sturge, Wendell Phillips, Harriet Beecher Stowe, William Cowper, Charles Fox, William Cullen Bryant, Fanny (Frances) Kemble, William Forster, William Pitt, Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, William Henry Brisbane, Edmund Quincy, Henry Ward Beecher, Martin Delany, Charles Sumner, Elihu Burritt, Henry Wilson, Lord Brougham, James Russell Lowell, William Smith and many others...

 9. "The Internal Administration of The Imperial Guard 1945 E.C."280 pages. This very rare book is hand stamped by the Imperial Guard and contains the rules, regulations, and forms of the Imperial Guard of His Majesty Haile Selassie I. This book contains a nice photo of Haile Selassie I, many fold out forms and lists showing the many regulations of the Imperial Guard. Intriguing.
-- World Tour Book of His Majesty Haile Selassie's visit to America in 1954 (mint condition), published by Ethiopian Government.

 10. League of Nations: Committee Reports on the Question of Slavery. 18 different reports dating from 1923-1930 -- 2 are in French, the rest in English that deal with the question of slavery, including slavery conventions. The reports are 8" x 14' tall. There is one report: 'Communication with the Government of Liberia' (1930) that is a bound booklet of 128 pp. The rest of the booklets are 1pp-20pp each. Includes: Communication with the Government of Sudan, Annual Reports, Communication with the Government of Liberia.


 11. Handwritten letter signed by author of Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers, Alexandre Dumas, along with a First Edition set of his major works. Alexandre Dumas was born in Villes-Cotterêts.
BACKGROUND: His grandfather was a French nobleman, who had settled in Santo Domingo (now part of Haiti); his paternal grandmother, Marie-Cessette, was an Afro-Caribbean, who had been a black slave in the French colony (now part of Haiti). Dumas did not generally define himself as a black man and there is not much evidence that he encountered overt racism during his life. However, his works were popular among the 19th-century African-Americans, partly because in The Count of Monte-Cristo, the falsely imprisoned Edmond Dantès, may be read as a parable of emancipation. In a shorter work, Georges (1843, George), Dumas examined the question of race and colonialism. The main character, a half-French mulatto, leaves Mauritius to be educated in France, and returns to avenge himself for the affronts he had suffered as a boy --
-- December 15th, 1870 issue of New York Herald, "Death of Alexandre Dumas".



-- First Day Cover French Stamp about Victor Schoelcher -- Victor (1804-1893) was a French humanitarian, statesman and writer who devoted his life and fortune to the abolition of slavery in the French colonies. Victor was born in Paris in 1804. He was the son of a wealthy porcelain manufacturer, and after a short period of secondary education, he took over his father’s factory in Paris. However, it soon became clear that his interests lay elsewhere. He was a humanitarian thinker and chose music, reading, writing and politics over business and industry. In 1829-1831 Schoelcher was sent to the Americas in search of new customers for the business. On his journey in Mexico, Cuba and the southern United States, he discovered the harsh realities of slavery and began his career as an abolitionist writer. His writings centered around the social, economic and political advantages that could be gained from the abolition of slavery, drawn from a comparative analysis of the results of emancipation in the British colonies (1834-1838). Schoelcher believed that the production of sugar should continue in the colonies with the construction of large factories in replacement of slave labor. When the Revolution of 1848 broke out in France, Schoelcher returned with haste to take up appointment as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. He set up and presided over a commission for the abolition of slavery. Under his direction the commission prepared a decree abolishing slavery in all French territories, which the provisional government adopted on 27 April 1848. As a result, more than 260.000 people in the Americas, Africa and the Indian Ocean gained their freedom. In 1851, Schoelcher opposed the coup d’état of Louis Napoleon and was forced into exile in England and Belgium until Napoleon’s fall in 1870. On his return, Schoelcher regained his place in the National Assembly for Martinique and Guadalupe, sitting on the extreme left. In 1875 he was elected senator for life. Victor Schoelcher died in 1893. His ashes were transferred to the Pantheon in Paris in 1949.

 12. Abridgement of the Debates of Congress from 1789 to 1856 from Gales and Seaton's Annals of Congress; from Their Register of Debates; and from the Official Reported Debates. By John C. Rives - Vol XII covers the debates of the 22nd Congress, 1832-1836. New York: D. Appleton, 1860. Assumed First. There are several entries on slavery – many, many pages on the slavery issues in DC. Also anti-slavery incendiary publications, slavery in Arkansas, slavery memorials, abolition of slavery, etc.. 8vo - over 7¾" - 9¾" tall. Full-Leather.
--  The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States; with an appendix, containing important state papers and public documents, and all the laws of a public nature; with a copious index. Volume II, comprising (with volume 1) the period from March 3, 1789, to March 3, 1791, inclusive. Compiled from authentic materials, by Joseph Gales, Senior. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1834. Volume 2 only which covers February 18, 1790 to March 3, 1791. Also includes the 188 page appendix w/ "reports and other documents". In late 18th/ early 19th century period full leather binding.
-- Supreme Court Reports (1801 - 1882) -- a collection of 98 books of US Supreme Court Reports. They were published in 1903 by the Banks Law Publishing Company. They cover Supreme Court case law from 1801 to 1882. Imagine what has been stated about the Missouri Compromise, the Dred Scott Decision and others relating to the Black experience in America. Important tool in the hands of researchers. Very important and scarce volumes -- that's 98 volumes!


Congressional Globe, 1859

-- An extremely rare bound historical account of the Congress (468 pages), titled APPENDIX TO THE CONGRESSIONAL GLOBE, dated 1859 with the first part being the speech given by Pres. James Buchanan to the Joint Session of the Congress. Excellent historical account of the actual word for word debates that went on just prior to the outbreak of the Civil War., the slavery question, the expansion of slavery into the Territories, the Admission of Kansas to the Union is hotly debated by both slave-holding and free-state supporters. This included the debate concerning the FAMOUS BOOK BY HELPER, called at this time, THE BLACK BIBLE, this book was banned in the south. The southern Congressmen are up in arms over the content of this book depicting the south as barbarians with their slaves, etc.  News of the re-election of Stephen A. Douglas, the Homestead Bill, debates over the marriage of Mormons to many wives, Details of the famous TEXAS REGIMENT, and their action against the frontier Indians.  Much on slavery is debated. The DRED SCOTT DECISION (1857 US Supreme Court, 19 U.S. 393, 407, 15 L.ED. 691, decision said, "No white man was bound to respect the rights of an African".) is debated in detail. Details of ABRAHAM LINCOLN are brought forth by the Senator from Illinois and the newly established Republican Party. Each page printed in three columns for maximum information; foxed throughout. 

-- Congressional Globe 1858 debates proceeding US congress. The Congressional Globe: Containing the Debates and Proceedings of the Second Session of the Thirty-Fifth Congress: Also, of the Special Session of the Senate. by John C. Rives. Washington: John C. Rives, 1859. Mid-19th century period 1/2 leather binding. Smooth spine in five gilt-ruled compartments w/ gilt title and date. Blue marbled paper covered boards w/ leather board corners. Binding tight and sound. 1000s of pages of information on the proceedings of Congress. Index for both the US Senate and the US House of Representatives. This covers Dec. 10, 1858 through Feb. 14, 1859. Includes much on the Native Americans and the Slavery Trade bill. VG+ near fine condition, very little wear. Measures 9" x 12." 1040 pp.
-- 1862 Congressional Globe, 960 pages. Containing the debates and proceedings of the Second Session of the Thirty-seventh Congress. Edited by John C. Rives and published at the Congressional Globe Office, Washington, 1862.  very slight occasional foxing, otherwise in remarkably good condition.. Includes many debates on military support, slavery, secession, and other issues relevant to the Civil War. Scarce item.

-- 1854 Congressional Report -- African Slave Trade -- Brazil. 33d Congress, 1st Session - Senate - Ex Doc. No. 47.  14 pages. Titled "Message From The President of the United States, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate, the correspondence between Mr. Schenck, United States Minister to Brazil, and the Secretary of State, in relation to the African slave trade.

-- Abraham Lincoln signed 25 copies of the Emancipation Proclamation. In this collection are two copies of the Emancipation Proclamation directly from one of the originals signed by Lincoln in 1863.

BACKGROUND: The Lincoln-Douglas Debates were a series of debates that took place during the 1858 presidential campaign in seven locations across Illinois. Even though Douglas won the election, these debates had launched Lincoln into the national spotlight. These debates are considered a major contributor to the separating of the South from the Union and ultimately leading to the Civil War.

-- "The Emancipation", January 24, 1863 Harper's Weekly. Famous double page engraving by Thomas Nast, the subject of which is Emancipation. Measures 22" x 15 1/2". Condition is very good.

-- 1860 Congressional Report Civil War, 835 pages. A lot of discussion about slavery-related issues.

-- Rare Senate report (March 8, 1860) stating that 7 families are asking for compensation for slaves taken and carried away by the British during the War of 1812.
-- House of Representative Resolution (February 26, 1866) about the "Protection of Emancipated Slaves and Freedmen."

-- Front Cover Portraits of Dred Scott, His Wife, Harriet and Children Eliza & Lizzie!. Multi-Column Details of His Life, Family and The Decision of The Supreme Court! An Original and Complete Issue of LESLIE'S WEEKLY dated  June 27, 1857. Fine Illustrations with Reports Including: A Front Cover Series of Portraits with Indepth Report: "VISIT TO DRED SCOTT---HIS FAMILY--INCIDENTS OF HIS LIFE---DECISION OF THE SUPREME COURT---ELIZA AND LIZZIE, CHILDREN OF DRED SCOTT, HIS WIFE, HARRIET" Fine Descriptive Report!
-- The Eastern Argus, a very rare historical newspaper, printed in Portland, Maine on September 12, 1858 announcing: "The Death of Dred Scott."
BACKGROUND: Dred Scott (1799 - Sept. 17, 1858), was a slave in the USA who sued unsuccessfully for his freedom in the famous Dred Scott v. Sanford case of 1857. His case was based on the fact that he and his wife Harriet were slaves, but had lived in states and territories where slavery was illegal, including Illinois and Minnesota (which was then part of the Wisconsin Territory). The United States Supreme Court ruled seven to two against Scott, finding that neither he, nor any person of African ancestry, could claim citizenship in the United States, and that therefore Scott could not bring suit in federal court under diversity of citizenship rules. Moreover, Scott's temporary residence outside Missouri did not effect his emancipation under the Missouri  Compromise, since reaching that result would deprive Scott's owner of his property.

Dred Scott, his wife
(Harriet) and two daughters
(Eliza and Lizzie).

CHIEF JUSTICE TANEY:    Taney wrote for the majority. In the first section of his opinion, he held that the case must be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction. Scott, being a Negro, could be a citizen of a state–that was a matter of state law –- but he could not be a citizen of the United States, within the meaning of the Constitution, so as to be able to bring a case in federal court. In the course of explaining why members of the black race could not be citizens, Taney argued that representatives of the slaveholding states would never have consented to a Constitution that had the potential to confer citizenship on Negroes. Imagine, he wrote, the consequences:

“It cannot be believed that the large slaveholding States regarded them as included in the word citizens, or would have consented to a Constitution which might compel them to receive them in that character from another State. For if they were so received, and entitled to the privileges and immunities of citizens, it would exempt them from the operation of the special laws and from the police regulations which they considered to be necessary for their own safety. It would give to persons of the negro race, who were recognized as citizens in any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, singly or in companies, without pass or passport, and without obstruction, to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased at every hour of the day or night without molestation, unless they committed some violation of law for which a white man would be punished; and it would give them the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went. And all of this would be done in the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and slaves, and inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and endangering the peace and safety of the State.”

It is impossible, it would seem, to believe that the great men of the slaveholding States, who took so large a share in framing the Constitution of the United States and exercised so much influence in procuring its adoption, could have been so forgetful or regardless of their own safety and the safety of those who trusted and confided in them.   It is noteworthy that Taney placed the right to “keep and carry arms wherever they went,” along with the rights of free speech and public assembly, as unquestionable privileges of citizenship.

-- Reports of the Committee on the Conduct of the War: "Fort Pillow Massacre" and also a report titled "Returned Prisoners", no date of publication, but probably May, 1864 just after the reports were made public.  Graphic Eyewitness testimony and question and answer sessions. Four prints of prisoners. In April 1864, the Union garrison at Fort Pillow, a Confederate-built earthen fortification and a Union-built inner redoubt, was overlooking the Mississippi River about forty river miles above Memphis, under the command of Maj. Lionel F. Booth. Confederate Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked the fort on April 12 with a cavalry division of approximately 2,500 men. Approximately 300 African American troops were massacred here. Up to that time comparatively few of our men had been killed; but immediately upon occupying the place the rebels commenced an indiscriminate butchery of the whites and blacks, including the wounded. Both white and black were bayoneted, shot, or sabred; even dead bodies were horribly mutilated, and children of seven and eight years, and several negro women killed in cold blood. Soldiers unable to speak from wounds were shot dead, and their bodies rolled down the banks into the river. The dead and wounded negroes were piled in heaps and burned, and several citizens, who had joined our forces for protection, were killed or wounded. Out of the garrison of six hundred only two hundred remained alive. Three hundred of those massacred were negroes; five were buried alive. Casualties were high and only sixty-two of the U.S. Colored Troops survived the fight. Many accused the Confederates of perpetrating a massacre of the black troops, and that controversy continues today. The Confederates evacuated Fort Pillow that evening so they gained little from the attack except to temporarily disrupt Union operations. The Fort Pillow Massacre became a Union rallying cry and cemented resolve to see the war through to its conclusion. The massacre at Fort Pillow had raised the question in every mind; does the United States mean to allow its soldiers to be butchered in cold blood?

-- Remarkably rare Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia: Begun and Held in the City of Richmond, 1859-1860 (1500 pages!!!). James E. Goode, Senate Printer. This is an enormous volume that includes hundreds of documents including Governor Reports and other state reports, featuring reports from the Generals dealing with the John Brown/Harper’s Ferry situation, information on slavery and many other important documents. Here are some examples:
  a. "Communication from the Governor of this State in Respect to His Action on the Harpers Ferry Outrage" (66 pages)
   b. "Communication from the Governor asking Relief For Edward McCabe who was Wounded at Harpers Ferry"  (2 pages)
   c. "Communication from the Adjunct General Relative to Transportation of Troops to Charlestown and Harpers Ferry" (2 pages)
   d. "Communication from the Governor of the State Enclosing the Report of General Taliaferro. Commander at Harpers Ferry (4 pages)
   e. "Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Audit and Pay the Expenses Incurred by the Late Invasion at Harpers Ferry (54 pages)
   f. "Communication from the Governor of Virginia Enclosing Letters from the Gov of Ohio relative to Requisitions for Fugitives From Justice (22 pages)
   g. "Hostile Legislation of the North" This is a 64-page report detailing the legislation hostile to Slavery emanating from the Northern States: Maine, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, Indiana, Ohio, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota. This Special Report even shows the legislative response of the Northern States toward the Dred Scott decision, which occurred in 1857 at the Old Court House, St. Louis, MO.
   h. This Journal also includes an 11-page report with "Extracts from the Index of Colonial Records" from 1585 to 1782. Here are some examples: 1585 (Proposals to Inhabit Porte Ferdinand, Discovery from James Forte into the Main), 1607 (State of the Virginia Plantation), 1609 (100 men Planted at the Falls of James River, Memo Relating to the Colony of Virginia), 1610 (250 Persons go out as Planters, Descriptive Letter), 1613 (Suit in Chancery Instituted by Virginia Company to Compel Adventurers to Pay Up), 1705 (1800 Negroes Imported This Year. Sold at 54 Pounds a Pair), 1730 (Proclamation Against Unlawful Meetings of Slaves), 1731 (An Opinion Asked Whether Slaves Baptized into the Christian Church can Continue in Slavery), 1741 (List of Naval Officers Enlisted for the Invasion of Canada), 1749 (Notice of the Trade to Africa), 1782 (Dunmore's Plan to Subdue the Colonies by Means of Indians and negroes. Cruden's Plan for Arming 10,000 Slaves Handed in by Lord Dunmore)...

-- Incredibly rare JOURNAL OF THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BEING THE FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS, BEGUN AND HELD AT THE CITY OF WASHINGTON, DECEMBER 7, 1863, in the Eighty-Eighth Year of the Independence of the United States, 1042 pages (pictured to the right), Washington: Government Printing Office, 1863. This Senate Journal, from the Third Session of the 38th Congress, lasted from December 7, 1863 to July 4, 1864, a crucial time in our nation’s history. Each 19th-century volume of the Journal of the United States Senate provides a record of the Senate’s activities for a particular session of Congress. Unlike the Congressional Globe (later the Congressional Record), that record does not include the words spoken on the floor of the Senate, but rather all the procedural occurrences, and in particular the introduction of proposed legislation and resolutions, along with the decisions and votes of the senators on these items. However, each volume does open with the President’s Annual Message to Congress (now called the State of the Union address), with other important written documents that he may submit to Congress.


   In the case of Abraham Lincoln’s annual message, which in this volume occupies pages 8-18, the message is followed immediately by the most famous and significant document that Lincoln ever signed: the Emancipation Proclamation, dated December 8, 1863, the same date as that of his annual message. The annual message naturally deals with the ongoing Civil War, as well as with foreign affairs, Indian matters, the economy, and Lincoln’s plans for eventual reconstruction of the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation (pp. 18-20) lacks an elegant style, being fundamentally a war measure, justified by the exigencies of the conflict and applicable by its terms only to those currently held in slavery beyond the Union’s power of control. Nevertheless, every prescient statesman saw that there would be no turning back, and that slavery was doomed throughout the United States, as soon enshrined constitutionally by the Thirteenth Amendment (probably the least cited, because most effective, of all the amendments to our constitution). The Emancipation Proclamation of course received widespread attention upon its official appearance, which followed the publication of a preliminary version in August 1863, but this volume marks its official publication within a Senate Journal.


   In addition, the pages of this volume are chock-full of interesting Civil War items, though they are often buried in the procedural record. For example, on page 233 we find Lincoln’s message to the Senate submitting the decision from the Interior Department fixing the point in Iowa, across the river from Omaha, at which the Union Pacific Railroad would start its construction. Page 362 deals with amendments to a bill to accept only three-year enlistments into the Union Army, and to provide that as of January 1, 1864, “all persons of color who have been or may be mustered into the service of the United States shall receive the same uniform, clothing, arms . . . as other soldiers of the regular or volunteer forces.” The creation and maintenance of the Internal Revenue Service, then a new concept for raising money through taxation, occupies many pages of the record, just as it would today. The actual record ends on page 768, followed by a mammoth Index of the Bills and Joint Resolutions of the Senate and House of Representatives during the session of Congress, and an even longer 175 pages!) index, which makes it easy to look up any particular topic, with, for example, two dozen references to the proposed constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, or, much more quietly, a note of the memorial (i.e., petition) requesting equality of pay for his soldiers from Thomas Wentworth Higginson, the colonel of the 1st regiment of South Carolina volunteers, the first black regiment to fight in the Civil War (see the movie “Glory” for a stunning visual presentation). Messages of various sorts from President Lincoln appear at more than three dozen places, dealing with topics such as the treatment of Kansas troops when captured by the Confederates, the conditions of the people in East Tennessee (who, Lincoln long but vainly hoped, would provide a bastion of support for the Union), Mexican affairs, and the pursuit of hostile bands of Sioux Indians into the Hudson’s Bay territories. All in all, this is a terrific record of the United States at the great cusp of the Civil War, as a Union victory finally seemed near—though not so near, as things turned out, as many hoped during the first half of 1864. The book measures 5 ¾ by 9 inches and is 2 ½ inches thick. It is bound in leather boards, with red and black spine labels, noting that this book once was part of the Office of the Secretary of State. The boards are holding well, though the hinges have grown quite tender, especially in front, and they are in pretty decent shape, only somewhat scuffed and dented at the corners. Inside the pages are in good shape, only slightly browned, still supple and of high quality.

-- REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE CONDUCT OF THE WAR. IN THREE PARTS. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1863. 37th Congress, 3rd Session. Rep. Com. No. 108. Part III—Department of the West. As the Civil War entered its third year, a feeling arose throughout the country that the Union armies had failed to measure up to their Confederate opponents in organization, not to mention results—a feeling highly reinforced when General Ambrose Burnside so bungled the battle of Fredericksburg that his removal inevitably followed, leaving his only legacy the word “sideburns,” of which Ambrose had a marvelously showy pair. Congress decided to investigate matters, and the three-volume report that appeared in the spring of 1863 related in long detail what had made the situation so dicey in all the theaters of war. This third volume deals with the Department of the West, an area of extreme importance (of course, they all were) because the state of Missouri was closely divided between northern and southern loyalties, and keeping it in the Union was essential, if only to maintain control over the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Unfortunately, the political general John Charles Frémont, the Republican party’s first presidential candidate, had his own ideas about what to do that brooked little interference from his superiors in Washington, Abraham Lincoln in particular. Eventually Frémont had to go, but initially his fame, his well-proclaimed love of the Union, and his interest in eliminating slavery made him too well fixed to oust, even though this last-mentioned attitude risked losing the affections of Union-loyal Missourians, who saw in him a dangerous abolitionist. Basically, the investigatory committee was dominated by hard-line anti-slavery figures, who suspected that Lincoln and his administration were dangerously soft on the slavery question; for their part, as Lincoln well knew from his boyhood in Kentucky and Indiana, this issue had the potential to divide the Union, and he had to move slowly to let public opinion crystallize in favor of abolishing slavery entirely. In its 659 pages, this volume presents the record of testimony taken by the investigatory committee from military and other figures that deals with the military situation in 1861 and 1862, not only in Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and neighboring territories, but also, and in contradiction of its title, with matters in Virginia and neighboring states (this material presumably should have gone into the first two volumes, but they were already complete). Of this material from the eastern theater of war, much refers to the debacle of the second battle of Bull Run, apparently so rich in such stories that more remained to be told after the primary treatment in earlier volumes. A typical quotation appears (p. 654) in the testimony of a Colonel McLean: “I have seen privileges granted to secessionists that I think they ought not to enjoy . . . Secessionists were inviting out the rebel prisoners to their residences, and entertaining them at dinners.” This volume measures 6 by 9 inches and is 1 ¼ inches thick, bound in leather boards, with brown tape now covering the spine and extending onto those boards, which are in good shape except at their edges and corners, which are damaged. The book’s binding is holding firmly, and the pages remain clean and supple, though some of them are quite noticeably browned. Those who want to study how the early years of the Civil War unfolded, as presented by Congress in this investigation, will find this book chock-full of variegated information.

Declaration of Independence
Silver Plaque

-- Absolutely rare bas relief copy in miniature of the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE with signatures and a vignette of the Signers at the center.  Done by S H Black in 1859.  Says at bottom "Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1859 by S H Black in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of U S for Southern District of New York".  This Plaque or bas relief is executed in silver over brass with silvering almost completely intact.  Plaque measures 7 1/2 x 8 1/4 inches (complete with original gold frame measures 9 x 9 3/4.  An outstanding example of pre Civil War Americana. This is an original old item, not a reprint, copy or a restrike.

-- Christian Advocate and Journal, New York, December 11, 1862. An 8-page original Civil War Era newspaper in very good condition. Bright, durable and readable. Contents include, Emancipation: The President's Scheme -- The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation to take effect on January 1, 1863. There are extracts of the President's second annual message to Congress given December 1, 1862.


 13. Genuine "Track & Field" ticket stubs and ticket books from the 4 days Jesse Owens won the four gold medals (1936 Olympics in Hitler's Germany), in the actual arena at the four events where Jesse Owens won his four Gold medals...including Opening Day and Closing Day Ceremony tickets. It is exciting to know that the person holding these tickets actually saw Jesse win the following:   1st Gold = Aug 3rd (100m)  2nd Gold = Aug 4th (long jump)  3rd Gold = Aug 5th (200m) 4th Gold = Aug 9th (4x100m) --

-- A ticket book containing all nine tickets for the 1936 Track and Field events (August 1-9), still attached...with two tickets unused. Mint. The photo is of Jesse receiving gold medal for the Long Jump -->
-- Also rare August 1936 German and American newspapers and 1936 German Olympics books with images of Jesse (with other African American athletes) and write-ups.
-- Plus, two mint sets of German 1936 Olympics postal stamps, with official cancellation mark of the Berlin Olympics, both sets signed by Jesse Owens. Have not heard of another set signed by Jesse.
-- All 30 editions/volumes of "Olympia Zeitung," the official German newspaper of the 1936 Olympics. Many photos and articles about Jesse Owens and other African American athletes.
-- An hard-to-find original seating chart and order form from the Official Organizing Committee for the Berlin Olympics, "Organisationskomitee Fur Die XL Olympiade Berlin 1936." It is a four page piece with diagram of the venues and price of tickets for the different events. This seating chart helps us determine the approximate location of the ticket-holders while watching Jesse Owens win events.
-- Rare 1936 propaganda postcard with Adolph Hitler pictured at work shoveling dirt.

Jesse Owens receiving 1 of 4 Gold Medals. This medal was for his win in the Long Jump.


 14. A tin that, to put it mildly, is of great historical significance. It is Madame CJ Walker's Glossine with the statement on the front, "For Beatifying and Softening Kinky Hair." Madame CJ Walker was an early industrial pioneer around the time of other industrial titans such as Carnegie and Rockefeller. She became, as some say, the first African American millionaire in the United States. This is open to debate once people discover that Annie Malone (below) actually taught Madam Walker. She did so simply by inventing a line of cosmetics specifically for Black people. She capitalized on an untapped market at the time and the rest is history. This is a rare tin to find. The condition is excellent, measuring 2 inches across.


-- 1926 First Edition copy of Poro College in Pictures. -- a short history of its development. The many images of the college are absolutely stunning, costing over a half a million dollars to construct! The Founder and President of Poro College was none other than Annie Malone. Annie was the founder of hair care product line for African Americans; developed business into the Poro System, a network of franchised agent-operators who operated salons under Malone's guidelines using Poro products. She founded Poro College, 1917, in St. Louis, MO, the first school for the training of beauty culture specialists for African American clientele. She manufactured a line of beauty products for black women and created a unique distribution system that helped tens of thousands of black women gain self respect and economic independence. The college trained women as agents for Poro products and by 1926 claimed to have graduated some 75,000 agents located throughout the world including the Caribbean. However, her contributions to African American culture are often overlooked because her business empire collapsed from mismanagement. One of her students, Madame C.J. Walker, later created a similar enterprise and is largely credited with originating the black beauty business, a feat that rightly belongs to Malone.

Annie Malone

-- BACKGROUND: Annie Turnbo Malone (1869-1957) was one of the richest African American women in the United States at one time just a generation after slavery had ended in the country. During the 1920s, Malone was reported to have been worth fourteen million dollars. Founder of an extremely successful line of hair-care products, Malone exhibited both a sharp mind for marketing as well as an overly generous cash disbursement policy. As her business grew increasingly prosperous, Malone neglected to keep a tight rein on in-house finances, while at the same time bestowing large sums of money to worthy charitable organizations; such policies eventually spelled the end of her large enterprise. Malone's dramatic rise in the hair-care field has often been overshadowed by that of one of her former employees, Madame C. J. Walker, but it was Malone, historians assert, who developed the first successful formulas and marketing strategies aimed at straightening African American hair without damaging it.

-- Madame C.J. Walker: Almost-impossible--to-find Hair Glossine (unused sample tin, with product untouched) and Superfine Face Powder (actual unused and untouched product) in mint condition and a tin of Hair & Scalp Preparation (excellent condition, with a little bit left in the bottom of the tin) from Madam Walker's cosmetic business (early 1900s). These are very scarce vintage items, especially with the still-unused product intact!!! Born Sarah Breedlove on December 23, 1867 on a Delta, Louisiana plantation, this daughter of former slaves transformed herself from an uneducated farm laborer and laundress into the twentieth century's most successful, self-made women entrepreneur millionairess.

-- The collection owns seven (7) Madam Walker tins of hair care products.
-- Vintage wood handled pressing combs (twelve) are in used, as-found condition. They've been in a storage building for years. The brand name on the handles is "Black Beauty," similar to what Madam Walker used in her business. They measure approximately 9" long. >>>>>
-- Nine (9) small bottles of Madam C. J. Walker's Perfumes (Carnation, Gardenia & Wisteria (spelled Wistaria on bottles). These seem to be very scarce. We have researched high and low for information about these perfumes bottles. What we discovered was that the perfumes were not among the original products manufactured during Madam Walker's life (1867-1919) and probably were added during the late 1930s or early 1940s. We did review a copy of the mail order form from the 1944 Madam C. J. Walker Yearbook and the three perfumes were listed. At least now we can confirm that it was an authentic product sold by the Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company in 1944.

Pressing Combs

-- The Black Dispatch (Oklahoma City African American newspaper), March 30, 1919, with large lettering near the top of the front page:"Madam C.J.Walker At Rest." The sub-headline on the front page reads: "Madam Walker Dies."
-- Five tins of "Sweet Georgia Brown" Hair Dressing Pomade, 1930s.
-- An empty one gallon can of Posner's Shampoo Oil (Cleansing Hair and Scalp without Water).
-- Rare tin of La Jean Pressing Oil Compound.

  15. First Edition copy (1852) of the British "Uncle Tom's Cabin", written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published by John Cassell before the US edition, illustrated by George Cruikshank with 27 woodcuts.
-- Another First Edition copy of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" published in UK (1852) by Clarke & Co. with 50 splendid engravings!  (In contrast, the US First Edition only had 6 engravings.)
-- First Edition, "Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp", Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1856 (2 sets)
-- First Edition, "Men of Our Times", by Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1868 (2 copies).
-- Vintage 1895 stereo view of Uncle Tom and Eva.

 16. Scarce First Edition copy of Stowe’s”A Key To Uncle Tom's Cabin", published in London (1853). It contains 595 pages of the original facts, documents, and corroborative statements upon which the story "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is founded.
-- Five copies of the "Uncle Tom's Cabin, Young Folks Edition" (1890)
-- First Edition copy of the scarce "Uncle Tom's Cabin" (1852) Sheet Music.


-- Three late 1800s German editions of "Onkel Tom's Hutte" Each edition is in great condition.
-- Onkel Tom's Hytte (Danish edition) by Harriet Beecher Stowe, Book Description: John C. Winston & Co., Philadelphia, 1897. Hardback. Foxing on many pages Solid binding, 8vo, 668pp. Heel and head of spine crushed. Cover somewhat darkened or soiled but the three color embossed illustration still visible... Colored end sheets starting to crack. Text clean, over 100 illustrations by celebrated artists. Text in Danish. The stamp of Hoey Publishing Co., Chicago, IL appears on the title page.
: This is one of the most influential books of the nineteenth century and caused a stir in Denmark, Germany and other European countries. From Wikipedia....."Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States, so much so in the latter case that the novel intensified the sectional conflict leading to the American Civil War. Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist, focused the novel on the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering Black slave around whom the stories of other characters—both fellow slaves and slave owners—revolve. The sentimental novel depicts the cruel reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century (and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible) and is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The book's impact was so great that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the American Civil War, Lincoln is often quoted as having declared, "So this is the little lady who made this big war." The book, and even more the plays it inspired, also helped create a number of stereotypes about Blacks, many of which endure to this day. These include the affectionate, dark-skinned mammy; the Pickaninny stereotype of black children; and the Uncle Tom, or dutiful, long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool."

-- Two rare First Edition 1858 copies of "Truth Stranger than Fiction Father Henson's Story of His Own Life" with an introduction by Mrs. Harriet Stowe and with illustrated frontispiece of Josiah Henson. Published by John P. Jewett and Company, Boston, hardcover edition. Henson was an American slave who escaped to Canada, founding a school for fugitive slaves in Canada. He was a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a member of the Canadian Army (his image is on recently offered Canadian Stamps).
-- BACKGROUND: Josiah Henson (1789-1883) has been called "the most controversial former slave ever to make his way to freedom and safety in Upper Canada." Born on a plantation in Charles County, Maryland. Henson, early on in life was shown the cruelty and brutality of slavery. Henson’s father once tried to defend his mother from an overseer. His punishment was 100 lashes, an ear cut off and his sale to another slave owner further south. His father was never heard from again. In 1830 his slave owner, Amos Riley secretly arranged his sale which would separate Henson from his family. Upon learning of the plan Henson escaped north to Canada with his wife and his children. After 3 years of working as a farm laborer, the idea of a self supporting Black Colony began to form in Henson’s mind. He hoped for a population that would be self employed and would have a chance to get a general education. His dream became a reality when he helped to create the Dawn Settlement near Chatham, Ont. Henson’s life was recorded in a book titled, "The Life of Josiah Henson, Formally a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada." It is from this book, many believe that American Author Harriet Beecher Stowe got the basis for her popular novel "Uncle Tom’s Cabin." Josiah Henson was active until his death, lecturing throughout Canada and the United States. While he was fond of the fame and prestige, his main goal in life was to improve the living conditions for Upper Canada’s Black population.



  17. National Bank of Boston check from Ticknor and Fields (owners of Atlantic Monthly) to Harriet Beecher Stowe (signed Nov. 17, 1863) most probably as payment (0) for her compelling Atlantic Monthly article (April, 1863), "Sojourner Truth, The Libyan Sibyl".
-- Two copies of the 1863 Atlantic Monthly article about Sojourner Truth written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. This is most probably the article associated with the check -->
-- The Atlantic Monthly, a magazine of Literature and Politics. VOL. XI. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 135, Washington Street. London: Trubner and Company. MDCCCLXIII, 1863. 1st Edition. 788 pages. Articles include: Sojourner Truth, the Libyan Sibyl, Benjamin Banneker The Negro Astronomer, and Slavery and Secession in America.

 Check signed by Harriet Beecher Stowe

No images on this page may be used without
© 2005-2008
Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

-- Two original broadsides (posters) for Parsons & Pool's presentation of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Printed on very thin newsprint, it measures 9 5/16" X 24" and is a light lilac color. A staple of the post-Civil War theatre were numerous traveling companies presenting dramatic versions of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Known as "Tom Shows" they often featured spectacular effects, notably the death of Little Eva (with the child sometimes hoisted bodily Heavenward with ropes and pulleys) and the pursuit of Eliza and her baby across the ice of the frozen Ohio River. This broadside was probably intended for display outside a theatre; it features a scene of Eva and Uncle Tom outside his cabin, with Eva's luxurious home in the background. Poster reads: COMING SOON! PARSONS & POOL'S ORIGINAL UNCLE TOM'S CABIN AND TENNESSEE JUBILEE SINGERS  THE ONLY COMPANY on the road to-day presenting the old-time manuscript version of UNCLE TOM'S CABIN. WAIT FOR US, WATCH FOR US As we will positively appear in your city soon. Watch for Day & Date. -- Printed by Whatcheer Print, Providence, R.I. Research indicates the date of production to be around 1880. The ink coverage is good. The condition is very good, considering it's around 125 years old and on such delicate, fragile stock.
-- Vintage mid-19th Century sheet music (1860s) with an illustrated Black Americana lithograph cover entitled, "The Carolina Song" (Dulcimer's Song) by Stephen Glover (b.1813 -d.1870) from the 1856 play "Dred" (adapted for the stage by H.J. Conway based on the 1856 novel "Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp" by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.

"Four Negro Heads", Peter Paul Rubens

  18. Original 1883 antique engraving (Edmond Ramus) of the "Four Negro Heads" by Flemish painter, Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Handmade laid paper, watermarked -- Arches. This folio etching with crisp lines and strong plate impression was produced by J. Rouam and Remington and Co. in Paris and London, jointly. Unlike most antique prints of this vintage, the Rouam and Remington etchings were produced in extremely low numbers and are incredibly hard to find, especially in such pristine condition. (View at top of page).
<-- This particular image was chosen to be on the verso side of a 500 franc note with King Leopold II on the front, issued by the National Bank of Belgium (1952-1967). --


-- A beautiful original charcoal drawing of Peter Paul Rubens, the famous Flemish painter. The picture is signed "Frederic Le???, 1834. It measure approximately 8x10 and is drawn on paper with age marks typical for that time period.
-- Also in this collection is an original painting (Study of Four Negro Heads) from the 19th Century Belgium painter, Maurice Goffin, who was born in Luik (Angleurin) in 1845 and died relatively unknown in Seraing in 1898 at the age of 53. He was the son of parents who were active in the metal industry. He was the painter of mainly portraits, figures and still life. In this painting Goffin is trying to mimic the "Four Negro Heads" painting by Peter Paul Rubens -->
-- A stunning and rare (circa 1870s) bronze relief of Ruben's painting (1.5" x 10.75"), with stand,”Study of Four Negro Heads. Weighs four pounds.

Painting by M. Goffin (1845-1895)

   19. Many original 16mm films: The Emancipation Proclamation -- Ethiopia: Ancient Land, Strategic Land -- Negro Slavery -- Sound of Sunshine, Sound of Rain (social propaganda film) -- Jesse Owens: 1936 Olympics -- William: From Georgia To Harlem -- Slavery and Slave Resistance -- Martin Luther King, Jr.: An Amazing Grace -- Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Assassin Years -- Afro American Music, It's Heritage, Cabin in the Sky -- and more...Many of these films are lost and will never be seen again. We are transferring these films to DVD so that we can play film clips in our galleries. Some transferred to DVD already:
-- (1)  Palmour Street (1957) - This film stands apart from 99% of the educational film productions involving African-Americans in the mid-1950s because it portrays an African-American family that lives a normal life and the film itself lacks the typical racist narration and stereotypical scenarios. The gist of this movie is that good parenting practices make for healthier children. This is a great film for African-American studies. Length: 23 minutes
-- (2) We Work Again (1930s) - This WPA (Works Project Administration) film tries to convey that the New Deal is beneficial for African-Americans. Length: 11 minutes
-- (3)  Farmer Henry Browne (1942) - This is a nice portrait of an African-American farmer in Georgia during WWII. Like other Americans assisting in the war effort domestically, Henry Browne uses productivity and hard work to support American troops. Length: 11 minutes
-- (4) Negro Colleges In Wartime (1944) - This short film about the training regiment of African American soldiers in WWII will strike up constructive educational dialogue about the racist treatment black American soldiers received during the WWII. Great video of African American military culture and history abounds in this film from the 40s, including footage of the historic Muskagee airmen.  Watching the segregated military practices of this time period shows why the civil rights leaders, both during the Korean War and the Vietnam War, were very concerned with the mass enlistments of young African Americans. Length: 9 minutes
-- (5) With No One to Help Us (1967) - A group of welfare mothers in Newark form together to fight the overpricing of grocery items to welfare recipients. This is tremendously important documentary and a vital teaching tool for African American studies. Amazing historical documentation of the projects of Newark around the 1960s. Length: 19 minutes
-- (6) The Plantation System In Southern Life (1950) - See how the centuries of African American slavery has affected Southern culture and life in the South. A rare and invaluable piece of black history. Length: 10 minutes
-- (7) Teddy (1971) - A social seminar film that picks the brain of Teddy, a politically conscious teenage African American male.  Teddy talks about police brutality, war, the Watts community of L.A., The Black Panthers and "The System."  Nice unknown movie to show during black history month or to kick start any black history or political discussion. Length: 17 minutes
-- (8) Jesse Owens: 1936 Olympics - Jesse goes back to the Olympic Stadium in Berlin, recounting his accomplishments in August, 1936.
-- (9) The Birth of a Nation -
This landmark film from silent director D.W. Griffith was the first movie blockbuster. However, it also reveals a horribly racist version of American history. The film was based on Thomas Dixon Jr.'s anti-black, 1905 bigoted play, The Clansman. The first part of the film chronicles the Civil War as experienced through the eyes of two families; the Stonemans from the North, and the Camerons of the South. Lifelong friends, they become divided by the Mason-Dixon line, with tragic results. Large-scale battle sequences and meticulous historical details culminate with a staged re-creation of Lincoln's assassination. The second half of the film chronicles the Reconstruction, as Congressman Austin Stoneman (Ralph Lewis) puts evil Silas Lynch (George Siegmann) in charge of the liberated slaves at the Cameron hometown of Piedmont. Armed with the right to vote, the freed slaves cause all sorts of trouble until Ben Cameron (Henry B. Walthall) founds the Ku Klux Klan and restores order and "decency" to the troubled land. While The Birth of a Nation was a major step forward in the history of filmmaking, it must be noted that the film supports a racist worldview. But there is no denying that it remains a groundbreaking achievement, setting a high watermark for film as an art form. Premiered at Clune's Auditorium in Los Angeles, February 8, 1915, under the title The Clansman. Premiered in New York City at the Liberty Theater on March 3, 1915, as The Birth of a Nation. The film toured the rest of the country as a road show attraction. In 1906, the same Liberty Theater had housed a run of Thomas Dixon's stage play, The Clansman, which was one of the sources for the film. At the New York premiere, Dixon stated that he would have "allowed none but the son of a Confederate soldier to direct the film version of The Clansman." (New York Times, 3/4/1915). The Birth of a Nation was added to the Library of Congress National Film Registry in 1992. The film originally ran 13,058 feet on 12 reels. At 16 frames per second, it ran approximately 185 minutes.
This landmark cinematic achievement features the first use of now-standard techniques like cross-cutting and deep focus, as well as the unprecedented long shot of the Lincoln assassination and a color sequence at the end. The Birth of a Nation was originally silent with a musical score. In 1930, the film was reissued with sound effects and synchronized music adapted from Joseph Carl Breil's original score, but at a much shorter length--108 minutes. Current prints run between 108 and 185 minutes, sometimes due to deleted footage, sometimes due to incorrect projection speeds. At some theaters, ticket prices cost up to per seat, a record figure at the time. The Birth of a Nation was also reportedly the first film to utilize ushers. The film reportedly made million dollars at the box office. Because the film's rights were simply sold outright in some states, accurate figures are difficult to obtain, and the film may have actually grossed to 0 million. Director D.W. Griffith shot this film without a script or even written notes, saying that he had visualized the entire movie in his mind. One scene deleted from the end of the film professes to depict "Lincoln's Solution," in which African-Americans are shipped back to Africa, while Abraham Lincoln and Jesus Christ look approvingly on. From the moment the film premiered, the NAACP organized mass demonstrations against The Birth of a Nation; not only did black people object to its racial stereotypes, but they feared that its glorification of the Klan would lead to increased violence against African-Americans. In fact, the Klan used The Birth of a Nation to recruit new members, and its ranks supposedly swelled after screenings of the film. To his credit, Griffith later (by 1921) released a shortened, re-edited version of the film without references to the KKK.
-- Vintage brochure entitled, "D.W. Griffith Presents The Birth Of A Nation. An Historical Drama in Two Acts, Founded upon Thomas Dixon's story The Clansman." It goes on to state "There will be an intermission of eight minutes between Act I and Act II." The play is presented at Conn's Theatre, Concord, New Hampshire, September 16, 17, 18 (no year).
-- First Edition copy of "The Clansman", by Thomas Dixon. Published by Grossett and Dunlap in 1905.
-- (10) The Birth of a Race - A group of independent black filmmakers released director Emmett J. Scott's The Birth of a Race in 1919, filmed as a response to Griffith's film (Birth of a Nation), with a more positive image of African-Americans, but it was largely ignored. Filmed in Florida, New York, and Chicago, it cost 0,000, nearly five times The Birth of a Nation's budget, and was at least partially funded by the sale of stock. Birth of a Race was panned by Variety, who stated that it was "replete with historical inaccuracies, gross exaggerations, and bromidic appeals to patriotism," noting that the film was "full of rape, murder, and suicide." The film was directed by John W. Noble and written by Noble and Rudolph de Cordoba. It starred John Reinhardt, Jane Grey, George Le Guerre, Ben Hendricks, Gertrude Braun, and Mary Kennevan. The Birth of a Race was envisioned as an "answer" to D.W. Griffith's racist and inflammatory film, The Birth of a Nation. Unfortunately, due to cost overruns, mismanagement and the strings that came attached with white money, the film failed to achieve its original goals. The result was a film that was hardly about African-Americans at all, but about the struggle of white immigrants in this country. It was a failed attempt to counteract the damage that The Birth of a Nation caused to the image of the African-American. Even with its many shortcomings from both a technical as well as artistic standpoint, The Birth of a Race at least demonstrated that motion pictures were indeed a medium to be reckoned with that has an enormous capability to influence a large number of people. Prolific black filmmaker Oscar Micheaux's first film, the feature-length The Homesteader (1919), and Within Our Gates (1919) more effectively countered the message of Griffith's film.
-- (11) History of the Negro in America -- Two B/W 20-minute films: 1619-1860 and 1870-Today.
-- (12) Cabin in the Sky -- Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington and his orchestra! Movie stars Lena Horne and Ethel Water were in the movie.
-- (13) 1971 Pearl Bailey Show Vignettes. Guest Stars: Sid & Marty Kroffet's Puppets. Special Guest Star: Ethel Waters sings "His Eye Is On The Sparrow", "I'll Be There" (Duet with Pearl). Pearl sings: "Hello Dolly", "Walking My Baby Back Home", "Am I Blue", "Birth Of The Blues", "Bill Bailey", This Is All I Ask" and more...B&W. 50 minutes.

   20. Museum quality portrait of John Brown, the famous abolitionist who fought to end slavery prior to the outbreak of the civil war. The reverse of the painting has the information "The Abolitioner, John Brown, born 1800 died 1859". The garland branch motif, at the bottom of the painting, was often used in artwork of the mid 1800s. We are still researching the identity of the painter.

  Here's what a John Brown author/researcher, Dr. John DeCaro, wrote about this painting:

 "As a biographer and scholar of Brown I can assure you that there is no possibility that Brown sat for this painting. Brown was a very progressive man and in the 1840s and 1850s, he periodically sat for daguerreotype portraits--the early photograph.  He never sat for a painted portrait. Numerous paintings have been made of Brown, some of them very well done based on daguerreotype portraits, others inspired by those images. This painting was apparently a rendering by someone who never saw Brown...the hair and beard are stylized. It may have been done in tribute to him by an admirer (perhaps a black artist?)...." This painting is oil on wood board, measures 12" x 10" unframed and 16" x 13" in its period frame. This is unusual, rare subject matter. >>>>

John Brown

-- Seventeen genuine issues of Harpers Weekly, illustration and content rich about John Brown.
-- Four vintage engravings of T. Hovenden's "John Brown on His Way to Execution".
-- Genuine eyewitness account of John Brown's battle at Harper's Ferry as seen by one of his prisoners, John Daingerfield (1885).
-- First Edition (1929) of Benet's, John Brown's Body.
-- Late 1800s sheet music, John Brown's Body"

   21. Many international Slave-related hand written manuscripts from colonial Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and other parts of South America, Puerto (Porto) Rico and Cuba...most written in Old Spanish -- Dates: 1553, 1567(3 documents), 1597, 1604, 1608, 1609 (2 documents), 1610, 1612, 1640, 1641, 1672, 1675, 1682, 1688, 1689 (2 documents), 1690, 1706, 1768, 1772, 1774, 1775, 1782, 1785, 1789, 1798, 1799, 1803, 1806, 1811, 1814, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1825, 1831, 1836 (2 documents), 1837, 1839, 1840, 1844, 1845, 1852, 1858, 1860 & more...The slaves, all from Africa, were sold in Buenos Aires. This was their first port and generally the original place of sale for slaves being brought into South America.  From there they were sold and then transported to other places in South America.  Usually, when being taken to Peru their first port was Valparaiso near Santiago where slaves were dropped off, and the rest were transported onto Peru, into the port of Callao, which is in Lima.  These slaves were usually given a 60 day "heart" guarantee, and any heart malady after the warranty period fell onto the buyer.
            Here are some examples:

-- 1553, Extremely rare, signed Peru (Spanish) colonial handwritten, fascinating manuscript...written in Old Spanish. Merchant, Diego de Ribera, citizen of Arequipa city (south Andes of Peru), sells to Cristobal de Rueda: "...a Black slave, from Mozambique, named Cristobal, which has a healthy of title and had of good war, and surely with choral drop and bad of earth and that is not evasive, neither thief nor fugitive.. neither it has other faults nor diseases(!) by price of 300 Pesos from assayed and marked silver..." The file is dated June 6, 1553. It is interesting to analyze the term: "had of good war", surely a justification of slave traders with respect to the storing of slaves in Africa, avoiding conflicts with certain tribes. "Gota Coral" is the ancient term for epilepsy, because one thought that a great drop of blood struck the heart. Exceptional document for its age!! One leaf = 2 pages, signed and complete! No moth, humidity or foxing. 
-- 1609, Original complete signed Spanish Colony in Peru. It details the giving of a Black slave, Fransisco (valued at 680 silver pesos) as a part of the payment of debt to a Catholic convent. The debtor is the Knight of the Calatrava Order of Don Juan de Abalos Riberia.
-- 1689, The sale of a Black slave woman, Maria Criolla (19 years of age) for 500 silver pesos. The seller is Don Jose DeAvila and the buyer is "Hacienda de Vilca Huaura".
-- 1706 signed contract for the sale of a Black woman in Cochabama, Bolivia.
-- 1798 signed contract for the sale of Segundo, a young Black man in Bolivia.
-- 1836, The sale of a Black slave woman, Jacoba, 15 years old (daughter of another slave woman named Jacoba) for 200 silver pesos. The seller is Don Manuel Salazar and the buyer is Don Mariano Hermenegildo.

Buenos Aires Slave Sale (Argentina), 1768


Chinese Slave in Cuba, 1859

<-- An impossible to find 1859 Cuban Slave Contract defining the purchase of Chinese slave, Chang Chew. Pictured to the left, this document is written in Chinese on the rear. The front of the contract is written in Spanish.
-- 1858 List of Captured Runaway Slaves in Cuba -- There existed many groups of slaves throughout Latin America called "Cimarrones" (Wild Ones). This document details those who had fled their masters and had been captured by the police. The term Cimarron means "runaway slave" and refers mainly to African slaves who had run away from their Spanish masters. Many slave uprisings were sponsored by these groups across the Caribbean and Latin America.
-- 1860 list of 372 Chinese Laborers (Slaves?) who have disembarked from the ship, Loyola. The ages are between 30-35 years of age. This may have been because the Cubans were running out of younger laborers.
-- 1803 signed slave contract from Peru, under Spanish Kingdom Colony domination. The document details the sale of a male slave who had happened to come from Valparaiso, Chile.
-- 1768 document detailing the sale of Theresa (24 years of age), a slave being sold in Buenos Aires, Argentina.


-- 1619 rare document (4 pages) detailing the sale of Manuel, a slave being sold in Bolivia. It also gives a glimpse into colonial life in that part of South America.
-- 1597 intriguing document about colonial life in Bolivia, including the business between Alvaro Martin and a priest in a monastery.
-- 14-page Peruvian register from the San Bartolome Hospital (1811 -- only for Black slaves, pictured below)
-- Cuban Ship (Matano') Document -- leaving Havana for Barcelona, Spain on October 3, 1822.
-- Cuban Ship Document -- leaving Habanna (sic) for Barcelona, Spain on April 5, 1820.
-- 1875 Cuba Slave identification document with Havana police.
-- 1856 Cuban document explaining what has been done to avoid the landing of a ship transporting slaves from Africa to Cuba.  The letter is directed to the gentlemen governing the brigadier politico and the military head of the jurisdiction -- Jatibonico, a municipality in the Sancti Spiritus Province of Cuba.


-- 1840 ship registration (Portugal) with one slave aboard.  The ship "Palas" arrived at Montevideo from Rio de Janeiro, and later left for Pernambuco. It carried 1 slave (police report).


 22. Stunning Silver Civil War locket (1860s), containing two tin-type pictures of African American women (looks like mother and daughter), worn by an African American soldier during the Civil War. The locket opens on a hinge to reveal the other tin-type picture. Picture to the left.
-- Many circulars from the War Department addressing the issues surrounding the Freedmen's Bureau, refugees and abandoned lands.
-- Hand written letter stating the difficulty of determining the ages of Free Negroes (Sept.17, 1851).
-- Hand written letter by Civil War soldier wanting a position in Wild's African Brigade (January 17, 1864).

-- "Colored Soldier Regiments" in the Civil War -- "No officer in this regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of black troops. Their superiority lies simply in the fact that they know the country, while white troops do not, and, moreover, that they have peculiarities of temperament, position, and motive which belong to them alone. Instead of leaving their homes and families to fight they are fighting for their homes and families, and they show the resolution and sagacity which a personal purpose gives. It would have been madness to attempt, with the bravest white troops what I have successfully accomplished with the black ones. Everything, even to the piloting of the vessels and the selection of the proper points for cannonading, was done by my own soldiers." -- Excerpt from February 1, 1863 report by Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Union) after the January 23 - February 1, 1863 Expedition from Beaufort South Carolina, up the Saint Mary's River in Georgia and Florida.

  23. A First Edition 55-page article entitled, "The Rosetta Stone" in Archaeologia: Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Volume XVI, published by The Society of Antiquaries of London. 1812. Some of the first published articles about the Rosetta Stone. This is historic in light of the fact that the code to Hieroglyphics wasn't cracked until 1822 by Jean Champollion.
-- One and a half pages of the Gentleman's Magazine (August, 1802) stating, "...a treble inscription brought up from  Rosetta, in Egypt, where it was dug up by the French, and, with other antique fragments, made by capitulation the property of the British nation. Copies had been previously taken of it by its former possessors, who, with their accustomed vivacity, have attempted to illustrate it..." (This was written a full 20 years before the code to Hieroglyphics was cracked by Champollion.)

"Viewing the Rosetta Stone", 1874
London Illustrated engraving
(3 original images owned)

-- An original "Elephant-size" folio Victorian print (circa 1895) of the Rosetta Stone. Measures 21x14" on heavyweight paper.
-- An original "Elephant-size" folio Victorian print (circa 1895) of a gentleman viewing the Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. Measures 21x14" on heavyweight paper.
-- An 1815 engraving of the British Museum (its original, smaller site).
-- Superb Georgian (during the reign of King William IV 1830-1837) hardback complete two-volume First Edition set entitled “Egyptian Antiquities,” by The British Museum, with nearly 100 fine engravings and other illustrations. They were published by Charles Knight, of London, in MDCCCXXXII (1832 – Volume I) and MDCCCXXXVI (1836 – Volume II). The code to hieroglyphics had been cracked in 1822 by Jean Champollion, just ten years before the publication of the first volume! Excellent information about the Rosetta Stone and other ancient Egyptian artifacts in these books. Extremely rare addition to this collection...

 -- Extremely Rare Museum Quality Full Face Casting of the Rosetta Stone -- In the 1970’s, the British Museum made a mold of the full face of the Rosetta Stone, and cast a small number of 1st generation casts. When I acquired this I was told maybe only 12-15 had been made, and that I had acquired the last one. (It had been stored in the basement of the British Museum.)  It is an actual casting in black resin with the characters in white, made from a direct mold of the Stone's face. The bottom right of the face contains the imprint of the British Museum, thus authenticating it. I have been informed by the British Museum’s Department of Conservation, that the Museum itself makes no more production runs. The British Museum Company, who is in charge of museum sales, informed us as follows: “Unfortunately we do not have any records of how many Rosetta Stone casts were produced. However, (we) estimate that for a short period of time, it would have been two or three a year at the very most.” The replica (one of 12-15 copies in existence) is pictured to the right --> Do you want to own a full-size, 3-D replica of the original Rosetta Stone? Click here -->

"Capture of Rosetta"

-- A genuine issue of the January 7th, 1799 Connecticut Courant, detailing the "Landing of Buonaparte's army in Egypt" and its progress in Cairo. Fascinating content.

-- Authentic issue of the Salem Gazette (Dec. 7, 1798), containing a literal translation of General Napoleon Buonaparte's proclamation to the Arabs in Lower Egypt. Intriguing content.

<-- July 14, 1801 issue of the New England Palladium describing the capture of Rosetta, Egypt by British troops. The report comes from Major General J. H. Hutchinson. "It is with great pleasure that I am to inform you of the success of a corps of Turks and British under the command of Col. Spencer. They were ordered from hence about ten days ago, for the purpose of forcing the enemy from the town and castle of Rosetta, which commands the navigation of the Nile...

One of just 12-15 full-size
facsimiles of the famed Rosetta Stone ever manufactured by
the British Museum. Very rare.

The "Rosetta Stone" of replicas


...We are now masters of the western branch of that river, and of course have opened a communication with the Delta, from which we shall derive the necessary supplies, as the French have scarcely any troops there, and none capable of making a serious resistance. The enemy had about 800 men at Rosetta when they were attacked. They made but a feeble effort to sustain themselves, and retired to the right bank of the Nile, leaving a few men and prisoners. They left a garrison at the fort, against which our batteries opened on the 16th infantry and it surrendered on the 19th infantry. The condition of the same as were granted to the castle of the Aboukir..."
-- In August 1799, just over a year after Napoleon launched his invasion of Egypt at Alexandria, a great discovery was made. Under the leadership of Lt. Pierre Bouchard, French soldiers were building up their defenses around the area of Fort St. Julian, near the northern city of Rosetta, when a soldier or engineer found in the ruins an ancient stone. With its cryptic inscriptions, it was immediately recognized as an object of great importance. It was sent to Cairo, where it was housed in the Institute d’Egypte. Members of Napoleon’s special civilian corps dispersed around the country were requested to go there at once. The rare map to the right is of the mouth of the Nile, picturing Fort Julian, now known as Fort Rashid -->

Map of Rosetta region at the mouth of the Nile, with Fort Julian on the West Bank of the river.

-- Description de l'Egypte, Rosetta Environs. Folio Sheet size: 55cm x 72cm. It has the Napoleonic "Sphinx" cartouche it the upper corner of the sheet. Not a reproduction or re-strike of any kind. This print was purchased nearly 40 years ago in Cairo. From: Description de l'Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont ete faites en Egypte pendant l'Expedition de l'Armee francaise. Dediee au Roi. France: Commission des sciences et arts d'Egypte. The completed work fills twenty-three volumes and contains engravings depicting 3,000 individual images. Description de L'Egypte documents many aspects of Egypt's history and culture and has sections devoted to antiquities, the modern state, and natural history. An atlas supplements the text. Description de L'Egypte was intended for an academic audience, and many copies of the first edition were distributed directly to institutions. However, it was clear even before the original production was complete that the title had a much broader appeal. The descriptions of Egyptian antiquities and religious monuments satisfied a curiosity about ancient cultures, religion, and mythology that had been sparked by the Romantic movement.

-- A Bit of History About the Rosetta Stone: Some scientists accompanied Napoleon's French campaign in Egypt (1798-1801). After Napoleon Bonaparte founded the Institut de l'Egypte in Cairo in 1798 some 50 became members of it. On July 15th, 1799, just over a year after Napoleon launched his invasion of Egypt at Alexandria, a great discovery was made. Under the command of Lt. Pierre-François Bouchard (1772-1832), French soldiers were building up their defenses around the area of Fort St. Julian, near the northern city of Rosetta, when a soldier or engineer found in the ruins an ancient stone. With its cryptic inscriptions, Bouchard immediately understood the importance of the stone and showed it to General


Abdallah Jacques de Menou. It was immediately recognized as an object of great importance. It was sent to Cairo, where it was housed in the Institute d’Egypte. Members of Napoleon’s special civilian corps dispersed around the country were requested to go there at once. In 1801 the French had to surrender. A dispute arose about the results of the scientists - the French wishing to keep them, while the British considered them forfeit, in the name of King George III. In September 1801 English brevet Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who had fought at Aboukir Bay and Alexandria, went to visit Menou to procure the stone. Meanwhile the French scientist Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, writing to the English diplomat William Richard Hamilton threatened to burn all their discoveries, ominously referring to the burned Library of Alexandria. Turner cited the sixteenth article of the "Treaty of Alexandria". The British capitulated, and they insisted only on the delivery of the monuments. The French tried to hide the Stone in a boat despite the clauses of the capitulation, but failed. The French were allowed to take the imprints they had made previously, when embarking in Alexandria. General Menou handed it over grudgingly. A squad of artillerymen seized the stone without resistance. As they carted the magnificent ancient treasure through Alexandria, French soldiers and civilians collected on the streets and sputtered insults at them. In the spasmodic voyage from Egypt to England, many of the Egyptian antiquities were damaged. Because of the importance of the Rosetta Stone, however Colonel Turner personally accompanied this precious cargo on its journey aboard a frigate. The Rosetta Stone left Egypt from Alexandria and sailed into the English Channel in February 1802. At Deptford the stone was placed in a small boat and taken through customs. It was lodged at the quarters of the Society of Antiquaries so experts could examine it before being dispatched to its permanent station of public exhibition in the British Museum in London, England (since 1802).

Frederick Douglass

 24. Scarce First Edition of "My Bondage And My Freedom", Part I -- Life As A Slave, Part II -- Life As A Freeman, by Frederick Douglass, with an introduction by Dr. James M'Cune Smith. New York and Auburn: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1855. Illustrated with steel engraved prints, and Frontispiece Engraving of Frederick Douglass by J. C. Buttre from a Daguerreotype, with autograph signature of Douglas (facsimile). Autograph manuscript inscription on prefatory page of W.S. ? Davis, Westford, Otsego (?) County, N.Y. This book came from an estate in Rochester, NY, Upstate New York, where Douglas lived for many years. See #37 (below) for more information about Frederick's visit to Scotland. --

-- St. Johnsbury Calcdonian newspaper, St. Johnsbury, VT, Mar.23, 1877. The column headlines -- "A 'Nigger' In a High Place" to bring the news that Frederick Douglass has been confirmed as U.S. Marshall". An historic event for an African American man over 125 years ago -- but shame on the editor's for using such a derogatory headline. Here is the article:
-- "Probably the most conservative politician will now admit that the world moves. Frederick Douglass, the eloquent and learned colored man, has been confirmed by the Senate to the best office in the District of Columbia -- four Democratic Senators voting for his confirmation, as well as all the Republicans, and two prominent Democrats of Washington -- Alexander and Christie -- becoming Douglass's bondmen. When such men as Ben. Hill vote for confirmation of a Black" Republican to office in the old slave District of Columbia, it is time for reformers to thank God and take courage. The world does move."

-- Deed of Trust for James L. Barbour and Frank D. Johns, signed by Frederick Douglass, July 7, 1881. Douglass served as the Recorder of Deeds for the Washington, DC Government (1881-1886). This Deed was signed during his first months on the job. (gift from Mark E. Mitchell).

-- New York Times, Apr.29, 1842 -- A 1 1/2" front page column headed THE ANTI-SLAVERY CONVENTION, Cincinnati, Ohio.  Frederick Douglass chosen to be one of the Vice-Presidents. 

-- A First Edition copy of William Lloyd Garrison: The Story of His Life Told by His Children (1894). Below is a handwritten letter from Robert Adams making the argument that certain materials needed for preservation and also it is sure that these newspapers would be utilized as research for the accuracy of this book.
    William Lloyd Garrison (December 13, 1805 – May 24, 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.

-- An excellent hand written letter (dated April 5, 1887) from Robert Adams, a dear friend of Frederick Douglass and also a well-known conductor on the Underground Railroad. He was also a bookseller, stationer and dealer in artist's materials from Fall River, Massachusetts, regarding the collection of books that this woman has and that he, Adams is buying these books for Francis Jackson Garrison (as a 16-year old he corresponded with Sergeant-Major James Trotter of the Mass. 55th during the Civil War), the son of William Lloyd Garrison and his autobiographer. A good strong letter with the argument that these books were important during the era and he is particularly looking for copies of "The Liberator" as well as other anti-slavery materials. The letter has some folds and a corner has been cut, affecting last word on bottom of the page. Folds present and one 1/2inch tear at the fold into one top of letter reverse, otherwise a good strong letter. Rare item regarding the collection of materials on anti-slavery which William Lloyd Garrison was in the center of during a great part of his life.

Robert Adams
Bookseller, Stationer
Dealer in Artist's Materials

Fall River, Mass.   April 5, 1887
Dear Madam: I learn through Mr. Durleigh (?) that you may have a number of volumes of The Liberator. I am collecting for Mr. Francis Jackson Garrison, the youngest son of William Lloyd Garrison, who is gathering together all he can, to arrange in files to be placed in Public Libraries for preservation and for future reference. They are worthy of a conspicuous place, as they give an important history of those eventful years, which can be obtained from no other source. Should you be willing to dispose of them for that purpose, please inform me as soon as convenient, as he is about finishing his work on them. If you know of any person in your vicinity who has any copies of The Liberator, please inform me if you please.
Yours respectfully, Robert Adams
Mrs. Adams sends her regards to you. Have you any of the "National Antislavery Standard" or of the "New York Tribune" to dispose of? RA

   BACKGROUND: By 1851, after the Fugitive Slave law had come into effect, a very large percentage of the negro colony in New Bedford left by the underground route for Canada. This exodus was through Fall River where forwarding stations had been actively in operation since 1830. Fall River became an important "way station" although it was only one in a great number of "railroad systems" through which escape was possible. Fall River was ideally adapted for this purpose because it was not on any direct line and slaves who were able to escape by sea from southern ports to New Bedford and towns on the cape were "doubled back" to Fall River as a means of concealment. From Fall River they were shipped to Canada by way of Valley Falls and Worcester . Those who assisted in their escape were called "conductors." As early as 1840, Arnold Buffum was prominent in this railroad system. The Buffums, the Chaces, the Robesons and many others, mostly Quakers, had much to do with the Fall River station. Robert Adams, a Quaker sympathizer, was the best known conductor of the underground trains in Fall River, though neither he nor Mrs. Adams were members of the Quaker meeting.

INTERESTING NOTE: There was a touching letter (below) was written by Frederick Douglass to Robert Adams, a well-known “conductor” on the Underground Railroad in Fall River, Massachusetts, on the occasion of Douglass’s 80th birthday (March 23, 1888). Adams was a trusted friend of Frederick Douglass. Here is what he wrote to Adams, reflecting upon their first meeting in 1841 in Fall River:

Do you know that yours was the first eyes that beamed kindly upon me in Fall River seven and forty years ago? My dear old friend, I shall never forget that look of sympathy you gave me. I was then only three years from slavery. I had not fully realized the possibility that a white man could recognize a colored man as a man and a brother but I saw such recognition in your face and have ever since, in sunshine and storm, felt safe in your friendship.” 

-- Rare newspaper article written by Horace Greeley about Frederick Douglass addressing the students of Western Reserve College, on the occasion of the annual commencement. New-York Tribune (Monday, July 31, 1854). Read the entire article . His speech is quite controversial, not only for 1854, but also for now.

-- Three copies of the extremely rare Douglass' Monthly newspaper:  1. October 1861 – Complete. 16 pages. Minor repairs to back page affecting five or six words. Good condition.   2. November 1861 – Complete. 16 pages. Light purple stain to side margin and part of one column (5” by 3”) affecting 4 pages (2 sheets) but still readable. Good condition.   3. December 1861 -- Incomplete. 12 pages. Lacks cover and back sheet (4 pages). Good condition.

     On the rear page of Douglass's newspaper is a "Haytian Advertismement", written by Nicholas Fabre Geffrard (President of Haiti 1859-1867):      Hayti (sic) will soon gain her ancient splendor. This marvellous soil that our fathers blessed by God, conquered for us, will soon yield to us the wealth now hidden in its bosom. Let our black and yellow brethren, scattered through the Antilles and North and South America hasten to co-operate with us in restoring the glory of the Republic. Hayti is the common country of the black race. Our ancestors, in taking possession of it, were careful to announce in the Constitution that they published, that all the descendants of Africans and of the inhabitants of the West Indies belong by right to the Haytian family. The idea was grand and generous.

Douglass' Monthly


     Listen, then all ye negroes and mulattoes who, in the vast Continent of America, suffer from the prejudices of caste. The Republic calls you; she invites you to bring to her your arms and your minds. The regenerating work that she undertakes interests all colored people and their descendants, no matter what their origins or where their place of birth.   Hayti, regaining her former position, retaking her ancient sceptre as Queen of the Antilles, will be a formal denial, most eloquent and peremptory, against those detractors of our race who contest our desire and ability to attain a high degree of civilization."     -- Geffrard (1806–79), president of Haiti (1859–67). He took part (1843) in the revolt against Jean Pierre Boyer and led the insurrection that overthrew Faustin Élie Soulouque in 1859. Although he tried to reform the government, he was continually harassed by counterrevolutions and could accomplish little. He was exiled in 1867.)

-- Rare First Edition copy of "There Once Was a Slave" (New York: J. Messner, 1947) by Shirley Graham Du Bois, 2nd wife of NAACP mentor, W.E.B. DuBois. Book is about Frederick Douglass.

-- Hard-to-find First Edition copy of Paul Robeson, Citizen Of The World, By Shirley Graham Du Bois Copyright 1946. Hard back with no dust jacket. In good—very good condition. Tight binding. 2nd face page has a color photo of Robeson attached. Back face page has news clipping, and small black/white newspaper photo attached. . Has 264 pages with 16 pages black/white photos.

   JOSEPH STURGE (A heroic abolitionist):
-- An extremely hard to find copy of the British Emancipator (January 10th, 1840 -- LAST EDITION!), the Anti-Slavery Newspaper (Dec. 27, 1837-Jan. 10, 1840). "After having formally announced the Emancipator of December 25th as our last, we shall no doubt surprise our readers not a little by the appearance of another number. We beg permission to explain..." The newspaper was founded by Joseph Sturge (1793-1859). He was a member of the Religious Society of Friends, and refused, in his business as a corn factor, to deal in grain used in the manufacture of spirits. He went to Birmingham in 1822, where he became and alderman in 1835. He was an active member of the Anti-Slavery Society, Central Negro Emancipation Committee and British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. Sturge made a tour in the West Indies, publishing on his return an account of slavery as he there saw it in The West Indies in 1837 (London, 1837).  After the abolition of slavery in 1833, Sturge was one of the main instigators of a campaign of agitation against apprenticeship in the West Indies. The Central Negro Emancipation Committee was something he founded in 1837. Lord Brougham, the most prominent champion of anti-apprenticeship, acknowledged Sturge's central role in rousing British anti-slavery opinion in a speech to the House of Lords. In 1839, Sturge and others from the anti-apprenticeship campaign came together to found the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, which survives until today as Anti-Slavery International. The new organization turned its attention to emancipating slaves outside Great Britain's borders. In 1841 Sturge traveled in the United States with the poet John Greenleaf Whittier to examine the slavery question there.

-- Folded letter (June 10th, 1841) addressed at front from Sturge and signed by Joseph Sturge to Governor Pennington, State of New Jersey -- Inside reads--- To The Governor of New Jersey Respected Friends I herewith forward thee a copy of a publication issued recently in England relative to American Slavery. The kind and candid tone of thy letter to Thomas Clarkson , so honorably contrasting with those of some of the Chief Magistrates of the other States , induces me to hope that thou will on all suitable occasions exert thy personal influence and the prerogatives of thy station to promote the great cause of Universal Liberty. Thy friend Joseph Sturge, Philadelphia June 10th 1841.
BACKGROUND: Note the date and recipient of the letter. In 1841 Sturge traveled throughout the United States with the poet J. G. Whittier, to observe the condition of the slaves there. On his return he published A Visit to the United States in 1841 (published 1842). He traveled everywhere to meetings, lectures, and churches, urging international cooperation toward gaining immediate slave emancipation.

        Joseph Sturge

Sturge went straight to slave-dealers and slaveholders and presented them with anti-slavery arguments based on political and economic expedience, such as Harriet Martineau had used. He assailed newspaper editors and political leaders with the same arguments (Sturge 1842). The wellspring of his own anti-slavery activism was nevertheless moral and religious. His foundational convictions he expressed in a letter addressed to all 'Friends of Immediate Emancipation in the United States.' He urged unity among all who regard 'slave-holding and slave-trading as a heinous sin in the sight of God,' as well as a cessation of 'sectional jealousy and national hostility.' He also urged 'public reprobation' against slaveholders. Finally, he argued that 'there is no reasonable hope of abolishing the slave-trade; but, by the abolition of slavery' to be undertaken by 'moral, religious, and pacific' means. Throughout his American journey he persisted doggedly in his efforts to move public feeling, even in the face of pro-slavery churches and a hostile pro-slavery federal government. He pressed the free states to gain control of the federal government and to end the advantages slaveholders got from their 'investiture with political rights, in proportion to the amount of their slave property' (1842). He excoriated the 'leading United States denominations' for their 'monstrous assertion that slavery is a Christian institution resting on scriptural basis,' an assertion he documented with written church statements. Sturge worked tirelessly to organize popular action, even after seeing mass economic sanctions and boycotts fail. But he continued to trust the impact of altered individual feelings and ideologies.

-- Autograph letter (June 24, 1845) signed ‘Joseph Sturge.’ Letter was written from Birmingham, addressed to an unknown ‘Esteemed Friend’, about parliamentary debates, with references to a speech by Sir Robert Peel (on the sugar question) and to the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. 3 pp. 6 x 4 inches, in good condition.
Interesting Note: Sophia Sturge, his beloved sister, died in June 1845. This sad fact may have been on his mind as he wrote. Among other things, Sophia Sturge had trudged to around 3,000 households in Britain personally, asking them not to eat slave-grown sugar. She was quite a warrior against the evils of slavery. Whittier wrote a poem about Sophia after her death. Sophia was the president of the British Complete Suffrage Association. She was the colleague, counselor, and ever-ready helpmate of her brother in all his vast designs of beneficence. The Birmingham Pilot says of her: "Never, perhaps, were the active and passive virtues of the human character more harmoniously and beautifully blended than in this excellent woman." Here is Whittier's poem to Joseph about Sophia Sturge:

Thine is a grief, the depth of which another
May never know;
Yet, o'er the waters, O my stricken brother!
To thee I go.

I lean my heart unto thee, sadly folding
Thy hand in mine;
With even the weakness of my soul upholding
The strength of thine.

I never knew, like thee, the dear departed;
I stood not by
When, in calm trust, the pure and tranquil-hearted
Lay down to die.

And on thy ears my words of weak condoling
Must vainly fall
The funeral bell which in thy heart is tolling,
Sounds over all!

I will not mock thee with the poor world's common
And heartless phrase,
Nor wrong the memory of a sainted woman
With idle praise.

With silence only as their benediction,
God's angels come
Where, in the shadow of a great affliction,
The soul sits dumb!

Yet, would I say what thy own heart approveth
Our Father's will,
Calling to Him the dear one whom He loveth,
Is mercy still.

Not upon thee or thine the solemn angel
Hath evil wrought
Her funeral anthem is a glad evangel,--
The good die not!

God calls our loved ones, but we lose not wholly
What He hath given;
They live on earth, in thought and deed, as truly
As in His heaven.

And she is with thee; in thy path of trial
She walketh yet;
Still with the baptism of thy self-denial
Her locks are wet.

Up, then, my brother! Lo, the fields of harvest
Lie white in view
She lives and loves thee, and the God thou servest
To both is true.

Thrust in thy sickle! England's toilworn peasants
Thy call abide;
And she thou mourn'st, a pure and holy presence,
Shall glean beside!              -- By John G. Whittier

BACKGROUND: Joseph Sturge (1793–1859); Quaker philanthropist, son-in-law of James Cropper. Some of the earliest British and American anti-slavery speakers and writers were members of the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers. The life and actions of Joseph Sturge exemplified in the nineteenth century the Quaker tradition of anti-slavery that George Fox, founder of the Friends, initiated in the seventeenth. Joseph Sturge was born in Gloucestershire in 1793 and died in Birmingham on May 1, 1859, after a life of radical political action supporting pacifism, working class rights, and the universal emancipation of slaves. Sturge succeeded admirably in pursuing radical goals through measured and diplomatic organizational behavior. He effectively directed popular protest toward achieving concrete steps in the long process of ending class oppression, whether it took the form of worldwide chattel slavery or wage slavery in Britain.  He was one of the founders of the agency committee of the Anti-Slavery Society. When the Emancipation Act of 1834 was finally passed in Parliament, Sturge refused to let the 'apprenticeship' provision rest. ('Apprenticeship' was the widely criticized intermediate stage on the route to emancipation chosen by the British government.) Boldly he set out in person, with Thomas Harvey, to investigate apprenticeship on the spot. Between Nov 1836 and April 1837 he and Harvey traveled through the West Indies gathering evidence to demonstrate the flaws of the apprenticeship system. Everywhere they went they observed apprenticeship in action and talked directly to apprentices, overseers, stipendiary magistrates, and proprietors. In Antigua, where the local legislature bypassed apprenticeship, Sturge and Harvey found that freed people had achieved a social and economic condition far superior to that of Jamaica, where apprenticeship prolonged the wretchedness of slavery. Their book, The West Indies in 1837 (1838), exposed for a broad public the cruelty and injustice of apprenticeship. While he was in Jamaica, Sturge helped found the Jamaican free village of Sturgetown. He brought to London a Jamaican apprentice, James Williams, who described in his own words the brutality of his apprentice life. Williams's story touched his audiences and stirred up agitation against apprenticeship. Sturge used what we now call field research in order to demonstrate his hypothesis about apprenticeship. This research strategy, combined with his unflagging protest activity, succeeded in shortening the period of apprenticeship by a full two years. Fifteen months after Sturge¹s West Indian trip, nearly 800,000 men and women held in apprenticeship became fully free. He founded the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1839, and organized international anti-slavery conventions in 1840 and 1843. In 1841 he traveled through the United States with the poet J. G. Whittier, to observe the condition of the slaves there. On his return published A Visit to the United States in 1841 (1842). Sturge served as secretary of the Birmingham Anti-Slavery Society. A statue was erected in Birmingham in his honor after he died. The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS), founded in 1839 by Joseph Sturge, still survives today as Anti-Slavery International. Sturge worked tirelessly to organize popular action, even after seeing mass economic sanctions and boycotts fail. But he continued to trust the impact of altered individual feelings and ideologies. He put faith in the moral force of religion. In 1942 Joseph wrote, "Light and darkness, truth and falsehood, are not more in opposition than Christianity and slavery."

-- Joseph Sturge autograph -- 2 7/8 x 5 Page is hand signed in black ink pen.
-- Rare March 25, 1865 edition of a family journal, "The Leisure Hour." In this journal is a great article about Joseph Sturge, along with an excellent etching of Sturge. In this article the last meeting with Thomas Clarkson before he died. Here is what was written:

   LAST PUBLICLY SPOKEN WORDS OF THOMAS CLARKSON: Slavery everywhere was attacked after it had fallen in the British dominions. Joseph Sturge, from the beginning of the new endeavors to the end of his life, was one of the main elements of strength and support. Readers will remember the celebrated conference held at the Freemason's Hall, June 1840, when and where were gathered between 500 and 600 delegates, from all parts of the world, we may say, besides all that was great and good in every philanthropic undertaking. It was a noble assembly. There Thomas Clarkson appeared for the last time in public. We give our readers a condensed account of the scene from the pen of the painter Haydon, who was present as an artist to find materials for one of the greatest pictures.
   "In a few minutes," he says, "an unaffected man got up and informed the meeting that Thomas Clarkson would attend shortly: he begged no tumultuous applause might greet his entrance, as his infirmities were great, and he was too nervous to bear any such expressions for feelings." This was Joseph Sturge. In a few minutes the aged Clarkson came in, gray and bent, leaning on Joseph Sturge for support, and approached with feeble and tottering steps, the middle of the convention. Immediately behind him were his daughter-in-law, the widow of his son, and his little grandson. The old man first appealed to the meeting for a few moments of silent prayer; and says Haydon, "for a minute there was the most intense silence I have ever felt." He spoke a few feeble words: every word was uttered from his heart.
   After urging the members to persevere to the last, til slavery was extinct, lifting his arm and pointing to heaven, his face quivering in emotion, he ended by saying, "May the Supreme Ruler of all human events, at whose disposal are not only the hearts, but the intellects of men -- may He, in His abundant mercy, guide your counsels and give His blessing upon your labours." There was a moment's pause; and then, without an interchange of thoughts or look, the whole of the vast meeting, men and women, said in a tone of subdued and deep feeling, "Amen and amen!"

25. Over 400 Golden Legacy (Black History) comics in mint condition (most still in original packaging) -- known as "Illustrated History Magazines". Between 1966 and 1976 Bertram Fitzgerald (publisher) produced 16 volumes of Golden Legacy Comics. He left a legacy of his own, comprising the most successful series of Afrocentric comics to date.

The Golden Legacy comics are thoroughly professional in their writing, art, and production values, and full of enough historical surprises to interest adult readers presented in a package accessible to younger readers.

Comics in this Collection tell the stories of Toussaint L'Ouverture (pictured), Harriet Tubman, Crispus Attucks, Benjamin Banneker, Matthew Henson, Alexander Dumas, Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls, J. Cinque (Amistad Mutiny), Martin Luther King, Ancient African Kingdoms, Alexander Pushkin, Black Cowboys, Louis Lattimer, Marcus Garvey, George Washington Carver, White, Marshall, and Wilkins.





 26. 1820s "T Porter" slave button (from Antigua, British West Indies), sewn onto the outer clothing of slaves -- used to identify the owner of the slave.
-- The Chillicothe Recorder (OH, dated Aug 23, 1815). Inside page headline with report on live slaves being thrown overboard from a slave ship, while shackled together. I have heard anecdotal stories of this but this is the 1st reference I can find to it actually having been done!
-- 1818 edition of Niles Weekly discussing the "Treatment of Slavery in Maryland".
-- Vintage engraving of a "Slave Felucca on the Coast of Africa", 1852.


27. Signed letters, photos and other sports memorabilia (Julius Erving, Buck Leonard,  Jack Johnson, Satchel Paige, Harlem Globetrotters (many annual programs, LPs, and other Globetrotter items), Joe Frazier,


Bob "Showboat" Hall

Ali, Magic Johnson, Michael Jordan, George Foreman, Negro Baseball League, Sugar Ray Leonard and more). Boxing gloves signed by Muhammad Ali, George Foreman, Sugar Ray Leonard, Joe Frazier, Mike Tyson and others. Many Harlem Globetrotter programs 1948-2005. to review the other Harlem Globetrotter items. Pictured is the 1949 (23rd Season) Harlem Globetrotter's program -->

  <--Harlem Globetrotter ('46-'74) Bob "Showboat" Hall's (signed) travel bag. This is the actual bag he used in his world travels with the Harlem Globetrotters...

-- Rare original AFTRA Engagement Contract dated January 28, 1972, for Pearl Bailey's appearance on the Harlem Globetrotter's Celebrity Special (NBC) at The Forum in LA -- signed by Pearl, w/ her Social Security # (Pearl was paid 00 for her appearance).

--  Absolutely rare original signed check for 02.30 from Samuel Goldwyn Productions made out to Pearl Bailey, dated September 6, 1958. Pearl Bailey was working on Porgy and Bess, which was released June 4th, 1959 (Otto Preminger, Director). This check was all or part of her payment for playing Maria in Porgy and Bess. The check is signed on the back twice -- Pearl Bailey and Pearl Bellson (Pearl was married to jazz drummer Louie Bellson, who revitalized the Duke Ellington Orchestra in the 1950s). The Porgy and Bess film was marginally successful when released, winning an Oscar, Golden Globe, and Grammy Award. Ira Gershwin and the Gershwin estate were unhappy with the film, however, and rescinded the rights to the film in the 1970s. As a result, the film has never been on video or DVD here in America, and few public screenings have been permitted, albeit begrudgingly. It is believed that the original negative is in dire need of a restoration. This collection has a DVD copy of the entire film, obtained from another country.
--  Dubose Heyward: PORGY. Published in 1934 by The Modern Library, NY. Stated First Modern Library Edition. Hard cover, no dj, 196 pages, Illustrated Chapter headings. DuBose Heyward (August 31, 1885 – June 16, 1940) is best-known as the author of the 1924 novel Porgy, which became the foundation of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess. Langston Hughes called Heyward "one who saw, "with his white eyes, wonderful, poetic qualities in the inhabitants of Catfish Row that makes them come alive." Biographer James M. Hutchisson characterizes Porgy as "the first major southern novel to portray blacks without condescension" and states that the libretto to Porgy and Bess was largely Heyward's work. Book is in good condition.
--  Rare 1959 vintage poster (16" x 23") of the film (Belgium), Porgy and Bess. -- starring Sidney Poitier, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Pearl Bailey and others.
--  A vintage First Edition hardback illustrated motion picture movie book titled: The Samuel Goldwyn Motion Picture Productions of Porgy and Bess, copyright 1959...the year the movie was released.
-- Souvenir program of George Gershwin's "Porgy and Bess", Produced by Cheryl Crawford ca. 1943. Directed by Robert Ross, Starring Todd Duncan, Anne Brown, Georgette Harvey et al. Cover art by Al Hirschfeld, 9" x 12", 15 pages, includes 10 b/w photos. Clean, flat and still tightly bound in EXCELLENT condition.

  28. A three-volume 1803 English edition (quite rare) of "Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt During the Campaigns of General Bonaparte in That Country", written and illustrated by Vivant Denon, published by T.N. Longman & O. Rees (London). In the spring of 1797, with a direct assault against Britain out of the question, Napoleon Bonaparte suggested threatening Britain's rich commerce with India by invading Egypt. A unique feature of the expedition, which set sail on 19 May 1798, was the large number and high caliber of the attached civilians, among them Baron Dominique Vivant Denon (1747-1825). Denon was one of the founders of the Louvre Museum, and was responsible for saving many works of art and monuments of French culture from destruction during the French Revolution. Denon was entrusted by Napoleon to assemble a team of artists, archeologists, linguists and scholars to study the antiquities of Egypt for the first time since Antiquity. In addition to assisting in the formulation of practical measures for the rule of Egypt, the 167 savants accompanied the army to every corner of the country. Protected by the French troops, Denon was able to explore the country extensively. This book contains many etchings of Egypt, including the famous etching of the Sphinx of Giza shown at the top of this web page. --

Rare 3-Volume Set by Vivant Denon, 1803


   In the south, he reached Assouan; from Keneh he went to Kosseir. Their studies of the great monuments of ancient Egypt paved the way for the science of Egyptology. It was during this expedition that the Rosetta Stone was discovered, which ultimately enabled people to decipher and translate ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Denon's book was the first important fruit of the French expedition to Egypt. This is an early English translation of the work (apparently the first English edition was printed a year earlier), and contains a wealth of beautiful fold-out plates and maps, including contemporary scenes from Denon's travels, plans of ruins, engravings of the monuments and reproductions of some of the art in the ruins and temples.  Contemporary half leather binding with marbled boards and edges. 392, 312, 366pp. Illustrated with 57 engraved plates and maps. 8vo (standard sized book). CONDITION: Good to Very Good. All volumes: Rubbing and edge wear to boards and spine. Hinges cracked. Front board of Volume 1 loose but not yet detached. Split to centre of spine of Volume 2, binding still okay. Missing 5 plates, but has 2 uncalled for. Some sunning to page. Varying foxing to pages and plates, some plate just at edges, others have some spots to plates themselves. A few plates have tape repairs to reverse. Scattered dirt spots to pages. In general a tidy set, all text pages present and text clear and readable, foxing to margins of text pages only.

-- First Edition (American) book by Gaston Maspero, "The Dawn of Civilization / Egypt and Chaldea", 1894 (400 images)
-- First Edition (London) book by Joseph Pollard, "The Land of the Monuments: Notes of Egyptian Travel", 1896
-- March, 1873 Harper's Weekly article by Rev. William Hayes Ward, "Our Debt to Cadmus: Hieroglyphics"
-- Original British Museum booklet, "History of the Rosetta Stone", printed by Harrison and Sons, London), 1939
-- "Ancient History: Egyptian..." by Charles Rollin, 1854
-- "The Hebrew Bible, With Respect to Egypt" (incl. maps), by Robert, Lord Bishop of Clogher. Printed for J Warcus, London, 1760 (3rd Edition, Corrected), 493 pages, bound with full original full calf leather.
-- "The Story of the Nations: Ancient Egypt", by George Rawlinson, First Edition, 1887, with many illustrations.
-- French edition of "L' Archeologie Egyptienne" by Gaston Maspero, 1887. Rare, with many illustrations.
-- Leeds, England newspaper article erroneously announcing the death of Napoleon in Egypt. Intriguing.
-- The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte by J.G. Lockhart (1886), 496 pages with 9 tipped-in illustrations and many wood engravings. London: Bickers & Sons, Leicester Square. Faversham School Prize full calf binding with marbled endpapers and edges. Prize bookplate on pastedown. Portrait frontispiece slight foxing. Text, slight foxing. Slight foxing in prelims and last few pages, otherwise clean. Plates, lovely and luminous.
-- Hand written letter (Nov. 5th, 1805) by the former Chief Ordonnateur (Director) of the French Army during the Napoleonic Egyptian Campaign.
-- "Egyptian Antiquities", produced by the British Museum for the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, and published by Knight London in 1832, this is a splendid 2 volume, 12mo size work. The two volumes have full page and other engravings and have around 800 pages in total. Really detailed work on Egyptian monuments, Rosetta Stone, buildings, sculptures, tombs, papyrus, etc., etc. In the original half calf boards.
-- Rare Original French Text Book, copyright 1900 -- "L'Expedition de Bonaparte en Egypte", Written by L.A. Thiers, with introduction by C. Fabregou, published by D.C. Heath & Company. Most of the book is written in French, with some English translation in the back. 100 pages. It is an old college text book from Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA.
-- L’Egypte, by old French traveler/diplomat/student of Egypt, Gabriel Charmes, published by CALMAN LEVY, Rue Auber, Paris, France, 1891, Chapters include, in part -- Mariette Pacha, Les Etudes Egyptologiques en Egypte, Les Pyramides D’Ounas et de Meydoum, Dier-El-Bahari, L’Institut D’Archeologie Orientale Du Caire, and more. Very antique volume of 396 rich crispy style pages in its original Calmann Levy, ‘L’EGYPTE’ soft card covers as published.

Jean Champollion in Egypt

-- Lettre Ecrites D'Egypte et de Nubie en 1828 et 1829, by Champollionn le Jeune (Letters Written in Egypt and Nubia in 1828 and 1829 by Francois Champollion) with all illustrations intact. This very, very rare First Edition by the translator of Egyptian Hieroglyphics is seldom seen on the open market. Most copies are in large University or Public library rare book collections. This work is an important insight into the early work of one of the Fathers of Egyptology. These are his own reflections and opinions regarding the monuments of Egypt. It is important to remember that Champollion only ever made one trip to Egypt as he died soon after his return. A great loss to the science of Egyptology.
-- Jean-Francois Champollion, a 10 year old child saw some of the Egyptian artifacts and enquired about the strange pictures (Hieroglyphs) where he was told that no one yet understands what these pictures means. Since that time Champollion committed himself to decipher the Hieroglyphs. By the age of 16 he became a professor mastering 10 languages at the same time. Champollion then compares the two cartouches of PTOLEMY & CLEOPATRA found on the Rosetta stone which contains similar characters. He continued deciphering more cartouches and texts from the temple of El Karnak. It took Champollion 24 years until he published his work in a book " Precis du systeme Hieroglyphique ". Sadly Champollion died by a stroke on 1832 when he was 41 years old.

-- Two extremely rare First Edition French volumes, "Complete Summary of Archaeology" by Jean Champollion-Figeac (Published in Paris, 1825 and 1826, just a few years after he cracked the code to hieroglyphics in 1822). Divided into volumes. First: Monuments of architecture, Sculpture and Painting, including/understanding constructions of any kind, the statues, low-reliefs, figurines, tombs, furnace bridges, vases painted, mosaic, etc...with an introduction historical and finished by a vocabulary divides into volumes. Second: Containing the treaties on the engraved stones, the inscriptions, the medals, the utensils crowned and common, movable, weapons, etc, followed by the biographies of the most famous antique dealers, archéologieque bibliography and of a vocabulary.

-- Vintage framed image of Dr. Thomas Young.
Background: Dr. Thomas Young is the man who undertook the task had perhaps the keenest scientific imagination and the most versatile profundity of knowledge of his generation — one is tempted to say, of any generation. For he was none other than the extraordinary Dr. Thomas Young, the demonstrator of the vibratory nature of light. Young had his attention called to the Rosetta Stone by accident, and his usual rapacity for knowledge at once led him to speculate as to the possible aid this tri-lingual inscription might give in the solution of Egyptian problems. Resolving at once to attempt the solution himself, he set to work to learn Coptic, which was rightly believed to represent the nearest existing approach to the ancient Egyptian language. His amazing facility in the acquisition of languages stood him in such good stead that within a year of his first efforts he had mastered Coptic and assured himself that the ancient Egyptian language was really similar to it, and had even made a tentative attempt at the translation of the Egyptian scroll. His results were only tentative, to be sure. Yet they constituted the very beginnings of our knowledge regarding the meaning of hieroglyphics. Just how far they carried has been a subject of ardent controversy ever since.  Not that there is any doubt about the specific facts; what is questioned is the exact importance of these facts. For it is undeniable that Young did not complete and perfect the discovery, and, as always in such matters, there is opportunity for difference of opinion as to the share of credit due to each of the workers who entered into the discovery.

Dr. Thomas Young's specific discoveries were these: (1). that many of the pictures of the hieroglyphics stand for the names of  the  objects actually delineated; (2). that other pictures are sometimes only symbolic; (3). that plural numbers are represented by repetition; (4). that numerals are  represented by dashes; (5). that hieroglyphics may read either from the right or from the left, but always from the direction in which the animals and human figures face; (6). that proper names are surrounded by a graven oval ring, making what, he called a cartouche; (7). that the cartouches of the preserved portion of the Rosetta stone stand for the name of Ptolemy alone ; (8). that the presence of a female figure  after such cartouches,  in other inscriptions, always denotes the female sex; (9). that within the cartouches the hieroglyphic symbols have a positively phonetic value, either alphabetic or syllabic ; and (10).  that several different characters may have the same phonetic value.

Just what these phonetic values are, Dr. Young pointed out in the case of fourteen characters, representing nine sounds, six of which are accepted to-day as correctly representing the letters to which he ascribed them, and the three others as being correct regarding their essential or consonantal element.  It is  clear,  therefore,  that  he  was  on  the right  track thus far, and on the very verge of complete discovery. But, unfortunately, he failed to take the next step, which would have been to realize that the same phonetic values given the alphabetic characters within the cartouches, were often ascribed to them also when used in the general text of an inscription; in other  words, that the use of an alphabet was not confined to proper names.  This was the great secret which Young missed, but which his French successor, Jean Francois Champollion, working on the foundation that Young had laid, was enabled to ferret out. Young's initial studies of the Rosetta stone were made in 1814 his later publications bore date of 1819.  Champollion's first announcement of results came in 1822; his second and more important one in  1824.  By this time, through study of the cartouches of other inscriptions, he had made out almost the complete alphabet, and the “Riddle of the Sphinx " was practically solved.  He proved that the Egyptians had developed a relatively complete alphabet (mostly neglecting the vowels, as early Semitic alphabets did also) centuries before the Phoenicians were heard of in history.

-- Hardbound Volume IV of  American Quarterly Review (September and December, 1828). This 546 page book contains reviews of historical, scientific, and travel literature published by Carey, Lea & Carey, Chesnut Street, Philadelphia; 546 pages. Twenty-six of those pages are dedicated to reviewing Jean Champollion's May/June 1827 article published in the Bulletin Universal entitled, "Apercu des Resultats Historiques de la decouverte de l'alphabete Hieroglyphique Egyptienne" par M. Champollion le Jeune.

 -- Magnificent extremely rare plate/print (one of 511 plates), expertly backed with linen, of Thutmose III from the monumental 1843 work of Jean Champollion, the first to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs (20" x 27").
-- Rare First Edition copy of "L'Univers Pittoresque. Egypte Ancienne" by M. Champollion-Figeac (Jean Champollion), Paris, Firmin Didot, 1839. It contains 92 illustrations and an antique folding map of Egypt. First few pages have some foxing, with the rest in excellent condition. 500 pp., & 92 plates,1/2 maroon morocco with 5 raised bands & leather label, marbled bds. & endpapers.-- Very scarce First Edition, Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum, 1862. Details 250 exhibits. Published by Smith, 196 pages. Excellent condition. In fact, it appears to be unread. Over 6 pages, with three diagrams, dedicated to the Rosetta Stone.
-- Intriguing early 1900s glass slide of the Rosetta Stone by Moore, Bond &Co. (Chicago).

-- Two Copper engravings (22"x9" -- Battle Plan for Alexandria and Map of Nile) titled, "Plan of the Action of the 21st. of March Fought near ALEXANDRIA, by the French under General Menou, and the English under Sir Ralph Abercrombie" and also "A Map of the Western Branch of the Nile from the Latest Authorities". Issued in 1803 as part of Robert Thomas Wilson's "History of the British Expedition to Egypt To which is Subjoined a Sketch of the Present State of That Country and its Means of Defence".

-- A fine 1719 original, copperplate engraved views of the Pyramids and of the Sphinx, Giza, Egypt, with engraved cursive commentary as borders: Description des Piramides d'Egypte . . . Avec une Description tres Curieuse du Sphinx, from Chatelain, Henri Abraham, Atlas Historique..., Volume 6, Amsterdam: . First edition. Excellent condition, heavy paper, crisp dark impression; uncolored as always (any color seen in these images/maps is applied by modern hands.) Dimensions: 17 1/2" x 21 1/4" (overall);

-- This collection has 82 extremely rare original plates/prints ( from "Description de l'Égypte" from the Napoleonic Egyptian Campaign, circa 1820. These official plates/prints came from a huge lot sold in an auction in 2001, Paris -- the seller was the French Government -- from the cellars of the French Government Publications Office. Average plate/print size is 29 inches x 22 inches. Some of the plates in this collection are 56 inches long! --  (Description de l'Égypte was the result of the collaboration of prominent scholars, several famous European scientists, cartographers, topographers, and more than 160 artists and technicians. They accompanied Napoleon's army during Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. Their goal was to methodically collect information in areas as widely varied as architecture, geography, botany and the humanities. Description de l'Égypte was published in 23 volumes from 1809 to 1828 and includes over 900 plates.)   Regions depicted/represented by the official plates in this collection are: Thebes, Karnak, El Kab, Medynet-Abou, Hypogees, Elethyia, Heptanomide, Beny-Hasan, Tentyris, Memnonium, Byban El Molouk, Latopolis, Ile de Philae, Edfou, Louqsor and much, much more...

Description de l'Égypte: Official plates/prints previously owned by the French Government.

--  Very rare L'expédition d'Égypte, 1798-1801, par Clément de Lajonquière. Five large volumes in wraps, total of about 3400 pages! (1902, 2nd edition). Among the campaigns of the revolution, consigning Egypt is both one of the most popular and less well known. Thus began the monumental work of Clement Draveurs (Clément de La Jonquière). Published (about 100 years after the Napoleonic military campaign) from 1899 to 1907 under the auspices of the History Section of the État de l'Armée, Paris, he tells one of the most extraordinary adventures of the revolutionary period. Many testimonies, more or less reliable contemporaries; also numerous texts on the science of "oriental dream." The work of Georges Rigault on the last leg of the expedition to Egypt and those of Pierre de La Grèverie on Regiment Dromadaires round off the work of a master in the final volume.
Vol. I: 673 p., Vol. II: 632 p., Vol. III: 720 p., Vol. IV: 688 p., Vol. V: 692 p. A complete set. With numerous foldout maps. Vol. I: A rebinding copy. Rear cover missing, backstrip missing parts and frayed. Shaken. Internally excellent: text leaves clean and neat. Vol. II: Missing front wrap cover, else in excellent condition – tight and clean. Vol. III: a Very Good volume. Tight and clean with some wear to covers. Vol. IV: A rebinding volume – shaken, backstrip cracked. Covers off and frayed. Internally clean and neat. Vol. V: A Very Good volume. Tight and clean. Covers with some wear and leaves somewhat yellowed. A remarkable complete set.
BACKGROUND: (translated from French) In 1797, after the victory early, and unexpected, Napoleon in Italy, England remains the main enemy. One can oppose it either by attempting an invasion, either by intervening on its links with India. The conquest by Bonaparte of Ionian Islands in August 1797 opened the way to the Orient and reanimate the idea of conquest of Egypt, which would allow the opening of the Isthmus of Suez, thus controlling of a more commercial path runs to the riches of India. As a first step, in January and February 1798, the policy of the Executive moves to the invasion. Bonaparte examines all possibilities of invasion from ports in the north, the troops are assembled, a fleet is formed, but the operation seems far too risky and it is abandoned. But we must fight against England, and incidentally get rid of a Bonaparte too. Talleyrand, confirmed his analysis by the intervention of Magallon, will therefore attempt Eastern map. The decision to intervene in Egypt was taken on March 5, 1798. On August 22, 1799, Bonaparte, after the unfortunate expedition to Syria, even Egypt, called for new targeted France.He left the expedition under the command of Kleber, which does little to maintain in Egypt. But Kleber is totally convinced of the importance of scientific work, which continues, despite the setbacks and delays of the policy. It creates Similarly, on November 19, 1799 a commission to study more particularly modern Egypt. On Nov. 22, 1799, he took the decision to consolidate all the work of scholars of the commission in a unique work, the Description of Egypt. Kleber enters into negotiations with the British and the Ottomans, to evacuate honorably and Egypt to participate in military actions in Europe. An agreement was concluded on January 23, 1800 for the return in France, but its implementation is not possible, given the internal divisions among English, the sultan of procrastination and the resumption of hostilities in Egypt. After the victory of Heliopolis Kléber on the Ottomans, March 20, 1800, there is no question of return, but the morale of the troops, such as scholars rose. Unfortunately, on June 14, 1800, when the victory of Marengo, Kléber was assassinated in Cairo. The General Menou, being the oldest in the highest rank succeeded him as head of the army. Any momentum had been able to restore Kléber members of the expedition despite the failure of the draft back, disappears with him. Until the final departure to France, scholars no longer leave little near the Cairo and Alexandria in order to be ready to leave at the first opportunity. However Menou continues the work of reorganization and modernization begun by Bonaparte and continued by Kleber. To him we owe the fact that the publication of the description will not be provided by private funds but rather by the state, so that is recognized and sanctioned the importance of the work done by scholars. After many tribulations, scholars, gathered in Alexandria, obtain permission to leave Egypt on May 13, 1801, but the English do not want to pass up, unless they abandon all material collected during the exploration and their notes and sketches. The negotiations, sometimes tragic, lasting several months and it was not until September that the first members of the committee may leave Egyptian soil, having left in the hands of English the heaviest items that they had found, including the famous Rosetta Stone.

 Clay pipes

 29. Four clay pipes (to the left) depicting people of African descent dated back to the mid 1800s, one British.

-- Bambara Elder's Pipe: To the right is a fine item, approximately 150 years old -- from the Bambara Tribe in Mali, West Africa. This is an elder's or chief's pipe, approximately 10" long and shows use and character. The bowl is metal lined and is reinforced with metal on the mouthpiece.
BACKGROUND: The Bambara speak "Bamana", which is one of the Manding languages. Bamana is widely spoken in Mali, especially in the areas of business and trade. During the 1700's, there were two Bambara kingdoms: Segu and Karta. In the 1800's, aggressive Muslim groups overthrew these kingdoms, leaving only a few anti-Muslim Bambara to oppose their occupation. This lasted forty years until the arrival of the French. Only 3% of the Bambara had become to Islam by 1912. After World War II, the number of Muslim coverts grew due to their resistance to the French and their exposure to Muslim merchants. The Bambara are 70% Muslim today.


A Bambara elder's pipe


 30. 1858 Slave Life Insurance Policy Receipts from La Providencia (6 different copies, 1858-1859) and La Protectora Insurance Companies -- both in Havana, Cuba. Slavers routinely covered their slaves with life insurance policies. Consequently, they didn't care if they had to push slaves overboard or even if the slaves lived or died on the voyage. The slavers were paid regardless. This was common practice during the Slave Trade -->
-- AUTHENTIC 159-year-old copy of the "Diario de la Marina" Cuban newspaper. The most prominent HABANA newspaper of the time and right up to Castro's communist takeover. This newspaper is a total of 4 large (14"X20") pages full of information about life in Cuba and the world. It is from Tuesday July 28th, 1846. At the time newspapers were made of a high quality paper-cloth mix material that through time has not yellowed nor deteriorated as other more recent types would. Depicts 19th century slave trade in Cuba.
-- This collection also has two more issues of "Diario de la Marina" from Sept. 3rd, 1844 and Dec. 29th, 1844. Lots of information about slave ships, the sale/capture of slaves, colonial life, etc...
-- 1840 Portugal ship certificate registration with 1 slave -- The ship "Palas" arrived at Montevideo from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), and later left for Pernambuco. It carried 1 slave (police report included, with 7 other related documents).

Cuban Insurance Policies for Slaves

No images on this page may be used without
© 2010-NOW
Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.


    Countee Cullen

 31. Countee Cullen -- poet, anthologist, novelist, translator, children's writer, and playwright, Countee Cullen is something of a mysterious figure. He was born March 30th, 1903 (died 1946), but it has been difficult for scholars to place exactly where he was born, with whom he spent the very earliest years of his childhood, and where he spent them. New York City and Baltimore have been given as birthplaces. Cullen himself, on his college transcript at New York University, lists Louisville, Kentucky, as his place of birth. A few years later, when he had achieved considerable literary fame during the era known as the New Negro or Harlem Renaissance, he was to assert that his birthplace was New York City, which he continued to claim for the rest of his life. Cullen’s second wife, Ida, and some of his closest friends, including Langston Hughes and Harold Jackman, said that Cullen was born in Louisville. As James Weldon Johnson wrote of Cullen in The Book of American Negro Poetry (rev. ed., 1931): "There is not much to say about these earlier years of Cullen--unless he himself should say it." And Cullen--revealing a temperament that was not exactly secretive but private, less a matter of modesty than a tendency toward being encoded and tactful -- never in his life said anything more clarifying.

-- Page from the December 1923 issue of Opportunity Magazine with poem, "When I Am Dead", signed by Countee Cullen (dated December 14, 1923). Countee was a mere 20 years of age at the signing of this autograph.
-- Color (First Edition, 1925) -- signed by Countee Cullen
-- Color
(First Edition, 1925) -- with original book cover (3 additional copies)
-- Ballad of the Brown Girl (First Edition, 1927)
-- Caroling Dusk: An Anthology of Verse by Negro Poets (2 copies -- First Edition, 1927)
-- Copper Sun (First Edition, 1927) -- signed by Countee Cullen
-- Copper Sun (First Edition, 1927) (3 more First Edition copies)
-- Black Christ and Other Poems (First Edition, 1927)
-- Black Christ and Other Poems (Third Edition, 1927)
-- On These I Stand (First Edition, 1947) -- along with an original advertisement card, with Countee's picture.
-- The Medea and Some Poems (First Edition, 1935)
-- An Anthology of the Best Poems of Countee Cullen (First Edition, 1947...published posthumously)

 32. World War II Unit History titled "Workin’ on those Airdromes" An Overseas Report From the 923rd Engineer Aviation Regiment including the 827th Engineer Battalion, 829th Engineer Battalion, the 847th Engineer Battalion, and the 859th Engineer Battalion is soft back 10 3./4" x 8 ¾" with 42 pages attached with staples. Front inside cover inscription to "Sally, Mother, and Mimi from Tom" written in blue ink." Includes text, black and white photos of the African American soldiers. " Two greatest accomplishments of the men of this Regiment were the construction of Eye and Debach airdromes in England….On D-Day, June 6, 1944, the first flight of Liberators took off from Debach….work performed by our men continued missions of the heavy Flying Fortresses B-17 and Liberators B-24…Displays color graphics of Aviation Engineers and IX Engineer Command patches; soldiers receiving the Bronze Star, Legion of Merit, and Good Conduct Medals; B-17s, half-tracks, etc. Photos of Joe Lewis visiting and participating in "Joe Lewis Day" including "refereeing a boxing fight for us". Lists "Battle Grounds of the 923rd Engineers Airfields constructed, improved, or maintained in England, France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, and Germany". Includes photos of "General Eisenhower, General Marshall, Jimmie Byrnes, General Bradley, General Montgomery, and Russia’s Field Marshal Gregor Zhukov". Lists "In Memoriam They Died in the Service of the United States". Killed in Action KIA. Interesting addition to Black Aviation Collection.

  33. Maps of Africa: Maps of Africa were vital to European slave traders who depended upon the mapmaker's representation of the West African coast for the purposes of navigation -- Clouet (1768) -- Kitchin (1786) -- Chambers (1847) -- Guthrie (1800) -- Noveau Dictionnaire Geographique (1823)
-- Black (1849) -- Johnson & Browning (1861) -- Cundee (1809) -- Levasseur (1866) -- Rapkin (1865)
-- du Bocage (1848) -- Bonne (1780) -- Mitchell (1836, 1841, 1851) -- J. Bartholomew (1878) -- Bonne (1760)
-- Malham's Naval Gazetteer (1796) --
     Maps of Egypt: -- Clouet (1768) -- Wilkinson (1796) -- Mallet (1719) --
     Map of "Hayti and San Domingo" -- Allen (1890) -- Mendes (1871) -- Cape St. Francois (1795)
     Map of King Solomon's Route to Ophir for Gold -- Pluche's (1745) --
     Map of South America -- Dufour (1840) -- Scot (1798) -- J. Bartholomew (1876) -- Cram (1886) -- Gelattly (1845) -- Steiler (1870) -- J.H. Young (1839 and 1852) --
     Map of Scotland -- Mitchell (1847, around the time of Frederick Douglass' visit between '44-'46) --


  34. Six busts (below, 8" high) are by African American sculptor/photographer, Inge Hardison (b. 1904) from the "Negro Giants in History" collection created in 1967. Stunning likenesses. Hardison is a sculptor whose major interest is contemporary and historical portraiture. Much of Hardison’s work is emotionally involved to her heritage as a woman of African decent. She was the only woman among the six artists who formed the Black Academy of Arts and Letters. Hardison once said, “During my long life I have enjoyed using different ways to distill the essences of my experiences so as to share for the good they might do in the lives of others.” A life loyal to creativity and art speaks of the life of Inge Hardison.
-- 1945 playbill for Mansfield Theatre's production of the play, Anna Lucasta, with Inge Hardison listed as an actor -->



  Matthew Henson (1866-1955) was born on a farm in Charles County, Maryland. He was still a child when his parents Lemuel and Caroline died, and at the age of twelve he went to sea as a cabin boy on a merchant ship. He sailed around the world for the next several years, educating himself and becoming a skilled navigator. Henson met Commander Robert E. Peary in 1888 and joined him on an expedition to Nicaragua. Impressed with Henson’s seamanship, Peary recruited him as a colleague. For years they made many trips together, including Arctic voyages in which Henson traded with the Inuit and mastered their language, built sleds, and trained dog teams. In 1909, Peary mounted his eighth attempt to reach the North Pole, selecting Henson to be one of the team of six who would make the final run to the Pole. Before the goal was reached, Peary could no longer continue on foot and rode in a dog sled. Various accounts say he was ill, exhausted, or had frozen toes. In any case, he sent Henson on ahead as a scout.


  In a newspaper interview Henson said: “I was in the lead that had overshot the mark a couple of miles. We went back then and I could see that my footprints were the first at the spot.” Henson then proceeded to plant the American flag. Although Admiral Peary received many honors, Henson was largely ignored and spent most of the next thirty years working as a clerk in a federal customs house in New York. But in 1944 Congress awarded him a duplicate of the silver medal given to Peary. Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both honored him before he died. In 1912 Henson wrote the book A Negro Explorer at the North Pole about his arctic exploration. Later, in 1947 he collaborated with Bradley Robinson on his biography Dark Companion. The 1912 book, along with an abortive lecture tour, enraged Peary who had always considered Henson no more than a servant and saw the attempts at publicity as a breach of faith. (source: Wikipedia)


  Garrett Augustus Morgan (1877-1963) was an African-American businessman and inventor whose curiosity and innovation led to the development of many useful and helpful products. A practical man of humble beginnings, Morgan devoted his life to creating things that made the lives of other people safer and more convenient. Among his inventions was an early traffic signal, that greatly improved safety on America's streets and roadways. On July 25, 1916, Morgan made national news for using a gas mask he had invented to rescue several men trapped during an explosion in an underground tunnel beneath


Lake Erie. After the rescue, Morgan's company received requests from fire departments around the country who wished to purchase the new masks. The Morgan gas mask was later refined for use by U.S. Army during World War I. In 1921, Morgan was awarded a patent for a Safety Hood and Smoke Protector. Two years later, a refined model of his early gas mask won a gold medal at the International Exposition of Sanitation and Safety, and another gold medal from the International Association of Fire Chiefs.
-- Garret Morgan's entire US patent for the first Traffic Signal (1923), which includes 2 Drawing sheets and 4 Description sheets that explain every detail of the invention. This collection owns two of the Morgan sculptures.


  Norbert Rillieux (1806 -1894) was revolutionary in the sugar industry by inventing a refining process that reduced the time, cost, and safety risk involved in producing sugar from cane and beets. As the son of a White French planter/inventor and an African American slave mother, Norbert Rillieux was born in New Orleans, Louisiana. He viewed the methods for refining sugar from beets and cane were dangerous, crude and required backbreaking labor. The methods threatened the slaves who were required to take boiling cane juice from one scalding kettle to another to produce a dark sugar.


   Rillieux designed an evaporating pan which enclosed a series of condensing coils in vacuum chambers, issued as a patent U.S. 4,879. The invention was later used by sugar manufacturer in Cuba and Mexico. Rillieux's system took much of the hand labor out of the refining process, it saved fuel because the juice boiled at lower temperatures, and the new technique produced a superior final product. The Rillieux device was patented in 1846 and was used widely on sugar plantations in Louisiana, Mexico, and the West Indies. "It was stated by Charles Brown, a chemist in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, that [Rillieux's invention of the sugar processing pan] was the greatest invention in the history of American Chemical Engineering." This collection owns two of the Rillieux sculptures.

   Frederick Jones (1892 - 1961) was one of the most prolific Black inventors ever, holding more than 60 patents in a variety of fields. Frederick Jones patented more than sixty inventions, however, he is best known for inventing an automatic refrigeration system for long-haul trucks in 1935 (a roof-mounted cooling device). Jones was the first person to invent a practical, mechanical refrigeration system for trucks and railroad cars, which eliminated the risk of food spoilage during long-distance shipping trips. The system was, in turn, adapted to a variety of other common carriers, including ships.


   Frederick Jones was issued the patent on July 12, 1940 (#2,303,857). Frederick Jones also invented a self-starting gas engine and a series of devices for movie projectors: adapting silent movie projectors for talking films, and developing box office equipment that delivered tickets and gave change.


   Lewis Howard Latimer (1843-1928) is considered one of the 10 most important Black inventors of all time not only for the sheer number of inventions created and patents secured but also for the magnitude of importance for his most famous discovery. A pioneer in the development of the electric light bulb, Lewis was the only Black member of Thomas A. Edison's research team of noted scientists. While Edison invented the incandescent bulb, it was Latimer, a member of the Edison Pioneers, and former assistant to telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell, who developed and patented the process


for manufacturing the carbon filaments. Latimer was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, on September 4, 1848, and reared in Boston. His father, George Latimer, a former slave, had fled to Boston from Virginia during the 1830s. At sixteen Latimer joined the Union navy as a cabin boy on the USS Massasoit. After an honorable discharge in 1865 Latimer returned to Boston. Skills he had developed in mechanical drawing landed him a position with Crosby and Gould, patent solicitors. While with the company he advance to a chief draftsman and soon began working on his own inventions. His first patent, approved on February 10, 1874, was for a "water closet for railway cars." In 1880 Latimer left Crosby and Gould to work as a draftsman for Hiram Maxim, the inventor of the machine gun and head of the United States Electric Lighting Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The following year Latimer and fellow inventor Joseph V. Nichols received a patent for their invention of the first incandescent light bulb with carbon filament. Prior to this breakthrough, filaments had been made from paper. Latimer later became a chief draftsman and expert witness in the Board of Patent Control of the company that would eventually be know as General Electric. Latimer continued to display his creative talents over then next several years. In 1894 he created a safety elevator, a vast improvement on existing elevators. He next received a patent for Locking Racks for Hats, Coats, and Umbrellas. The device was used in restaurants, hotels and office buildings, holding items securely and allowing owners of items to keep the from getting misplaced or accidentally taken by others. He next created a improved version of a Book Supporter, used to keep books neatly arranged on shelves. He continued to invent and teach his drafting skills until his death in 1928.

Dr. Charles Richard Drew (June 3, 1904 -- April 1, 1950) was an American physician and medical researcher. He researched in the field of blood transfusions, developing improved techniques for blood storage, and applied his expert knowledge in developing large-scale blood banks early in World War II. He protested against the practice of racial segregation in the donation of blood from donors of different races since it lacked scientific foundation. In 1943, Drew's distinction in his profession was recognized when he became the first African American surgeon to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery. Drew received a fellowship from Howard University's Medical School, enabling him to


study at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. While at Columbia University, Dr. Drew worked with the renowned Dr. Allen Whipple and with Dr. John Scudder on the problem of blood storage. The science and practice of blood transfusion had developed from early work including preserving whole blood in refrigerated storage in World War I and the practice of having hospital “blood banks” in the mid-1930s. Drew focused his own work[1] on the challenge of separating and storing blood components, particularly blood plasma, as this might extend storage periods. Dr. Drew earned his Doctor of Medical Science degree from Columbia University in 1940, with a doctoral thesis under the title Banked Blood: A Study in Blood Preservation. This collection owns two of the Drew sculptures.


   Benjamin Banneker, originally Banna Ka, or Bannakay (1731-1806) is considered to be one of the first African Americans to gain distinction in science. This beautiful sculpture was purchased from an elderly African American woman. On the back it is marked, "Property of Dorothy Thompson, #1" by the artist, S. Davis and dated '79 (13" high and 7" across). This is a one and only original clay sculpture, painted black.
BACKGROUND: At 21, Banneker saw a pocket watch that was owned by a traveling salesman named Josef Levi. He was so fascinated by it that Levi gave it to him. Banneker spent days taking it apart and reassembling it. From it Banneker then carved large-scale wooden replicas of each piece, calculating the gear assemblies himself, and used the parts to make a striking clock. The clock continued to work, striking each hour, for more than 40 years. This event changed his life, and he became a watch and clock maker.


   One customer was Joseph Ellicott, a Quaker surveyor, who needed an extremely accurate timepiece to make correct calculations of the locations of stars. Ellicott was impressed with Benjamin's work and lent him books on mathematics and astronomy. Banneker began his study of astronomy at age 58. He was able to make the calculations to predict solar and lunar eclipses and to compile an ephemeris for the Benjamin Banneker's Almanac, which an anti-slavery society published from 1792 through 1797. He became known as the Sable Astronomer. Banneker and Ellicott worked closely with Pierre L'Enfant, the architect in charge. However L'Enfant could not control his temper and was fired. He left, taking all the plans with him. But Banneker saved the day by recreating the plans from memory. In early 1791, Joseph Ellicott's Quaker brother, Andrew Ellicott, hired Banneker to assist in a survey of the boundaries of the future 100 square-mile District of Columbia, which was to contain the federal capital city (the city of Washington) in the portion of the District that was northeast of the Potomac River. Because of illness and the difficulties in helping to survey at the age of 59 an extensive area that was largely wilderness, Banneker left the boundary survey in April, 1791, and returned to his home at Ellicott Mills to work on his ephemeris.

Woodcut image of a 64 year old Banneker on 1795 edition of his Almanac

-- An article from a genuine March 21, 1791 edition of the newspaper, Dunlaps American Daily Advertiser states, ""Some time last month arrived...Mr. Andrew Ellicott a gentleman of superior astronomical abilities. He was employed by the president of the United States of America to lay a tract of land ten miles square on the Potowmac for the use of Congress...He is attended by Benjamin Banniker, an Ethiopian, whose abilities as surveyor and astronomer clearly prove that Mr. Jefferson's concluding that race of men were void of mental endowment was entirely without foundation." 


 35. Royal African Company: Official Slave Trade Act of British Parliament, 1750
(I am personally appalled by the stark, business-like manner in which the Royal African Company conducted themselves while developing the following Parliamentary Acts addressing the Slave Trade. Clearly they viewed Africans as a mere commodity, to be bought and sold like grain or wool. Inhumane. Frightening. Thankfully, the Anti-Slavery movement grew in Great Britain and by 1833 slavery was abolished. Thank God for William Wilberforce and others who risked their very lives to fight against this evil. Given the tension between the American colonies and England, it is truly amazing that the Abolitionist movement moved across the Atlantic from England to the American colonies. The Anti-Slavery movement brought people together who, at the time, would not naturally want to be in the same room. The following 60+ vintage documents provide the context and some background information written by the people who instituted the British Slave Trade.)

1660 -- Charles II chartered the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa
-- company reorganized with a monopoly in the slave trade
-- Royal Adventurers went bankrupt largely due to losses in war with Holland
-- Royal African Company, known colloquially as the Guinea company, granted royal charter with a new monopoly in the slave trade, operating on the west African Coast from the Gambia River to the Niger River. The Company built coastal forts as holding pens for slaves
-- Parliament ended the RAC monopoly and opened the slave trade to all; average number of slaves transported on English ships increased from 5,000 to 20,000+ a year (we own this document also)
-- Parliament (under King George II) created the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa to replace the Royal African Company with a policy of protected free trade -- Official Parliament document detailing the new Company-->
1752 -- Royal African Company dissolved
Later 1700s -- British exploration and settlement began

First English Slave Voyage: It was in 1562 by Sir John Hawkins, which was an encroachment on Portugal’s monopoly of Africa.  Slave trade dropped as British foreign policy in 1783, thus indicating 221 years of the trade.  The trade was sharply stimulated by the establishment of the British colonies in the Caribbean and the introduction of the sugar industry.”
Companies Involved:
  Company of Royal Adventurers (which held a monopoly), which was replaced by the Royal African Company in 1672 (after the war with the Dutch).  Note the ties to the royal family.  “The policy of monopoly…provoked determined resistance…” from merchants and planters, the latter “…demanding free trade in blacks as vociferously and with as much gusto as one hundred and fifty years later they opposed free trade in sugar”.  The monopoly was complete: purchase and control of ships, sale of Negroes, importation of plantation produce.  Opposition to other monopolies was also common: 
“In 1698 the Royal African Company lost its monopoly and the right of a free trade in slaves was recognized as a fundamental and natural right of Englishmen”. The Royal African Company, once losing its competitive advantage, received parliamentary subsidy, only to abandon the slave trade in 1731, when it abandoned slaving in favor of traffic in ivory and gold dust. Gradually its powers lessened and it became unable to maintain the complex network of …"…lands, forts, castles, slaves, military stores, and all other effects…". “In 1750 a new organization was established, called the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa”. For many years His Majesty’s Exchequer had defrayed all the Company’s expenses via Parliament, and it was finally decided to, in effect, transfer the Company to public ownership, incorporating the lands in the colony of Sierra Leone.   "The Act for Extending and Improving the Trade to Africa" -->

Slave Trade Act, cover


Official Act, 1750

  BACKGROUND:  ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY, the British company that dealt in the Slave Trade with Africa. This company was deeply involved with the Slave Trade beginning in 1660 and continued until 1731 when it took up trade in gold dust and ivory from Africa. The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in the English Restoration of 1660. It was led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother. Originally known as the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa, it was granted a monopoly over the English slave trade, by its charter issued in 1660. With the help of the army and navy it established trading posts on the West African coast, and it was responsible for seizing any rival English ships that were transporting slaves. It collapsed in 1667 during the war with the Netherlands – the very war it started by having company Admiral Robert Holmes attacking the Dutch African trade posts in 1664 – and re-emerged in 1672, having been merged with those of the Gambia Merchants' Company into the new Royal African Company, with a royal charter to set up forts, factories, troops and to exercise martial law in West Africa, in pursuit of trade in gold, silver and slaves. In the 1680s it was transporting about 5,000 slaves per year. Many were branded with the letters 'DY', after its chief, the Duke of York, who succeeded his brother on the throne in 1685, becoming James II. Other slaves were branded with the company's initials, RAC, on their chests. Between 1672 and 1689 it transported around 90,000-100,000 slaves. Its profits made a major contribution to the increase in the financial power of those who controlled London. In 1698, it lost its monopoly. This was advantageous for merchants in Bristol, even if, like the Bristolian Edward Colston, they had already been involved in the compound. The number of slaves transported on English ships then increased dramatically. The company continued slaving until 1731, when it abandoned slaving in favor of trafficking in ivory and gold dust Charles Hayes (1678–1760), mathematician and chronologist was sub-governor of Royal African Company till 1752 when it was dissolved. Its successor was the African Company of Merchants. The Royal African Company's logo depicted an elephant and castle. From 1668 to 1722 the Royal African Company provided gold to the English Mint. Coins made with this gold bear an elephant below the bust of the king and/or queen. This gold also gave the coinage its name—the guinea.

Genuine British Parliamentary Acts (60+) Regarding The Slave Trade (1698 - 1873)

The following chronological list (1695 - 1873) of Acts of British Parliament are very scarce and historically important. Original, First Edition Acts of Parliament have long been valued and collected. These are fine examples with clear royal emblems at the head of every first page. After an Act was passed by Parliament, it was printed by the Crown printers in London. Only a few Acts were printed at one time, loosely sewn together at the inner margin. Each Act is in excellent condition, quarto size (12" by 8"), printed on fine rag paper.

No images on this page may be used without .  © 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

                                  KING WILLIAM III (of Orange) (1650 - 1702)
-- 1695 Parliamentary Act under the reign of William III and Queen Anne. Anno Regni Gulielmi III. Regis...At the Parliament begun at Westminster the two and twentieth Day of November, Anno Dom. 1695. This beautifully preserved original 1695 British Act of Parliament was published by Charles Bill & Thomas Newcomb. The act - in beautiful gothic script - is a parliamentary discussion on the trade of goods from Africa to England and its colonies, especially America. The act covers the trade of goods and the trade of slaves through the Royal African Company. (Ref: Tooley; M&B) -- 20 pages.
-- 1698 Parliamentary Act, under King William III
-- A rare Act for enlarging the time for registering of ships, pursuant to the Act for preventing frauds, and regulating abuses in the plantation trade. It provides that only ships registered in Great Britain or in her African and American colonies may land goods in Great Britain, and not on the continent. Very interesting content, 17 pages -- March 25, 1698.
-- 1698 Parliamentary Act, under King William III -- The extremely rare Act pertaining to trade with Africa and the change in duties to cover the costs of protecting the colonies. Originally the Crown paid for the upkeep of defenses: "the Forts and Castles now on the said Coast of Africa have been, and now are maintained at the sole Cost and Charge of the present Royal African Company of England". This Act required "the said Company, and all other the said Subjects Answering and Paying for the Use aforesaid, a Duty of Ten Pounds per Centum ad Valorem for the Goods and Merchandize to be Exported from England, or from any of his Majesty's Plantations or Colonies in America, to and for the Coast of Africa, between Cape Mount and the Cape of Good Hope".]

                                  QUEEN ANNE (1702 - 1727)
-- 1712 Parliamentary Act, under Queen Anne -- An extremely rare Act of the English Parliament passed in 1711 and printed in 1712, by John Baskett (London). "An Act for making Effectual such Agreement as shall be made between the Royal African Company of England and their Creditors". Title leaf, and two pages. Interesting association item to the Slave trade conducted by this company.
                                  KING GEORGE II (1727 - 1760)
-- 1742 Parliamentary Acts, under King George II -- An Act for "Granting to His Majesty the Sum of One Million out of the Sinking Fund, and for applying a further Sum therein mentioned, for the Service of the Year One thousand seven hundred and forty three; and for the further appropriating the Supplies granted in this Session of Parliament." This Acts details where the money is to be spent which includes:£5,000 for "form Alliances to support the House of Australia...and restoring the Balance of Power in Europe", £10,000 "towards the Maintenance of the British Forts and Settlements belonging to the Royal Africa Company of England, on the Coast of Africa"

1712 Act of Parliament
(Royal African Company

    >>>> 1743 Parliamentary Acts, under King George II -- An entire volume (over 900 pages), in immaculate condition, containing all of the Acts of Parliament in 1743. It includes an Act "For the Encouraging and Increasing of Shipping and Navigation, as to the Importation on the Account of Aliens, of Goods of the Growth or Production of the Plantations of Spain and Portugal, in England duly Navigated."
-- 1745 Parliamentary Act, under King George II
-- An Act of interesting text relating to the preservation of the trade in Sugar to the West Indies.   "The Act for the Better Encouragement of the Trade of His Majesties Sugar Colonies in America".
-- 1750 Parliamentary Act, under King George II
-- An Act establishing a new organization, the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa”.   "The Act for Extending and Improving the Trade to Africa".
-- 1751 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- An intriguing Act for allowing further time to the Commissioners appointed by and in pursuance of an Act for exempting and improving the Slave Trade to Africa to inquire into the claims of certain creditors of the Royal African Company therein mentioned, and for the relief of David Crichton; and for the restraining of said company from disposing of such effects as are therein mentioned; and for staying all suits for money due from, or on the account of said company for the time therein mentioned (Two copies of this Act of Parliament).
     >>>> 1752 Parliamentary Act, under George II -- An entire volume (over 800 pages). Hardcover bound Law Acts Volume, total page number of 826 pages! containing all of the Acts of Parliament in 1752. Many acts in this huge volume, including an act for divesting the Royal African Company of their forts and settlements, laws for the growth of Coffee in America, admission of the vassals of the principality of Scotland, etc. Pages are clean and in Vg condition in the main with some light foxing to the latter pages.

-- 1754 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- This Act is "For the Better Encouragement of the Trade of His Majesty's Sugar Colonies in America". This was the period of the Jacobite Rebellion led by Prince Charlie. Five pages of interesting text relating to the preservation of the sugar trade to the West Indies and the America colonies.
                                  KING GEORGE III (1760 - 1820)
-- 1767 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act documents the duty-free importation of wheat and wheat flour from Africa and rice from the North American colonies for a limited period of time. An important piece of primary historical source material. May 19th -- 6 pages.
-- 1780 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act is "To allow the Trade between Ireland and the British Colonies and Plantations in America and the West Indies, and the British Settlements on the Coast of Africa, to be carried on in like manner as it is now carried on between Great Britain and the said Colonies and Settlements.
-- 1780 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act is To continue the Act limiting the number of slaves per tonnage of vessel. Surgeon to be appointed. Customs Officer to search and count number of slaves to prove it does not exceed the limit -- 22 pages.
-- 1788 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to regulate the slave trade, for an initial period of one year. It sets out a series of rules to be followed by masters and surgeons of ships in order to increase the likelihood of survival of the slaves onboard their vessels. Essentially it is a series of orders and financial incentives to get slaves to their destinations alive and in better conditions than existed at the time of the Act.
-- 1788 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- A remarkable Act Establishing a company for carrying on trade in Africa, in the Peninsulas of Sierra Leone, called the Sierra Leone Company. The Company to have buildings and secure trade rights within Africa in joint dealings with African Princes. Naming about 100 persons, including William Wilberforce, as joint stockholders -- 24 pages.
Foreign trade was established through coastal African rulers who prohibited European traders from entering the interior. In 1787, British Philanthropists founded the “Province of Freedom” which later became Freetown, a British crown colony and the principal base for the suppression of the slave trade. By 1792, 1200 freed slaves from Nova Scotia joined the original settlers, the Maroons, another group of slaves, rebelled in Jamaica and traveled to Freetown in 1800.Through the efforts of such men as William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp, Lord Mansfield formed an administration in 1806, which was instrumental in the British Empire’s abolition of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (1807). The British established a naval base in Freetown to patrol against illegal slave ships. A fine of GBP £100 was established for every slave found on a British ship. In 1808 Sierra Leone officially became a crown colony with the land possessions of the Sierra Leone Company (formerly known as St. George’s Bay Company) transferred to the crown. The colony was dedicated to demonstrating the principles of Christianity, civilization and commerce. The Sierra Leone Company was the organization involved in founding the first British colony in Africa in 1792 through the resettlement of Black Loyalist African Americans, mostly ex-slaves who had initially been settled in Nova Scotia after the American Revolutionary War. The Sierra Leone Company was the successor to St. George's Bay Company which had made a mostly unsuccessful attempt in 1787 to establish a free settlement for the 'Black Poor' of London. Both ventures were promoted by the anti-slavery activist, Granville Sharp who published a prospectus for the proposed company in 1790 This was entitled Free English Territory in AFRICA. The prospectus made clear its abolitionist view and stated that several respectable gentlemen had already subscribed had done so "not with a view of any present profit to themselves, but merely, through benevolence and public spirit, to promote a charitable measure, which may hereafter prove of great national importance to the Manufactories, and other Trading Interests of this Kingdom". Among the early subscribers are many friends of Sharp involved in the Clapham Sect: Henry Thornton, William Wilberforce, Rev. Thomas Clarkson, Rev. Thomas Gisborne, Samuel Whitbread
-- 1792 Parliamentary Register (House of Commons) -- Three rare issues from the 2nd Session of the 17th Parliament of Great Britain, dated March 1st, June 12th and June 30th. Various items of interest and reform including: An Inquiry into the Evils Arising from Lotteries, Wine License Bill, African Slave Trade and Slave Trade Bill. Each issue is about 60 pages, in quite good condition.  London: printed for J. Debrett, 1792.
   BACKGROUND: The British Parliament is the legislative body of Government in the United Kingdom. It is comprised of two chambers: the House of Lords, where members are appointed by past or current governments, and the House of Commons, a democratically elected chamber with elections to it held at least every 5 years. The Parliamentary Register is the record of Parliamentary deliberations in the form of bills, reports, minutes, committee proceedings, and appropriations. You will notice that in these two June issues of The Parliamentary Register a number of the speeches are about the Slave trade. In April 1791 with a closely reasoned four-hour speech, Wilberforce introduced the first parliamentary bill to abolish the Slave Trade. His first bill was easily defeated. On 2 April 1792, Wilberforce again brought a bill calling for abolition. The memorable debate that followed drew contributions from the greatest orators in the house, William Pitt and Charles James Fox, as well as from Wilberforce himself. Henry Dundas, as home secretary, proposed a compromise solution of so-called "gradual abolition" over a number of years. This was passed by 230 to 85 votes, but the compromise was little more than a clever ploy, with the intention of ensuring that total abolition would be delayed indefinitely. But from that time on Wilberforce tirelessly introduced a bill to abolish the Slave Trade every year until it was accepted on 25 March 1807.   
-- 1793 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to continue Acts regulating the carrying of Slaves in British vessels. No more than 5 slaves to three tons burden of each vessel. The upper and lower cabin and the space between decks to be allotted to the slaves. A qualified surgeon must be aboard, and to produce a record of such trips. --  17th June, 22 pages.
-- 1795 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to amend and continue Acts regulating the carrying of Slaves in British vessels. No ships to carry slaves unless specified for that purpose on leaving port. No more than 5 slaves to three tons burden of each vessel. The upper and lower cabin and the space between decks to be allotted to the slaves. A qualified surgeon must be aboard, and to produce a complete journal of such trips. Penalties for more than 2% mortality. Masters of ships prosecuted for breaking any regulations can have the ship and contents seized and sold. Master to have a copy of this Act posted in the most public place upon his vessel. -- 22nd June, 14 pages
-- 1797 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to stop slaves being sold as chattels to repay debts. This is repealing a previous Act made for the recovery of debts in His Majesty's Plantations and Colonies in America. July 19th -- 2 pages.
-- 1799 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act for Regulating the Manner of carrying Slaves on British Vessels from the Coast of Africa. Printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, printers for King George III. 16 pages.
-- 1802 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act of interesting text. "The Act for Duties to Be Suspended on the Treaty of Amity, Commerce and navigation between Britain and America".
-- 1804 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to amend and continue, as relates to allowing British Plantation Sugar to be warehoused'. It is dated 3rd May 1804, on 2 pages of paper (only one piece has type on both sides, but both pieces are water-marked) and is printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan.

  In 1805 the House of Commons passed a bill that made it unlawful for any British subject to capture and transport slaves, but the measure was blocked by the House of Lords.

-- 1806 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to prohibit for two years, after the conclusion of the present session of Parliament, any ships to clear out from any Port of Great Britain for the Coast of Africa, for the purpose of taking on board Negroes, unless such ships have been previously employed in the African Trade, or contracted for, for that purpose. 21st July 1806 -- 3 pages. Eight months before the abolition of slavery by British Parliament, pressure by some Members were forcing through such Acts as this to stop the spread of slavery.

  In February 1806, Lord Grenville formed a Whig administration. Grenville and his Foreign Secretary, Charles Fox, were strong opponents of the slave trade. Fox and William Wilberforce led the campaign in the House of Commons, whereas Grenville, had the task of persuading the House of Lords to accept the measure. Greenville made a passionate speech where he argued that the trade was "contrary to the principles of justice, humanity and sound policy" and criticized fellow members for "not having abolished the trade long ago". When the vote was taken the Abolition of the Slave Trade bill was passed in the House of Lords by 41 votes to 20. In the House of Commons it was carried by 114 to 15 and it become law on 25th March, 1807. British captains who were caught continuing the trade were fined £100 for every slave found on board. However, this law did not stop the British slave trade. If slave-ships were in danger of being captured by the British navy, captains often reduced the fines they had to pay by ordering the slaves to be thrown into the sea. Some people involved in the anti-slave trade campaign such as Thomas Clarkson and Thomas Fowell Buxton, argued that the only way to end the suffering of the slaves was to make slavery illegal. However, it was not until 1833 that Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act.

 1807 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade" [25th March 1807, pp. 315-326] This particular Act is contained in A Collection of the Public General Statutes Passed in the Forty Seventh Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George the Third: Being the First Session of the Third Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.  Published in London by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, Printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1807. Bound collection of public statutes from 1807, most notable for the act to abolish the slave trade throughout the British Empire. Other acts include import taxes, a number of acts relating to Ireland, notably the ban on importing weapons, as well as other interesting statutes including the Window tax. Half bound in leather, the boards being very worn with the upper board loose and the lower board detached and the spine chipped with loss to the ends and parts of the spine plate. Internally the pages are in pretty good condition given their age, although one of the index pages appears to have been removed at some point and the endpapers are detached. Size a shade under 12 x 8 inches. 464pp.
 1807 Parliamentary Act (2 copies of this particular Act) -- “An Act for transferring to His Majesty, certain Possessions and rights vested in the Sierra Leone Company, and for shortening the Duration of the said Company, and for preventing any dealing or trafficking in the buying or selling of Slaves within the Colony of Sierra Leone.” – 3 pages, August 8th, 1807. The British Parliament felt the need to take over the Sierra Leone company with all its land and buildings to force the issue with known slave traffickers in the area.
-- 1807 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to repeal so much of certain acts as relates to the regulations or conditions under which coffee, coca nuts, sugar and rice are allowed to be secured in warehouses, without payments of duty; and to authorize the collectors and comptrollers of the customs in His Majesty's colonies and plantations in America and the West Indies to administer certain oaths.
-- 1814 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 27th May 1814 regarding the Registration of Condemned Slave Ships as British-built Ships."
-- 1815 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 11th July 1815 regarding the Support of Captured Slaves During Period of Adjudication."
-- 1817 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act of fascinating text (after the War of 1812). "The Act Extending to Newfoundland, Permitting Exportation of Wares from the British Islands in the West Indies to any Other, and to and from the Colonies in America".
-- 1818 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An intriguing Act carrying an execution (agreement) between His Majesty George III and the King of Portugal for the preventing of traffic in Slaves. Gives details of agreements for Royal Navy Warships to board and seize vessels of both countries trading in slaves but gives (seemingly) exceptions to some Portuguese vessels with "issued paperwork". Mentions among others obscure West African colonies such as "Molembo" and "Cabinda", and also the "Brazils".
-- 1819 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 12th July 1819 regarding an Act for more speedy trial of offences upon the Seas against the Laws of Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1819 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 12th July 1819 regarding an Act for making provision for the Removal of Slaves from British Colonies."
                                  KING GEORGE IV (1820 - 1830)
-- 1821 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act for Abolishing the African Company, and Transferring to and Vesting in His Majesty all Forts, Possessions, and Property now belonging or held by Them." [7th May, 1821]. London: printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, Printers to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty. 1821, 4 pages long.
-- 1821 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 10th July 1821  regarding the Appropriation of Proceeds Arising from Capture of Vessels & Cargoes belonging to Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands in Prosecution of the Slave Trade."

  A new Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1823. Members included Thomas Clarkson, Henry Brougham, William Wilberforce, Thomas Fowell Buxton, Elizabeth Heyrick, Mary Lloyd, Jane Smeal, Elizabeth Pease and Anne Knight).
-- 1824 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 31st March 1824 regarding the More Effectual Suppression of the African Slave Trade."
-- 1827 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 2nd July 1827 regarding the Effect the Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade."
-- 1827 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 2nd July 1827 regarding the Execution of a Convention between Britain and Brazil on the Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1828 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 25th July 1828 regarding Amending and Consolidating the Laws relating to the Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1830 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 16th July 1830 regarding the Reduction of Rate of Bounties Payable on Seizure of Slaves."
                                  KING WILLIAM IV (1830 - 1837)
-- 1833 Parliamentary Bill (Very Rare) -- For the Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Colonies, For Promoting the Industry of the Manumitted Slaves, and for Compensating the Owners of Such Slaves, July 5, 1833. 25 pages. -- It was not until 1833 that Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act, which made slavery illegal and gave all slaves their freedom.

-- 1833 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 28th August 1833 regarding Two Conventions with the King of France for Suppressing the Slave Trade."
-- 1834 Parliamentary Act [26th March 1834] (44 pages) -- "An Act for Punishing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the Better Payment of the Army and their Quarters.  It includes "...That all Negroes purchased by or on account of His Majesty...shall be considered as Soldiers having voluntarily enlisted..."
-- 1834 Parliamentary Act [15th August 1834] (27 pages) -- (On , all slaves in the British Empire were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in . £20 million was paid in compensation to plantation owners in the .) -- An Act to apply a Sum of Money out of the Consolidated Fund and the Surplus of Grants to the Service of the Year 1834, and to appropriate the Supplies granted in this Session of Parliament. This document details where the money is to be spent: "£580 for Office of Registrar of Colonial Slaves", "£16,200 for Commissioners for preventing the Slave Trade", "£5,707 to defray the Charge of the Salaries of the Inspectors and Superintendents of the Factories...to regulate the Labour of Children and young Persons in the Mills and Factories...", "£12,750 to the Baptist Missionary Society, and to the Wesleyan Missionary Society, on account of Expenses incurred in the Erection of certain Chapels destroyed in the Island of Jamaica", £1,000 for the Female Orphan House, Dublin" and much more...

  The British government paid compensation to the slave owners. The amount that the plantation owners received depended on the number of slaves that they had. For example, the Bishop of Exeter's 665 slaves resulted in him receiving £12,700.
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 31st  August 1835 regarding the compensation of Owners of Slaves upon Abolition."
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 9th September  1835 regarding the Treaty with King of France and the King of Denmark for Suppressing the Slave Trade."
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act --  “An Act for Carrying into Effect a Treaty with the King of the French and the King of Sardinia for suppressing the Slave Trade [9th September 1835]”
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Treaty with the King of the French and the King of Denmark for suppressing the Slave Trade [9th September 1835]” - 32 pages
-- 1836 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 30th March 1836 regarding the Treaty with the Queen Regent of Spain on the Abolition of Slavery."
-- 1836 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 7th June 1836 regarding an extension until 1840 of an Act of the Legislature of Jamaica for the Abolition of Slavery. "
                                  QUEEN VICTORIA (1837 - 1901)
-- 1837 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to carry into further Execution the Provision of an Act completing the full Payment of Compensation to Owners of Slaves upon the Abolition of Slavery [23d December 1837]” – 3 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to amend the Act for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies [11th April 1838]” – 10 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for the better and more effectually carrying into effect the Treaties and conventions made with Foreign Powers for suppressing the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]” – 3 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the Hans Towns to Two Conventions with the King of the French, for suppressing the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]”
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to carry into effect an additional Article to a Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]”
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect an additional Article to a Treaty with the Netherlands relating to the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]” – 6 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the Duke of Tuscany to Two conventions with the King of the French for suppressing the Slave Trade [10th august 1838]
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the King of the Two Sicilies to Two Conventions with the King of the French for suppressing the Slave Trade [10th August 1838]” – 7 pages
-- 1848 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Treaty between Her Majesty and the Republic of the Equator for the Abolition of the Traffic in Slaves [4th September 1848]” – 26 pages.
-- 1849 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Agreement between Her Majesty and the Imam of Muscat for the more effectual Suppression of the Slave Trade [5th September 1848]” – 6 pages
-- 1849 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect Engagements between Her Majesty and certain Arabian Chiefs in the Persian Gulf for the more effectual Suppression of the Slave Trade [1st August 1849]” – 8 pages
-- 1861 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to apply out of the Consolidated Fund and the Surplus of the Ways and Means to the Service of 1861, and to appropriate supplies granted in this session of Parliament [August 6, 1861]  Includes mention of sums granted to David Livingstone (Expedition to the River Zambezi), Dr. Baikie (expedition to the River Niger), exploration of N.W. Australia, Bounties for Slaves, etc,. – 17 pages
-- 1869 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to regulate and extend the Jurisdiction of Her Majesty’s Consul at Zanzibar in regard to vessels captured on suspicion of being engaged in the Slave Trade, and for other purposes relating thereto [9th August 1869]” – 3 pages
-- 1869 Parliamentary Act -- "Original and complete Act of Parliament (one page only) This Act repeals the recited earlier Act due to the cessation of the importation of slaves to Brazil from Africa.
-- 1873 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for regulating and extending the Jurisdiction in matters connected with the Slave Trade of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Aden, and of Her Majesty’s Consuls under Treaties with the sovereigns of Zanzibar, Muscat, and Madagascar, and under future Treaties [5th August 1873]” – 5 pages

-- There are also other items of similar interest, like an Act to amend the Act for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies (1838) and an Act to remove doubts as to the Rights of the liberated Africans in Sierra Leone (1853) and much more.


-- Journals of the House of Lords Volume LIV (January 23, 1821 - January 3, 1822) -- Covers many fascinating topics, including an Act going through between 2 and 10th July as follows: "An act for the appropriation of certain proceeds arising from the capture of vessels and cargoes of the property of the subjects of the kings of Spain Portugal and the Netherlands, taken and seized in violation of the conventions made with those States; and for granting Bounties for Slaves Captured in such vessels taken in the Prosecution of the Slave Trade". The Bill goes through various readings referenced in the book and was ultimately passed. It was called the "Captured Slaves Bill".

-- A priceless 4-page 1843 British Foreign Office Circular (see below) alerting British Consuls about the legal penalties placed upon British subjects still involved in the Slave Trade. This absolutely rare document is personally handwritten and signed by Lord Aberdeen, who later became Prime Minister of Great Britain (1852-1855). Lord Aberdeen wrote this while he was the British Consul at Trieste, Italy.
-- 1858 letter handwritten by Lord Aberdeen stating that he would not attend Queen Victoria's State Ball at Buckingham Palace because of his poor health. He died within the year.
-- Engraved image of Lord Aberdeen.

-- Rare 1830 edition of the "Abolition of the African Slave-Trade", By the British Parliament. Abridged from Thomas Clarkson. Together with a Brief View of the Present State of the Slave-Trade and of Slavery. Volume I (Only). Augusta: Published by P.A. Brinsmade, At the Depository of Kennebec Co., Sunday School Union. 227 pages. 3 3/4" x 6". The book is hardbound cloth-backed boards with leather spine. The spine has gilt lettering. The book is complete and intact. The interior is clean. It has wear at the extremities. It has chipping and wear at the spine leather and an ex-library sticker. The front board and end page is detached.

-- Three rare First Edition books (1855, 1857, 1868) on the British Slave Trade presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty -- with reports from Africa, Zanzibar, Portugal, Spain, Egypt, Brazil, Madagascar, France, The United States, Turkey, Sardinia and Tripoli -- providing a fascinating window into the 19th Century perceptions of slavery and the slave trades. Printed by Harrison & Sons, London. Includes special correspondence from Consul Charles Livingstone (Brother of David) on tribal slave dealers. Exquisite marbled leather covers.

--  The Map of Africa by Treaty, by Sir Edward Hertslet, Librarian of the Foreign Office. This book was printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office by Harrison and Sons, St. Martin's Lane, London, in 1909, and is Volume One. Original hardbound book on the various treaties establishing British colonies on the African continent, published more than 97 years ago. This volume describes British colonies, protectorates, and possessions in Africa. It includes the text of numerous treaties establishing boundary lines and other administrative details, organized in three major sections: i. British West Africa  ii. British South and Central Africa iii. British East Africa -- There are six fold-out maps, bound into the text to illustrate terms of the various treaties. In addition to the maps, there are more than 400 pages of text, detailing the actual language of the different treaties between Great Britain and the various chiefs and potentates of the African nations. And here is an excerpt from the 1861 cession to Great Britain of the port and island of Lagos, Nigeria: Pension to be paid to King Docemo  "In consideration of the the cession...the Representatives of the Queen of Great Britain do promise, subject to the approval of her Majesty, that Docemo shall receive an annual pension from the Queen of Great Britain equal to the net revenue hitherto annually received by him; such pension to be paid at such periods and in such modes as may hereafter be determined."  By an Additional Article to the above Treaty, dated 18th February, 1862, it was agreed that King Docemo should receive as a pension from the British Government 1,200 bags of cowries yearly, as equal to his net revenue, provided he did not break any of the the Articles of that Treaty, and resigned all claim upon former farmers of his revenue. Hertslet's text tells the story of Africa's partition in formal detail, and this volume is a valuable historical resource. The book was originally published in 1894, and this volume is the 1909 edition, with revisions by R.W. Brant and H.L. Sherwood. The overall size of the book is 10" x 6 1/2".


  36. -- Absolutely rare unrecorded 1689 Handwritten Manuscript admonition asserting England's dominion over colonial American trade [William III - King of England]. WE GREET YOU WELL ... from the King of England to ‘OUR PLANTACIONS’ (sic) OF NEW ENGLAND. This is an extremely important original manuscript document pertaining to the history of colonial America concerning the issues that would eventually result in American Independence. It was a "Draught of a License for New England Concerning the Violating of the Plantacion Laws" -- carried to the "Committee of Councils" by Sir John Werden on September 18th, 1689. Three pages of text and one.

    Background and context: Immediately upon England’s deposition of James II in December of 1688, Boston merchants also seized and imprisoned Edmund Andros, the despotic royal governor of the ‘Dominion of New England’. The Dominion had been established in 1684 after England annulled various colonial charters in order to regulate


their internal policies to the benefit of the Crown. Each of the colonial components of the Dominion resumed their former independent colonial status (including free trade) after the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688-89 which brought William to the throne. Upon his ascension in August 1689 King William III had written, ‘to the Government of Massachusetts Colony in New England’ in a letter, implicitly recognizing their intra-colonial autonomy. Nevertheless in this document dated September 1689, King William III reasserts control over New England’s trade, navigation and customs policies. He herein refers to the Navigation Laws as for ‘Our Revenue’. That very issue - precedent of colonial trade as royal ‘revenue’ - would prove a key rubbing point between the Colonies and Crown until the American Declaration of Independence. How did the contents of this document ultimately effect the African Slave Trade, especially in light of the Acts of Parliament mentioned above?
       On one hand (as stated herein) William’s decree refers to the New England provinces as they were severally restored to their pre-Dominion condition, calling them: “the Several Colonies and Provinces (of New England).” The singular ‘Dominion of New England’ was thereby confirmed as being officially terminated and reconstituted in their “Several” colonial distinctions (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, etc.) On the other hand, (and most interestingly) is the fact that this document at the same time also refers to New England again as ‘Our Territory and Dominion,’ which indicates that the post-Revolution Crown was asserting (for the first time!) its uniform “Dominion” right over American trade. In other worlds, England was restoring constitutional self-government in the American provinces, by declaring its “Dominion” rights divine right) over American commerce itself. This is a most remarkable document to have been issued in the very year of Britain’s Glorious Revolution! This previously unrecorded piece of Anglo-American diplomacy is therefore of extreme historic importance as the contents presents the astonishing constitutional genesis of the issues which would eventually erupt in the break of the colonies from the motherland.
       The document begins: ‘Whereas we are Informed that the several Laws Relating to Our Plantacons (sic) have been Lately Broken and Violated in Our Territory and Dominion of New England, to the Prejudice of our Revenue of Customs and the Trade and Navigation of this our Kingdom, Our will and pleasure is, That you Cause the said Laws to be Effectually observed and Executed according to the True Intent and Meaning thereof, within our Said Territory and Dominion of New England, and the Several Colonies and Provinces thereof". The document then lists several prior Acts of Navigation and Trade and features the regulating points pertaining to American commerce. The thrust of the earlier Acts of Navigation quoted enumerate the Plantation Trade restrictions which prevented Americans from freely exporting commodities such as tobacco sugar, wool, etc.
       Another astonishing fact is that this document predates the Navigation Acts passed by Parliament under William III by over six years! This unique document therefore defines the official Anglo/American revenue relationship for over six years - those most important years between the “Glorious Revolution” and the infamous British Acts of Trade which commenced in 1696 and ultimately drove America to Independence in 1776! Only one other such customs notice by William III is known (Andrews IV ‘England’s Commercial and Colonial Policy’, 1938, p. 148-49). Andrews locates only a 1697 entry which was issued following the newly enacted Anglo-American Navigation Acts. That, a retained copy, remains in the the House of Lords Manuscript collection. Its companion (now lost) was also ‘transmitted to the customs officials themselves, constituting a code of customs law for their guidance.’ Again, more significantly, this present document was issued years earlier for the like purpose during the year of the great constitutional revolutions in both England and America. Its contents are unrecorded, unpublished and of considerable historic importance as they specifically represent the advent of the provincial issues which would eventually culminate in our nation’s birth.
      If this document was brought over to America, was this one of the documents that General Gage took back to England with him when he realized that he had been defeated by George Washington's army? Good question....


       "A Soiree"

  37. Report of the Speeches of Messrs. Frederick Douglass, Henry Clarke Wright & James Buffum -- An extremely rare 32 page report of an anti-slavery soiree held in Dundee, Scotland on March 10th, 1846 by the reporter of the Dundee Courier -- Printed by D. Hill, at the Courier Office. (A rare documents dealer in Scotland said that this was the only such document he had seen in over 30 years of business.) Rev. George Gilfillan (see his image below), the pastor, had invited Douglass to speak. Over 1200 people attended to listen to the speeches past midnight. Here's the first paragraph of the booklet:
"On the evening of Tuesday the 10th March, a soiree in honor of Messrs Douglass, Wright and Buffum, the advocates of the abolition of American Slavery, was held in George's Chapel (now named Gilfillan Memorial Church). The anxiety to obtain tickets for this demonstration was so great that the number issued were all disposed of on the previous day., and consequently the chapel was filled in every part at an early hour, upwards of 1200 being present..." 


   As a runaway slave, Douglass had written his "Narrative..." book. He had previously resisted the temptation to disclose much of his slave identity, including his master's name or his place of birth, for fear of recapture. But he now decided to defend himself against these charges and to compose a narrative of his experiences that would conclusively prove the authenticity of his identity and validate his status as a representative slave. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave (1845) became an instant success, selling 4,500 copies between the months of May and September, and 30,000 copies in both Britain and America by 1850. Praised by reviewers all over the country — one in the Lynn Pioneer declared, "It is the most thrilling work which the American press ever issued—and the most important"—the story of Douglass's early life became our country's most important slave narrative, and a seminal work of 19th century American literature. Its popularity, however, was something of a mixed blessing for Douglass; with his identity fully revealed, the risk of recapture increased dramatically.

  His old master, smarting over his treatment in the Narrative, would have liked nothing better than to bring that ungrateful slave back home. Concerned for his safety, Douglass's friends urged him to pursue a course he had been considering, and that had become even more attractive after the strain of composing the Narrative: to travel overseas, and commence an antislavery tour of England. Douglass was reluctant to leave his family—he was now the proud father of four children—but the threat of recapture was overpowering. Because of the Fugitive Slave laws, Frederick knew that he needed to leave America. On August 16, 1845, Douglass left from Boston with an antislavery traveling companion, James Buffum, a wealthy, if slightly insipid, Garrisonian from Lynn. They boarded the Cambria and sailed for Liverpool.
  Never one to shy away from the good fight, Douglass did not go quietly across the waters. Indeed, controversy followed his transatlantic voyage from its very beginning. Accompanied by Buffum, Douglass attempted to purchase a cabin passage, but was told that since "it would give offense to the majority of the American passengers," he would have to accept a berth in the steerage compartment. Douglass complied; perhaps he suspected that there would be ample opportunity for agitation in the immediate future. Indeed, once on board, Douglass quickly ruffled some pro-slavery feathers by distributing copies of his Narrative, the sale of which was his principal means of financing his trip, as well as by venturing into the first-class sections to dine with sympathetic fellow passengers.

Young Frederick,
about the time
he visited Scotland


  If the ship simmered, it did not come to a boil till the night of the 27th. As Douglass began to speak on deck, the several hecklers around him became more violent, forming what Douglass called "a real American, republican, democratic, Christian mob." And when Douglass countered their accusations of abolitionist fabrications by reading some of the more severe state slave laws, the pro-slavery members of the crowd became even more incensed. As one rather partisan witness explained, the passengers refused to let Douglass "vomit his foul stuff any longer on the quarter deck." Several suggested throwing Douglass overboard, others rushed to his defense, and the two sides fought it out on deck. The brawl was temporarily broken up when the captain threatened to put the pro-slavery men in chains if they continued to disrupt Douglass (a gesture that Douglass, all too familiar with chains and possessing a keen sense of irony, readily appreciated). However, the fighting continued, and the captain eventually suggested that for safety's sake, Douglass retire to his cabin. The incident, heavily publicized in the British and Irish press, served Douglass as instant publicity material, and made him into a sort of celebrity before he even set foot on British soil.

   Frederick Douglass arrived in Liverpool on the Cambria on 28 August 1845 and departed from Liverpool on the same ship in April 1847. In over 18 months he traveled extensively in Britain and Ireland, giving lectures in dozens of cities and towns. He was in Scotland for most of the first half of 1846, returning again in July, September and October the same year. Home to some of the more radical anti-slavery sentiment in Britain, Scotland gave Douglass a warm welcome. The Edinburgh and Glasgow Emancipation Societies had been formed in 1833 and - in the wake of the abolition of slavery in the British West Indies - they called for the abolition of slavery in other parts of the world, especially the United States. Douglass received the money on this trip from Anna Richardson in UK to purchase his freedom from his former master, Thomas Auld. When the American abolitionist movement began to split in the late 1830s, the Scottish Societies tended to take the side of William Lloyd Garrison, whose uncompromising followers stood aloof from party politics and held radical views on women's rights. Douglass spoke at public meetings across the country. Among the venues we know he appeared at were: Glasgow City Hall; Abbey Church, Arbroath; George's Chapel, Dundee; Abbey Close United Presbyterian Church, Paisley; Cathcart St Church, Ayr; Secession Church Paisley; Music Hall, Edinburgh; and the Bridge St Chapel, Edinburgh. Many of these meetings drew large crowds.. On the 1 May at the Music Hall, Edinburgh, an audience of 2000 had bought tickets at sixpence each.                    

   Douglass was not always the only speaker on these occasions, but undoubtedly the main attraction. Other anti-slavery campaigners with whom he shared the platform included:
  -- James Buffum
, an abolitionist and financier. James Needham Buffum was born in North Berwick, Maine, to Quaker parents. Buffum trained as a carpenter and established his own business as a house contractor in Lynn, Massachusetts. He grew wealthy through his business pursuits, which he expanded to include activities as a real estate speculator and financier. Dissatisfied with Quaker positions on reform, Buffum became an advocate of immediate abolition and a strong supporter of William Lloyd Garrison. Having independent means, Buffum traveled widely in the company of Garrison, Frederick and others...
  -- Henry Clarke Wright
, the American activist who had been in Britain since early 1843.(see his book below)
  -- William Lloyd Garrison
, the leader of the American Anti-Slavery Society and editor of its influential magazine, The Liberator - who toured Britain in 1846.
  -- George Thompson
, an English militant who had long been associated with the Glasgow Emancipation Society.


Rev. George  

-- Rev. George Gilfillan (1813-1878) invited Frederick Douglass to speak at his church, George's Chapel. He was minister of School Wynd United Associate Secession Church, which became part of the United Presbyterian Church in 1847. After his death in 1878 a majority of the congregation, in an effort to continue his commitment to religious progress, broke away to set up an independent Gilfillan Memorial Church, which is still in Dundee today. School Wynd Church continued to 1926. Gilfillan was connected to anti-slavery networks through his association with Glasgow friends prominent in the radical Glasgow Emancipation Society. One author states, "Gilfillan invited Frederick Douglass to give a lecture at his church in Dundee, at which Douglass outdid himself in the boldness of his charges against those whom he held faithless to the cause of liberty." Gilfillan had a huge literary output of pamphlets, essays, criticism and editions of poets. His edition of Robert Burns is famous and still very readable as is his Gallery of Literary Portraits. In spite of the fame which came to him from his writings, Gilfillan did not neglect his church and his people. He was always willing to


help needy churches by giving one of his famous lectures on some literary theme. On Gilfillan's death the procession to the grave on the slope of Balgay cemetery was over two miles long.
--  George Gilfillan: Anecdotes and Reminiscences by David Macrae. First Edition, Morison Brothers Glasgow 1891
-- Bards of the Bible by George Gilfillan. 1869, Harper and Brothers edition. This probably is the first American edition -- the true first was published in Britain in 1851. The book is about the poetic quality of the Bible with an emphasis on Old Testament prophets.
-- 1863 edition of "Martyrs and Heroes of the Scottish Covenant" by Rev. George Gilfillan. Published by Gall & Inglis, London. 288 pages. It offers a succinct and impartial account of the history of the Scottish Covenant with an unbiased estimate of the character of its principal actors. Some of the key points include the policies of James I and Charles I, commencement of the Civil War, character and execution of Charles I, murder of Archbishop Sharp, skirmish at Drumclog, murder of John Brown, expedition of the Earl of Argyle, massacre of Glencoe, women of the Covenant, critical estimate of Ramsay, Ferguson & Burns, erastianism and priestly domination, etc.

-- Human Life; Henry Clarke Wright; Boston: Bela Marsh 1849...First Edition, 414p. . Size-5x7.5” Hardback. Illustrated, in My Individual Experience as a Child, a Youth, and a Man. Wright was one of the speakers at the 1846 Dundee event with Frederick Douglass mentioned above. Inside clean and tight with foxing. rubbed edges and bumped corners.
BACKGROUND: One of Garrison"s dearest friends; Wright served as the General Agent for the Garrison-inspired Non-Resistance Society after breaking with the less radical American Peace Society. Though educated at the Andover Seminary, Wright thought little of contemporary American Christianity --"I can only say, that I was disgusted with a religion without honesty, and with a God without truth, justice or mercy. To be an honest and Christian man, and a worshipper of the true God, I have been obliged to renounce such a religion....The present volume brings down my experience to 1835. It is interspersed with extracts from my journal kept in Europe from 1842 to 1847 (also chronicling the visit of Frederick Douglass), in the form of letters addressed to William Lloyd Garrison." An important figure in many antebellum reform movements and one of the most ardent and confrontational with a blunt and severe public style, though Garrison claimed he was a delightful companion in private gatherings.

   38. Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia newspaper, with interesting articles) April 21, 1836 -- INVENTION BY A NEGRO - A patent given to 29 year-old Henry Blair of Maryland, a free colored man, for a Corn Planter machine now on exhibit at the Capitol - description of process - Blair thinks it will save the labor of eight men - he is adapting the machine for use with cotton. [NOTE: Henry Blair was the only inventor to be identified in the Patent Office records as "a colored man." Blair was born in Montgomery County, Maryland around 1807. He received a patent on October 14, 1834 for a seed planter and a patent in 1836 for a cotton planter. Henry Blair was the second black inventor to receive a patent the first was Thomas Jennings who received a patent in 1821 for a dry cleaning process. Henry Blair signed his patents with an "x" because he could not write. Henry Blair died in 1860.].
at Washington for circulating incendiary pamphlets to excite slaves to insurrection - description of the charges and description of the accused; more. This is a great piece of Black American History with two very important African American related articles together in one issue.


  Mrs. Booker T. Washington

   39. Two-page letter (Jan. 11, 1917) written on Mrs. Booker T. Washington's (Margaret James Murray) own letterhead (Girls' Industries at Tuskegee Institute, AL) and signed by her.
   The Letter reads: My Dear Miss Elliott: I am writing to thank you for the cards, toys & notions for children. Through friends like you we were able to carry sunshine to many children & "grown ups" all about us. It was always Mr. Washington's desire that the children in the country should be thought of at this time. For him as much as for the people and ourselves we are grateful. We are doing our best to make young people willing to serve as well as being served. I want my friends to fell that we are doing our best. I remain yours sincerely, Mrs. Booker T Washington.
   The envelope has a Tuskegee institute, Ala postal stamp dated Jan 12, 1917. The back of the envelope is marked Booker T Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. It appears Mrs. Washington hand wrote Mrs. in front of Mr. Booker T's name. The letter is in nice condition with just a small tear at the top. Nice content with reference to Mr. Washington. Also, another two-page 1917 letter by Margaret.


   Washington married three times. A private and complex man, Booker had the trauma of losing two wives. He married one of his Malden school pupils, Fanny Norton Smith in 1882. Their daughter Portia was born in 1883. Fanny died in 1884. He then married Olivia Davidson in 1885. A Hampton graduate, Olivia was the assistant principal of Tuskegee. She had great influence on Washington and the development of his Northern philanthropic support. They had two sons, Booker T. Washington Jr. and Ernest Davidson Washington. Olivia died in 1889. Washington then married Margaret James Murray in 1892. A teacher, Margaret became the Lady Principal of Tuskegee after Olivia's death. Margaret and Booker did not have children. In addition to her professional role on campus, Margaret ran a home for the entire Washington family at The Oaks. She died in 1925.
-- First Edition copy of "Character Building" by Booker T. Washington, 1902. Fine condition.
-- First Edition of "Up From Slavery" by Booker T. Washington, 1900 and another copy signed by his son.

From an 8-page address given by Mrs. Washington at Fisk University

A quote from Washington's classic, Up From Slavery: "I used to envy the white boy who had no obstacles placed in the way of his becoming a congressman, governor, bishop, or president by reason of the accident of his birth or race. I used to picture the way that I would act under such circumstances; how I would begin at the bottom and keep rising until I reached the highest round of success. In later years, I confess that I do not envy the white boy as I once did. I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed. Looked at from this standpoint, I almost reach the conclusion that often the Negro boy's birth and  connection with an unpopular race is an advantage, so far as real life is concerned. With few exceptions, the Negro youth must work harder and must perform his task even better than a white youth in order to secure recognition. But out of the hard and unusual struggle through which he is compelled to pass, he gets a strength, a confidence, that one misses whose pathway is comparatively smooth by reason of birth and race. From any point of view, I had rather be what I am, a member of the Negro race, than be able to claim membership with the most favored of any other race. I have always been made sad when I have heard members of any race claiming rights and privileges, or certain badges of distinction, on the ground simply that they were members of this or that race, regardless of their own individual worth or attainments. I have been made to feel sad for such persons because I am conscious of the fact that mere connection with what is known as a race will not permanently carry an individual forward unless he has individual worth, and mere connection with what is regarded as an inferior race will not finally hold an individual back if he possesses intrinsic, individual merit. Every persecuted individual and race should get much consolation out of the great human law, which is universal and eternal, that merit, no matter under what skin found, is, in the long run, recognized and rewarded. This I have said here, not to call attention to myself as an individual, but to the race to which I am proud to belong."

               Lindy Hoppers

   40. Absolutely rare original 4-Page contract (1935) between the Lindy Hoppers and Samuel Goldwyn. Signing twice are George "Shorty" Snowden, Freddie Lewis, Madeline Lewis, Beatrice Gay, Beatrice Elam and Leroy Jones. They were paid ,500 for a week's service. Research has determined that this document is most probably the contract for the film short, "Ask Uncle Sol". One-of-a-kind! (see below)...
-- We also have a copy of the "Ask Uncle Sol" film).

-- Rare authentic (10" 78rpm) record (Brunswick) of Count Basie and his orchestra with the song, "Shorty George." It is a familiar mistake to think the Count Basie (and other star's) recording of "Shorty George" referred to Snowden. It doesn't. Band members were quite clear about its relevance to a mythical "Shorty George" who was being commemorated in song before Snowden had even invented the Lindy Hop.

Leon James & Willamae Ricker


-- Scarce (10" 78rpm) record (Decca) Lil Armstrong (Louis' wife) and her Swing Orchestra with the song, "Lindy Hop." (1937). Decca #1388.
-- Vintage (10" 78rpm) record (The Gramophone Company, Middlesex, England) Duke Ellington & his Orchestra with the song "That Lindy Hop" music by Eubie Blake and lyrics by Andy Razaf (recorded June 12, 1930). #B.6355.
-- Also a vintage 1943 Life Magazine photographic essay on "The Lindy Hop", which was considered a national folk dance. "One evening in 1927, after Lindbergh's flight to Paris, some young Negro couples began improvising eccentric off-time steps in a corner of the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem. On the sidelines a connoisseur of dancing names, 'Shorty George' Snowden watched critically, then muttered, 'Look at them kids hoppin' over there. I guess they're doin' the Lindy Hop."
: The aforementioned quote from the 1943 Life magazine has no prior existence before 1943. In other words, it must have been contrived by a Life journalist. None of the prior accounts of the creation of the dance and its naming, including the actual 1928 newspaper reports agree with this. Yet unfortunately this account, plus some additions from a DANCE magazine article of 1956 have gone into wide circulation now and are regarded as the gospel truth.

George "Shorty" Snowden  and Big Bea in film


-- Woodblock image titled, "Lindy Hop." It is 7 1/2" high by 6 1/4" wide. Pencil signed by ?.

   41. Document signed by MARTIN DELANY, Trial Justice in Charleston, South Carolina, 1877. Measures 8 3/4 x 7 inches. African American intellectual Martin Robinson Delany (1812-1885), a journalist, physician, army officer, politician, and judge, is best known for his promotion before the Civil War of a national home in Africa for African Americans. Martin Delany was born free in Charlestown, Virginia, on May 6, 1812. His parents traced their ancestry to West African royalty. In 1822 the family moved to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, to find a better racial climate, and at the age of 19 Martin attended an African American school in Pittsburgh. He married Kate Richards there in 1843; they had 11 children. In 1843 Delany founded one of the earliest African American newspapers, the Mystery, devoted particularly to the abolition of slavery. Proud of his African ancestry, Delany advocated unrestricted equality for African Americans, and he participated in conventions to protest slavery. Frederick Douglass, the leading African American abolitionist, made him coeditor of his newspaper, the North Star, in 1847. But Delany left in 1849 to study medicine at Harvard.

Martin Delany


    At the age of 40 Delany began the practice of medicine, which he would continue on and off for the rest of his life. But with the publication of his book The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered (1852; reprinted, 1968), he began to agitate for a separate nation, trying to get African Americans to settle outside the United States, possibly in Africa, but more probably in Canada or Latin America. In 1854 he led a National Emigration Convention. For a time he lived in Ontario. Despite his bitter opposition to the American Colonization Society and its colony, Liberia, Delany kept open the possibility of settling elsewhere in Africa. His 1859-1860 visit to the country of the Yorubas (now part of Nigeria) to negotiate with local kings for settling African Americans there is summarized in The Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party (1861; reprinted, 1969). When Delany returned to the United States, however, the Civil War was in progress and prospects of freedom for African Americans were brighter. President Abraham Lincoln appointed him as a major in the infantry in charge of recruiting all-African American Union units. After the war Delany went to South Carolina to participate in the Reconstruction. In the Freedmen's Bureau and as a Republican politician, he was influential among the state's population, regardless of race.


   42. Isaac Norris glass slide -- Hand drawn and early – this must surely be an extremely rare slide. It was discovered in a large box of early, hand drawn slides and a lantern. There are no markings on the slide to indicate age or maker. However, there was a slide in the lantern that advertises slides by Harback & Co. – Filbert Street – Philadelphia. The glass slide says: “Lately imported from Antigua and to be sold by Edward Jones in Isaac Norris’s Alley A parcel of likely Negro women and girls from thirteen to age and twenty years of age and have all had the Small-Pox Two very likely Negro boys." There is a bit of irony here. Isaac Norris was the Speaker of the Philadelphia (Colonial) Assembly who commissioned the Liberty Bell. He also oversaw its recasting after it cracked during its first ringing. Norris was a Quaker and a merchant who is known to have traded in slaves from the West Indies.

   43. Handwritten letter from Joseph Barrell to John Langdon (June 15th, 1778) -- Joseph Barrell (1793-1804), was a prominent Boston area merchant, fur-trader and owned the first ship to circumnavigate the globe. This letter has great content about the making of the United States Constitution -- This is an autographed letter to Langdon signed Jos Barrell, concerning the acquiring of copies of various state constitutions - - - Boston 25th June 1778 Dr Sir, Your favor of 22d came last evening, since 10th June been diligent in inquiring after the Constitutions you desired. I ve been fortunate eno (enough) to borrow of a friend that for States of New York wh (which I ve sent to port, after you have done with it you l return it, I have the promise of the other from a Genl who will look it up this day, if he does you shall have it but should I fail bt applying to Sam Freeman at Carco-You can be supply d- It is of importance that good Constitutions be formed. I ve given s Cursory reading to that proposed by the Essex (?) Convention. I think their method of choosing a general court the best I ve heard of, the post just going. Oblige me to conclude - - I am sir yo most hbl ser Jos Barrell P. S. The Pamphlet in the Male Docketed on reverse Joseph Barrel s letter 25 June 1778 Answered - 1page approx. (7 ¼ x 12), some toning and signs of wear, heavy horizontal crease fold with a small tear in the center, otherwise Good condition.
     John Langdon (1741-1819) was a delegate to Continental Congress from New Hampshire, 1775-76, 1787; served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; President of New Hampshire, 1785-86; 1788-89; member, U. S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; U. S. Senator from New Hampshire, 1789-1801; Governor of New Hampshire, 1805-09, 1810-12 - - - New Hampshire was the first state to establish a government wholly independent of Great Britain. On Jan. 5, 1776, they adopted a constitution that provided for a government by a President and a General Court consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate. This government was designed to be temporary, but was in place until June 2, 1784, when another constitution was adopted. This one was amended in 1792, with no further changes made until 1852

Henrietta Marie

   44. Authentic slave ball manufactured mid to late 1600s (above, left), with unique handle (approx. 50 lb.), -- used on the known London-based slave ship, Henrietta Marie, the oldest identifiable slave ship wreck in the world (July 1700); featured in National Geographic's (August, 2002) -- for "trouble-makers", #3 written on it. A priceless artifact found in 1982 by a Navy-trained diver about 500 feet from the wreck site, who wrote about his find in an authentification letter, establishing provenance. Haven't seen anything quite like this artifact...

  In 1699 the ship sailed from London to West Africa with a cargo of pewter, beads and other English goods. The ship then headed for Jamaica, where the captain sold the cargo of Africans. Most of the captives were headed for sugar plantations where they’d be worked to exhaustion, many dying within five to ten years. On the journey home to Great Britain, in July 1700, a fierce storm sank the ship of the coast of Key West, Florida.

  By one estimate Henrietta Marie’s cargo grossed well over £3,000 (more than 0,000 today) for the ship’s investors. Sturdy and fast, the Henrietta Marie traveled the infamous triangular trade route favored by the slavers -- from England to the Guinea coast, to the Americas, then home again. Accounts relating to the Henrietta Marie’s voyages were uncovered, as were the names of her investors, captains, and wills of some of her crew members. Artifacts found at the site proved particularly helpful in creating a picture of shipboard life and the practices of the slave trade. An "impossible-to-find" item from this historic ship wreck...

-- Shackles. Rare iron ball and chain for a slave, with an early 1860's tower leg iron attached at the end of chain. Tower takes a barrel bit key to unlock. The tower ball and chain has an approx. 5" ball with a 4" handle built into the ball when the ball was cast. It has a long chain.
-- Slave shackles. A friend purchased them from a reputable dealer of such items in Ethiopia.
-- Slave Shackles. Another friend purchased them from a reputable dealer in the Congo.
-- Slave shackles. We got them from a gentleman at the Slave Coast castle in Ghana. He wrote in the authentification letter relating the history of the shackles. He stated that his ancestors had used them in collecting slaves for the Europeans. An hard-to-find item with a verifiable provenance.

-- More than seventy-five Genuine bronze Manilla slave bracelets used in the slave trade in the 1700s, used as money to purchase slaves. It would take 2 to 15 of these bracelets to purchase a healthy male, depending upon the supply and where he was sold. The bracelet depicted was salvaged from a sunken slave ship. It is about 2 1/4" wide, 3 oz.


BACKGROUND: Copper was the "red gold" of Africa and had been both mined there and traded across the Sahara by Italian and Arab merchants. Size is 3.25" in diameter. The early Portuguese explorers of the 1470s observed that copper bracelets and leg bands were the principal money all along the west African coast. They were usually worn by women to display their husband's wealth. The Portuguese crown contracted with manufacturers in Antwerp and elsewhere to produce crescent rings with flared ends of wearable size which they called "manilla," after the Latin manus (hand) or from monilia, plural of monile (necklace). A typical voyage took manillas and utilitarian brass objects such as pans and basins to West Africa, then slaves to America, and cotton back to the mills of Europe. By the 1780s traders had discovered a growing preference among African slavers for brass over copper, and manillas of varying size with subtle differences in thickness and end-flare were being made principally in Birmingham, a major brass-working center, though the French probably cast theirs in Nantes. The Africans had names for each variety of manilla, valued them differently, and were notoriously particular about the types they would accept. The price of a slave, expressed in manillas, varied considerably according to time, place, and the specific type of manilla offered. Internally, manillas were the first true general-purpose currency known in west Africa, being used for ordinary market purchases, bride price, payment of fines, compensation of diviners, and for the needs of the next world, as burial money. Cowrie shells, imported from Melanesia and valued at a small fraction of a manilla, were used for small purchases.

   45. Many newspaper of Le Petit Journal and Journal des Voyages depicting scenes from the French colonies in Africa. Many of the full-size graphic scenes are of bloody uprisings and battles.

   46. A rare Key to the famous 1860 Lithograph of : "Daniel Webster Addressing the United States Senate in the Great Debate on the Compromise Measures 1850." Measures 22 ¼ x 13 inches. New York: J. M. Edney - A number of the original lithographs have survived, but what so often happens is that the key is lost or damaged beyond usefulness and is discarded. The Key commemorates Daniel Webster's address to the Senate suggesting a compromise designed to lessen the tension between the North and South over the slavery issue. In 1849 there were fifteen free and fifteen slave states, giving an equal balance of representation for both sections in the Senate. The admission of California, in 1850, as a free state, upset this equilibrium and worried the South. In conjunction with California's entry to the Union, most Northerners demanded that any future states be admitted as free states. This was unacceptable to the South. The North had greater wealth, population, and political power, and the South saw its own economic and social status, based on slavery, as threatened. Daniel Webster's speech suggested a compromise and was an attempt to mollify both sides. Webster, an ardent opponent of Slavery, foresaw that if a compromise were not reached, the South might try to succeed from the Union. Unfortunately, his Northern supporters were critical of his stand; the abolitionists were particularly furious. The specific crisis raised by the admission of California was patched over by the Webster inspired Compromise of 1850. California was allowed to enter as a free state, however the Compromise also required the federal government to assist slave holders in returning runaway slaves, and prosecuting those who assisted them. This print, showing Webster addressing the Senate, is a fascinating historical document that wonderfully depicts the interior of the Senate Chamber. The Senators are shown at their seats and the fact that each face is drawn so accurately suggests that the portraits were taken from photographs. Included in this noteworthy group is Stephen A. Douglas with his Napoleon like pose - lower right, as well as Hannibal Hamlin, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun, Jefferson Davis, Sam Houston - they're all there!

   47. THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY. Volume 1, 1916 (462 pages) First Edition -- Carter G. Woodson. Published by The Association For the Study of Negro Life and History, INC, Lancaster, PA and Washington, DC.  A very Rare history containing the first four issues (vol One #'s 1, 2, 3 and 4) of an important journal.     Some of the articles include:   Carter G. Woodson, The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War, and Freedom and Slavery in Appalachian America, Monroe N. Work: The Passing Tradition and the African Civilization, Kelly Miller:The Historic Background of the Negro Physician, W.B. Hargrove:The Negro Soldier in the American Revolution, A.O. Staford:Antar, the Arabian Negro Warrior, Poet and Hero, John H. Russel: Colored Freemen as Slave Owners in Virginia, Louis R. Mehlinger:The Attitude of the Free Negro Toward African Colonization, Alice Dunbar-Nelson:  People of Color in Louisiana , Wm T. McKinney: The Defeat of the Secessionists in Kentucky in 1861...Light foxing but overall a tight and very good copy of an extremely rare journal.

Toussaint L'Overture

   48. A letter written from Cape Francois (St. Domingo/Hayti) dated March 22, 1801 and published in the May 2, 1801 issue of Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia). Here's what the letter said, "An agent from France, by way of New York, brought an appointment to General Touissant, empowering him to act as prefect over the whole island.  The Blacks are now so numerous and powerful, that they will continue to appoint chiefs of their own.  It is certainly their intention to hold the Island independent of the French, which I think they will be able to do."
-- August 15, 1801
American Citizen newspaper article about Touissant Louverture. Utilizing three columns, the "Promulgation of the Colonial Situation in Cape Francois, (St. Domingo/Hayti) is described. The article is a direct translation from the "Bulletin Officiel de Saint Domingue" and it provides an overview of the make-up of the military and a description of the man who had risen to leadership, "Touissant Louverture, this extraordinary man, whose noble actions commanded your admiration and your gratitude, has risen like a Phoenix from the midst of ashes, and has wholly devoted himself to the defence (sic) of your country, of your persons and property.


   In the midst of the convulsive throes of anarchy he has had the generosity and the courage to assume the government of an abandoned colony, without any defence (sic) but that given by nature, and destitute of every means to protect agriculture and commerce. You know, he has every where upheld the French character by causing the French flag to be respected. He has filled your ports with provisions, he has enlivened your agriculture, he has rebuilt your cities, and disciplined your troops. He has done still more -- he has conquered inveterate prejudices, he has strengthened the bonds of the tenderest (sic) fraternity, those bands which the old colonial system had so cruelly broken and which anarchy, in order to maintain its odirus (sic) empire, so inhumanly sported with. The proclamation of the general in chief, who has convoked your representatives, proves to you his desire for your happiness, it announces to you that the period of convulsion is [assed. It demonstrates to you the necessity pf forming proper laws, and adopting this constant maxim that laws are conventions  established by men, who ought to conform themselves thereto, to regulate the order of society; it discovers to you, that it is with laws as it is with the production of the earth, that each country has its peculiar manners and its statutes, as it has its peculiar productions...--

   49. Very rare handwritten 22 page speech given by Sarah C. Pennypacker, April 8th, 1899. Her father was the famous Elijah F. Pennypacker, one of the main promoters of the Underground Railroad. The basis of her remarks are a book by Fernando G. Cortland - Southern Heroes - The Friends in War Time. Quotations from the book (and her personal experience) allow her to present a detailed view of the Quakers opposition to the Civil War. She recounts the difficulties of the Southern Quakers relocating to points west in covered wagons. She quotes from an address by Gen. Grant "in this city" (assume it was Philadelphia) - "Though I have been trained as a soldier and have participated in many battles, there never was a time when, in my opinion, some way could not be found of preserving the drawing of the sword." There are also many anecdotal accounts of Quaker "martyrs". "One chapter is devoted to Levi Coffin, President of the Underground Railroad, one of the heroes before the war and whose memory is embalmed, as well as that of his wife, in the pages of Uncle Tom's cabin. Although usually associated with the North, we are reminded that he was born in Guilford County North Carolina of Quaker parents and Nantucket ancestry. It is related that after a long and fruitless search for a company of slaves secreted by Levi Coffin, the hunters returned South, but before going, they conferred an honorable and lasting title upon our friend. They said they could get no trace of their slaves on top of the ground, after they reached Levi Coffin's house and declared that there must be an underground railroad of which he was president. This was doubtless the origin of the term." Measures approx. 5" x 8". First page soiled.
-- BACKGROUND: Sarah C. Pennypacker was raised at the White Horse Farm, built around 1770, was the lifetime home of politician and prominent abolitionist Elijah Pennypacker (1802-1888) and a main depot on the Underground Railroad. In 1831 Pennypacker was elected to the [Pennsylvania] House of Representatives and lobbied on the passage of bills concerning commerce, education, and transportation. In 1839, Pennypacker decided to end his political career in order to fully aid the antislavery cause. He became active in various antislavery societies, spoke widely against slavery and became one of most influential leaders of Pennsylvania's abolitionist cause. In 1840 he opened his home as a major stop on the Underground Railroad. Hundreds of fugitive slaves from three different routes, coming from neighboring counties and Delaware, were directed to White Horse Farm. Pennypacker personally transported slaves from  his home to Norristown and other points to the north and east. No slaves were ever apprehended while in his care. John Greenleaf Whittier, another celebrated abolitionist, said of Pennypacker, "In mind, body, and brave championship of the cause of freedom, he was one of the most remarkable men I ever knew."

   50. U. S Department of Agriculture Experiment Stations Bulletin 30-39 consisting of articles on many topics, including "Dietary study with reference to the food of the Negro in Alabama in 1895 & 1896" - conducted with the cooperation of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and the Agricultural & Mechanical College of Alabama (the year before George Washington Carver came to Tuskegee) - this article gives the day to day details on a cross-section of black families in Alabama in the years 1895 and 1896. The author of the article is not without certain prejudices himself as he observes, " The negroes about Tuskegee...mostly engaged in farming. Very few as yet own any land, the larger number work small farms rented from white proprietors. As a class they are improvident, they have very little ambition, and little incentive to work because of their ignorance of any better condition of living than those immediately around them. Their wants, like their resources, are few, so that with all their poverty they appear to be a happy and contented people." This is a fascinating source, as the families are entirely made up of ex-slaves. 69 pages

   51. Program listing/picturing Sidney Poitier's broadway debut -- Anna Lucasta (1945). Sidney Poitier was originally engaged as an understudy in the Broadway production of "Anna Lucasta," and, during the run, was promoted to play the role of Rudolph. Joining Mr. Poitier onstage were Sadie J. Browne, Rosetta Le Noire, Laura Bowman, Roy Allen, John Bouie, Frank Wilson, Maxwell Glanville, Alvin Childress, and Valerie Black, among others. Written by Philip Yordan and directed by Harold J. Stone. Play originated at Mr. Poitier's home company, The American Negro Theatre. Souvenir program is in excellent condition, except for a small tear on the back cover.

Sidney Poitier

   52. A manuscript bill from Lodowick Updike(?).  January 1802. It's a bill for pay for his work on the Schooner BETSEY. "A voyage to Cape de Verd and else where in the Schooner Betsey. Richard Cornell, Master" For a 10 month and 23 day voyage to and from "Cape de Verd" -- 10 months and 23 days.  2.26.  That's 16.00 per month.  An interesting historical document. Cape Verde (West Africa) was a regular run for Slave Ships. This bill is most assuredly from a seaman working on a slave ship.

   53. Extremely rare First Edition "L'Africaine" (The African Maid, 1866) -- Grand Opera in Five Acts (25 pages), Ditson & Co. Standard Opera Libretto, composed by Giacomo Meyerbeer, English and Italian. Chief characters: Vasco di Gama (officer in Portuguese Navy), Selika (slave), Inez (daughter of Don Diego), Don Pedro (Chief Minister, President's Council) and Nelusko (slave).
-- The action takes place first in Portugal and after in Africa, the period being towards the end of the fifteenth century. Inez, daughter of the King of Portugal, is affianced to the great explorer, Vasco di Gama; and on the opening of the opera she is bewailing his long absence from her side. Her royal father wishes her to forget the explorer, declaring that he must now be dead, since nothing has been heard of him for so long a time; and he expresses his wish that she should marry his chief minister, Don Pedro, who is in love with her. Inez, however, declares she will remain faithful to her lover; and she is presently overjoyed by the sudden appearance of Vasco di Gama, who has just returned. He brings news of a new and wonderful country he has discovered, and produces two of the inhabitants, a male and a female, Nelusko and Selika, whom he has captured and brought away as slaves. The King of Portugal, however, is not pleased at the reappearance of Vasco, and so causes doubt to be thrown upon his story of the new land; and this so enrages Vasco that he speaks out violently against the injustice shown him, and is cast into prison for his intemperate speech. In his dungeon he is watched tenderly by the dusky Selika, who loves him; but Nelusko, who is jealous of her attachment to the white man, makes an attempt to stab him. Selika, however, prevents him from doing so; and on Vasco awakening, she gives him all the information he will require as to the course he must take when he sets forth on his next voyage, for she desires him to return to the island of which she is the Queen. When Vasco is released he finds that in order to save him from execution Irez has been compelled to betroth herself to Don Pedro; and the latter, wishing to wrest the glory of proving the existence of the new land from Vasco, has put himself in charge of the vessel which has been prepared for the new expedition, and sets forth, having kidnapped the native, Nelusko, as a guide. The native, however, smarting at the separation from his beloved Selika, in revenge guides the vessel on to a dangerous reef, where it is wrecked. Vasco di Gama meanwhile has set out on another vessel with Selika, and follows close on the track of Don Pedro; and seeing that he is drifting towards the reef he approaches and warns him of his danger. Don Pedro, however, believing his rival has only followed to steal from him the Princess Inez, whom he had forced to accompany him, does not heed his warning; and when his vessel is presently wrecked on the reef it is boarded by savages, who slay him and most of his crew. Inez, however, escapes to the neighboring island, where she remains in hiding, and Nelusko, being one of the natives, is also unmolested. Selika is the queen of this island, and in order to save Vasco from the fury of her people, who would sacrifice him, she declares him to be her husband. An elaborate marriage ceremony is then arranged, but as it is about to take place the voice of the wandering Inez is heard not far away, and Vasco, recognizing it with joy, rushes away to seek her. In the last scene he has found her, and the lovers have also succeeded in reaching his vessel in safety, and as they set sail for Portugal, full of joy at their reunion, the unhappy Selika flings herself beneath the drooping boughs of a poisonous tree, no longer desiring to live. Here she is found expiring by the faithful Nelusko, who, seeing that she cannot recover, clasps her in his arms and dies with her.

   54. Program (January, 2004) from the 4th Annual Negro League Baseball Legacy Awards -- Autographed by 27 former Negro League Players:  Pancho Herera (deceased), William Blair, Ernie "Schoolboy" Johnson, John "Beach" Smith, Mack Pride, Enrique Maroto, Harold Gould, Charles Davis, James Woods, Red Moore, Ron Teasley, Sam Taylor, Johnny Washington, Henry Preswood, Nat Peeples, Jackson Owens, Andy Porter, Ross "Sarchell" Davis, Ollie Brantley, Eugene Smith, Joe B. Scott, Charles Johnson, Wilmer Harris (deceased), Jesse Rogers, Herb Simpson, Herman "Doc" Horn and Joe Douse. The autographs are in black Sharpie and were obtained in person during private signings.     -- Imagine throwing your 50th lifetime no hitter and then walking home still wearing your dusty game clothes because you're not allowed to shower in the stadium you just helped sell out. Or, picture hitting the only home run ever out of Yankee Stadium and being told you can't celebrate with dinner in a restaurant down the road because of the color of your skin. Negro Baseball League players didn't have to imagine. These were real-life inequalities they dealt with on a daily basis from 1920 to 1947. After all, America was a segregated society in those days with 'No Blacks' on the doors of most hotels, restaurants, theaters, and restrooms, etc., all across America - with no Blacks in Major League Baseball either.

Satchel Paige

-- Autographed picture of celebrated Negro League pitcher, Satchel Paige.
-- Card autographed by Negro League player, Buck Leonard.

   55. The Gentleman's Magazine, London, October, 1787 -- Within this issue is a page mostly taken up with the creation of a new society "...instituted in Philadelphia consisting of some of the most respectable people in the province of Pennsylvania..." with the introduction of their constitution printed here & which includes: "...it having pleased the Creator of the world to make, of one flesh, all the children of men...as members of the same family, however diversified they may be by colour, situation, religion, or different states of Society...the subscribers have associated themselves under the title of "The Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage." This Society, the President of which is Dr. Franklin, have lately presented the following memorial to the convention of the United States..." with much more (see photos). An interesting and progressive document given that the slavery issue would not be more fully resolved until the American Civil War. And yes, it is Ben Franklin.

   56. Extremely rare book, Epochs of American History: Division and Reunion, 1829-1889 (Ninth Edition, with 5 maps) by Woodrow Wilson -- Professor of Jurisprudence, Princeton University. Published by Longmans, Green & Co., 1898. This volume covers The Slavery Question, Secession and the Civil War, The Territories Opened to Slavery, and many other topics during this period. Woodrow Wilson later became President of the United States (1913-1921).

   57. The Missionary Herald (October, 1858). Contains: Annual report (including some 300 names of members present, foreign missions, etc), News from Gaboon Mission [West Africa], The Rum Trade, French Slave Trade, Assyria Mission, Mosul, Nestorians [Iran], including Oroomiah, Aliawa, Ahmedneggur [India], Miscellany (Osmany Turks, Bulgarians, Northern & Southern Armenia, etc)…
-- The Missionary Herald (November, 1860). Contains: Annual report (including some 1000 names of members present, foreign missions i.e. Cyrus Hamlin & D. W. Marsh from Turkey), the report also includes a section on the Slave Trade in Africa (The French Government promises to discontinue their “emigrant” traffic), it goes on to question whether it’s “expedient” for the Commissioners of the Foreign Missions to “memorialize” the Congress of the U.S., or the President on the subject of African slave trade? However ultimately it is decided to memorialize the Congress of the U.S., or the President only if the slave trade “interferes with the proper missionary work”, [interesting to note the beginning of the Civil war was only 5 months away], Mission to Western Turkey [Erzroom, Armenia], The War & killings in Syria “exceed a hundred thousand” and Anglo-American assistance to the thousands of refugees…

-- 3 Issues of the "Africa Repository and Colonial Journal" (Jan-Mar, 1838) -- total of 90 pages, printed in Washington, DC). The main thrust was to raise the money to relocate African slaves back to the settlement in Monroeville, Liberia (West Africa). Many intriguing articles: New Orleans Society, Preachers, Sunday School in Africa, 600 Slaves from New Orleans Emancipated by their Master on his Death, Liberia, Expedition to Bassa Cove, Maryland Society, Annual Report, and much more...

   58. Letter written by Black female settler in Liberia, 1841 to the founder of first School for the Deaf in America (Gallaudett University was later named after him) -- Cover with 2 page letter dated from Cape Palmas, West Africa, Mt. Vaughan (see image below), Sept. 19, 1841 to Rev. T.H. Gallaudett, Hartford, Conn (founder of the first School for the Deaf in America -- Gallaudett University is named after him). The letter arrived in New York with a postmark of December 10th. Beautifully penned and signed E.M. Thomson, letter indicates she is serving as a school teacher to native children and colonist's, with lively chatter about those sailing to America, continued information about the natives makes it appear that Miss Thompson was not originally from West Africa and has probably come there with colonists, possibly from America. Postmarked Ship, and New York, Dec. 10, cover is addressed to her friend, a Reverend in CT. Additional penned notes on the letter read "E.M. Thompson - a colored woman who lived some time in Mr. Gallaudett's family & afterward settled in Liberia & taught school there with good success".
-- "It has been some time since I have heard from you. Mrs. Sigourney, when visiting always mentions your family but since she went to England I have heard nothing from her. My self and family are well now but my health has not been as good as it has been. I began to feel the effects of a sedentary life and conclude that I shall be obliged to suspend teaching awhile. I am sill engaged as teacher of the female department of Mt. Vaughan. Ann schools have been quite interesting but now many of them are absent, owing to the influenza or lung fever that has permeated among us. I have a very interesting set of native girls and am fully convinced that their focus(?) in learning is far superior to many of our own colonist children. The number of our missionaries is much lessoned. Mr. and Mrs. Payne (most probably Bishop Daniel A. Payne, 1811-1867) are now in America. Mr. and Mrs. Perkins are about to sail with Capt. Lawlin. The harvest is still plentiful, but the laborers are few. The Presbyterian missionaries are pretty well I believe. Mrs. Altruior (sp?) is about to return to America. Mr. Wilson and Lady have just returned from a trip down the coast. In your last letter you wished to know if I had even seen a deaf and dumb person in this country. I have not even heard of and when I mentioned it to the natives they seemed surprised. Since I commenced writing a large  ?  ?  was brought into the yard. I should suppose him to be upwards of 50 years old. He was shot by one of the colonists not far from Mt. Vaughan. He would be quite a curiosity to you all. I wish your children could see it. It is now rice season with us. The natives have cultivated an abundance of rice. The second rainy season has just commenced which generally lasts about two months. We have much more dry weather than they have in Monrovia. I shall be happy to hear from you and family. My best regards to them. I request an interest in your prayers that I may be faithful to my charge. Your humble servant, E. M. Thomson

   IMPORTANT CONTEXT:   E.M. Thomson was married to James Thomson who was also of African descent, was the first person employed by the Protestant Episcopal Church in Africa. The attention of the Executive Committee of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society was drawn to him as the writer of an appeal of some of the colonists at Monrovia for aid in erecting a Church edifice, and as one who, in the absence of any minister of the Episcopal Church, had been acting as a Lay-reader. Not considering his qualifications such as would justify him in assuming the ministerial office, he was appointed by the Executive Committee a teacher in 1835. He continued in the service of the Society only for a short time, and died in December, 1838. 

   There was a war at Cape Palmas. In the destruction at Mount Vaughan Mrs. Thomson has lost every thing except her clothes; her furniture, bedding, books, linen, and household articles, which for twenty years have been gradually accumulating. I hope kind friends in America will remember her. She was one of the first teachers in the mission, commencing her labors in March, 1936, and has been connected with the mission ever since.    After these distressing announcements, the earnest appeals of the Episcopal Board of Missions brought in ,000. lo enable them to rebuild their Mission House on Mount Vaughan, and to give relief to the Rev. G. VV. Gibson, principal of the High School at that place, and E.M. Thomson —both of these individuals having spent twenty years in its service.
  Mrs. James M. Thomson (E.M. Thomson) was born in Connecticut in 1807. She emigrated to Africa in 1831, and taught an infant school in Monrovia. She and her husband afterward removed to Cape Palmas, and in 1835 Mr. Thomson was appointed by the Foreign Committee to open a Mission Station at Mount Vaughan; and when the Rev. Dr. Savage joined the Mission about Christmas, 1836, he found the ground had been cleared, and the house partly completed. Mr. Thomson died not long afterward. Mrs. Thomson's connection with the Mission continued to the day of her death, which occurred April 26th, 1864. Mrs. E. M. Thomson, who served for many years, was called the Mother of the Mission at Cape Palmas.

Protestant Episcopal Mission,
Cape Palmas, West Africa

   -- Cape Palmas (this is most probably where the above letter was written), founded in 1834, was the original settlement of the Maryland Colonization Society, which purchased the peninsula with muskets, powder, cloth, pots, beads, and other items of trade. The peninsula became the site of three missions, established to Christianize and civilize the native Africans. Known as "Mount Vaughan," the Episcopal mission educated many members of Liberia's indigenous tribes. "Protestant Episcopal Mission, Cape Palmas, West Africa," ca. 1850s Woodcut. Maryland was one of two centers of American interest on the West Coast of Africa, the other being neighboring Liberia, which in 1847 became an independent republic. Like Liberia, the colony was planned as a haven for freed slaves, and by 1850 it could boast a small Colonist population concentrated around the Cape Palmas peninsula. This physical isolation was reinforced by the psychological and cultural distance that the settlers put between themselves and the natives.

   BACKGROUND: Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, for whom Gallaudet University is named, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1787. His family later settled in Hartford, Conn., the home of his maternal grandparents. A brilliant student during his early years, Gallaudet entered Yale University at age 14 and graduated first in his class three years later. He returned to Yale as a graduate student in 1808 after having served a law apprenticeship and studying independently. After earning a master of arts degree in 1810, Gallaudet worked as a traveling salesman. However, having been raised in a family deeply rooted in Protestantism, he felt called to the ministry. In 1812 he enrolled in the Andover Theological Seminary, graduating in 1814. Gallaudet's goal, to serve as an itinerant preacher, was put aside when he met Alice Cogswell, the 9 years old deaf daughter of a neighbor, Dr. Mason Cogswell. Cogswell, a prominent Hartford Physician, was concerned about proper education for his daughter. He asked Gallaudet to travel to Europe to study methods for teaching deaf students, especially those of the Braidwood family in England. Gallaudet found the Braidwoods unwilling to share knowledge of their oral communication method. At the same time, he was not satisfied that the oral method produced desirable results.

   While still in Great Britain, he met the Abbe Sicard, head of the Institut Royal des Sourds-Muets in Paris, and two of its deaf faculty members, Laurent Clerc and Jean Massieu. Sicard invited Gallaudet to Paris to study the school's method of teaching deaf students using manual communication. Impressed with the manual method, Gallaudet studied teaching methodology under Sicard, learning sign language from Massieu and Clerc, who were both highly educated graduates of the school. Having persuaded Clerc to accompany him, Gallaudet sailed for America. The two men toured New England and successfully raised private and public funds to found a school for deaf students in Hartford, which later became known as the American School for the Deaf. Young Alice was one of the seven students in the United States. (The American School for the Deaf still educates deaf students today. It is first permanent school for the deaf children established in the United States.) Gallaudet served as principal of the school from 1817 to 1830. He resigned his position on April 6, 1830, to devote his time to writing children's books and to the ministry. In 1893, at the request of the alumni association, the name of the College in Washington, DC was changed to Gallaudet College in honor of T.H. Gallaudet.
-- Scripture Biography for the Young with Critical by Rev. T. H. Gallaudet, Illustations and Practical Remarks. Hardcover / American Tract Society, Copyright 1838. 200 pages, Volume #1 - Covers Adam to Jacob.

T.H. Gallaudet

-- New York American (March 9, 1836) -- Maryland in Liberia...Letter extract from Dr. James Hall, Governor of Maryland, delivered by Capt. Lawlin of the brig, The Susan Elizabeth of New York. He describes prosperity. "...I may truly say that every month of our existence witnesses an increase of energy, industry and contentment among the inhabitants of our little settlement. I am in readiness for the next expedition...they might have their land sowed by the 1st of March..."

-- "Sabbath School Teachers' Second Book, Containing a Harmony of the Four Gospels and Questions on the History, Miracles, Discourses and Parables of our Lord, With Explanations of the Most Difficult Parts of the Text." by Rev. J.J. Matthias. New York: B. Waugh and T. Mason for the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1832 Hardcover, 3-1/2" x 5-1/4", 234 pp. A rare Sunday school lesson book from 1832, written by Reverend J.J. Matthias and published for the Sunday School Youth Library of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Includes double page map in rear of book of "Countries mentioned by Moses".
BACKGROUND: Rev. J.J. Matthias was a Methodist Episcopal minister of the Philadelphia conference, who served as Governor of Bassa Cove during the 19th century African colonization. In 1837, the Rev JJ Matthias, a Superannuated Minister of the Philadelphia Conference of the ME Church, was appointed Governor of the settlement of Bassa Cove, Liberia by the Colonization Society, and came to Liberia in the schooner "Charlotte Harper."  In the same vessel, besides the Governor's family, consisting of Mrs. Matthias and Miss Annesley, Dr. Johnson, of Kingston, N.Y., came out as physician for the same place; Dr. S.M.E. Gokeen, missionary physician of the M.E. Church, and two female teachers, Miss Ann Wilkins and Miss L.A. Beers.  After spending some time at Monrovia, Governor Matthias and family and Dr. Johnson went down to the Cove, and were soon settled.  Mr. Matthias proved a thoroughgoing, efficient and successful Governor.  The people loved and esteemed him.  Though a minister, and a good and holy man, yet he organized and kept up a well-trained little regiment of brave soldiers, reviewed them himself every month, and such a display and demonstration as they made most effectually prevented the natives from attempting any hostilities.  There was no war in Governor Matthias's day.

   59. -- Boston Recorder (April 14, 1821) -- Liberia Mission. "Lott Carey, and Collin Teague, two colored men, preachers, with their families, sailed from Norfolk in January last, in the brig Nautilus with their Bibles, and utensils for necessary labor. The Baptist Board supplied them with many articles of convenience and comfort, and provisions were supplied by government."

   -- February 19, 1829 newspaper, Boston Recorder, with article about the death of African American missionary, Lott Carey. Title of Article: News From Liberia. "We learn from a vessel arrived in port yesterday from Liberia, (the American colony on the coast of Africa,) that a French vessel being cruising off that place in quest of slaves, the authorities were making preparation to attack her, & in preparing cartridges for that purpose, fire accidentally communicated to the ammunition, which exploded. The Gov. (Lott Carey) with several principal men of the place were killed, & most of the town was destroyed." -- Another Bristol (England) paper of the same day gives the account thus: "On the 18th Nov. last, an expedition was preparing by the American settlers at that place, to destroy a French slave ship and factory at Digby, a place abut 30 miles distant. when, during the night, the magazine in which they were making cartridges, blew up, and horrible to relate, Mr Lott Carey, the Governor, and nine of his people were destroyed...Lott Carey was a worthy and useful Baptist preacher, himself a colored man; and when the lamented Ashmun returned to this country, he left the colony in charge of Carey, as acting Governor. Dr Randall has gone out to succeed Ashmun; but he could not have arrived at the time of the disaster."

Lot Carey

-- BACKGROUND ON LOTT CAREY: Carey was a pioneer missionary to Africa. Born a slave in Virginia, he was converted to Christianity while working in Richmond. He purchased his freedom, became first a lay exhorter and then a licensed Baptist preacher. He went to Liberia in the 1820s as one of the first American missionaries to that continent and one of the founders of that nation.
-- Boston Recorder (December 16, 1829) -- Long article on the Mission to Africa, "..proceeded to present a brief outline of the facts respecting the Colony in Liberia. Its original design under the patronage of the American Colonization Society was to locate a settlement of free blacks from the United States, who should be assisted in establishing a civil government of their own choice, and whose influence should be extended to counteract and destroy the odious traffic in slaves. It was commenced about ten years since, and although a considerable loss of life has been sustained by those who have emigrated from our shores, it has been far less than the mortality in our other new colonies, and much less than took place in the settlements in our own country, at James Town in Virginia, and at Plymouth in Massachusetts. It was in reference to the Colony in Africa that the lamented young man, Samuel J. Mills, lost his life about eleven years since; and to him, as having originated this mission, is the Christian world much indebted. Amongth (sic) those who fell a sacrifice in this enterprise was the amiable and judicious Ashmun, who in giving life and form & system to the polity of Liberia, has left an imperishable name. His successor, after a short career, has also deceased. It is, however, hoped, said Mr. Evarts, that by avoiding the same customs, and exposure to the climate, which the  lessons of experience had taught to be hazardous, the lives of future emigrants may be prolonged..."
--  Background on Jehudi Ashmun was an American agent who headed the Liberian colony from 1822-1828. Jehudi was a native of Champlain, New York. His wife died shortly after their arrival in Monrovia in 1822; and he died on August 25, 1828, at the age of 35, and was buried in New Haven, Connecticut. It was the African "fever", malaria or yellow fever that killed Ashmun and his wife.

-- August 22, 1829 newspaper, Philadelphia Recorder, with article about Aiding the Colonization Cause in Liberia, to Prepare and Circulate Tracts among the Free Colored Population, Showing the Advantages of Emigration; -- and that such a Measure Might Result in:
1. Increasing the numbers of those desirous to emigrate, and from whom the most worthy and promising might be selected.
2. Inducing the few who have property to emigrate at their own expense, and others to acquire property for that purpose.
3. The moral effect of placing before their minds the prospect of wealth and respectability, for themselves and their children, to be obtained by virtue and intelligence.
Tracts on this subject are needed, because of those who can read, ever read newspapers; because tracts might be so written, as to be peculiarly adapted to their character and condition."

-- "Sketches of Western African" -- April 27, May 3 and May 4, 1819 issues of Poulsons' American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia) with the series of articles taken directly "from the Journal of Rev. Samuel J. Mills, one of the agents of the American Colonization Society deputed to explore the Western coast of Africa with the view to the establishment of a colony of free people of color from the United States...There is no doubt left in the minds of those acquainted with the circumstances of the recent missions to Africa, as to the practicability of the contemplated plan, and that much less expense than had been anticipated. A unanimous and cordial cooperation with the Society in the advancement of its magnificent design by the community at large, appears now to be the only desideratum in order to a complete and glorious success."    Very intriguing three-part series, with a lot of information about Gambia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Sherbro Island, York Island, Bondou, Plantain Islands, and other parts of West African.

-- Hardbound Volume IV of  American Quarterly Review (September and December, 1828). This 546 page book contains reviews of historical, scientific, and travel literature published by Carey, Lea & Carey, Chesnut Street, Philadelphia; 546 pages. Thirty-one of those pages are dedicated to reviewing "The Eleventh Annual Report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States, With an Appendix, Washington, 1828."

   60. Eight issues of The Southern Workman, published by the Hampton Institute Press, Hampton, VA. [African-American]. April 1907, June 1907, August 1906, May 1920, November 1907, November 1906, July 1920 and May 1903. Some topics covered: Progress of the Negro in 40 Years, The Outlook for Negro Education, The South's Opportunity in Negro Development, A Hampton's Girls Training, The Theology of the Songs of the Southern Slave, Negro Craftsmen in Africa, Re-naming the Indians, Hampton's Anniversary and more.

   61. Rare First Edition (1863) copy of Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839 by Frances Kemble. (four copies of the First Edition are owned by this collection) Born in England to a family of actors and actresses -- the famous theatrical Kemble family. Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble (1809-1893) followed her family’s theatrical tradition, though she disliked acting. Her aunt, Sarah Kemble Siddons, won acclaim as "the greatest actress the world has ever seen." When she came to the United States in 1832, she did not come to sightsee; she came to save the family fortune. For Kemble's father, a part owner and manager of Covent Garden, had lost a great deal of money, and after her successful acting debut in London, he decided they could make more money touring in America. Fanny was reluctant to go on the trip but enjoyed drama and adventure, and she quickly earned fame. A very spirited woman, she threw her heart into her craft, glorying in her triumphs in front of the American audiences or wallowing in defeat. This zest for action carried over into her life. Kemble always ran or hiked ahead of the group, rode the fastest horse and climbed to the highest point. Her enthusiasm won the heart of Pierce Butler, a wealthy Philadelphia bachelor she married impulsively in 1834. Unknown to her at the time of her wedding, Pierce Butler stood to inherit two plantations in Georgia. The inheritance became a reality in 1838. By that time, their marriage had already become strained over a difference in taste and temperament, a rift that was to deepen after they ventured South.

Fanny Kemble


   Kemble was an intelligent, independent woman who abhorred slavery and was not shy about speaking out against it. These abolitionist views did not sit well with her husband; yet she still strived to make the marriage work. When Butler inherited the Georgia plantation upon his grandfather's death, she moved to Georgia with him. From December 30, 1838 to April 17, 1839, Kemble kept a journal of what she witnessed. Although she spent just over sixteen months of her life in Georgia, the result was a powerful piece of historical literature—Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-1839. Kemble, a committed libertarian was horrified with the fact her husband "owned" people. Butler never understood Fanny's ethical stand and they were later embroiled in an ugly and bitter divorce that deprived Fanny of both her children and her home. At first, Fanny Kemble refrained from publishing her text, though the manuscript was repeatedly revised and circulated among her friends (Katharine Anne Sedgwick, for one, was an enthusiastic reader). During the next eight years, Fanny often summered by herself in Lenox, Massachusetts (Kemble Street was named after her), and she spent one year abroad by herself. She finally left her husband in 1846. Unable to reconcile their differences, Butler and Kemble were divorced in 1849, with Butler retaining custody of their two daughters. During the Civil War she published the journal she had kept some twenty-five years before, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation. The two-volume work provides an account of her travels in the United States and it was met with severe reviews both in England and America. "This uncomfortably gauche work's indiscretions offended numerous prominent Americans," said one reviewer. Her descriptions of the horrifying treatment of slaves is credited with doing much toward maintaining British neutrality during the Civil War, when for economic reasons many favored the South—which produced cotton for British textile mills. If the British had cast their lot with the South, the war could have easily turned against the North. This is a very influential and unheralded book that may have played an important role in the winning of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery.

-- Fanny Kemble Autographed letter. It is very rare to find a letter signed with "Butler" as her last name. Signed, "Frances Anne Butler," -- 1 page, 4-1/2" x 7," Syracuse. Reads, "Sir, It will not be in my power to read at Troy at present. I hope however to be able to do so again some time in the course of the autumn...Your obedient servant..." . Letter is in very good condition dated Friday, 14th (no year). We are currently doing research on plausible dates where Friday lands on the 14th -- August 1835 is quite plausible, since she had recently been married and the "autumn" is still ahead. Also, there is a record of her visiting Troy 1833-34.
Background: Pierce Butler became infatuated with Fanny Kemble after seeing her perform. He followed her devotedly while she toured. He was charming, solicitous. Fanny fell in love with him, and they were married in 1834 in Philadelphia. In marrying Pierce, Fanny escaped the life of the theater and her family's precarious finances and entered a life of wealth. At that time, she would later state, she did not know the source of this wealth. The marriage was troubled nearly from the start. Fanny believed that Pierce would continue in his devotion, and Pierce believed that Fanny would curb her independent nature and allow herself to be ruled by him. Differences in opinion on slavery also created friction. Pierce thought he could persuade Fanny of the benefits of slavery; Fanny thought she could persuade Pierce to emancipate his slaves. Early in their marriage Fanny even attempted to publish an antislavery treatise that she had written. Pierce forbid her to do so. In March of 1836, Pierce and his brother John inherited the Georgia plantations. Fanny wanted to see the plantation firsthand, and begged Butler to take her with him. He refused to do so on his first trip, but finally relented. In December of 1838, Pierce, Fanny, their two children Sarah and Frances, and their Irish nurse Margery O'Brien set out for Butler Island. After traveling for nine days by train, stage and steamboat, they arrived at their destination. Nothing in Fanny's life had prepared her for this place. Kemble spent four months on Butler and St. Simon's Islands. During that time she and Pierce clashed frequently over the issue of slavery. Fanny recorded her experiences in letters which she later compiled and published as her Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation. It is the closest, most-detailed look at plantation slavery ever recorded by a white northern abolitionist. By the time the Butlers returned to Philadelphia, their marriage was in turmoil. Life for Fanny went from bad to worse as Pierce harassed and ignored her and prevented her from seeing their children. Finally, Fanny gave up her attempts at reconciliation, and left for England. While there, she resumed her life in the theater by performing readings of Shakespeare. She was in the midst of a successful run when she learned that Pierce was suing her for divorce. He contended that she had "willfully, maliciously, and without due cause, deserted him on September 11, 1845." He filed for divorce on April 7, 1848. Fanny returned to America to defend herself against his charges. After a long and painful court proceeding, the divorce was granted in September of 1849. Fanny would be allowed to spend two months every summer with her children, and Pierce would pay her 00 a year in alimony. Fanny Kemble lived alternately in the United States, 1848-1862, 1867-1877, and England, 1845-1848, 1862-1867, 1877-1894, during which time she returned to the stage, performing dramatic readings of Shakespeare, publishing her diary and memoirs, writing some dramatic criticism. (The above-mentioned letter discusses an invitation to perform such a reading in Troy (NY), which she respectfully declines for the time being.)
Pierce Butler, however, fell further and further into economic ruin, as he squandered away his vast fortune in gambling and stock market speculation. In 1856 his situation became so severe that the management of his finances was handed over to three trustees. To satisfy his enormous debt, they began by selling the Philadelphia mansion and liquidating other properties. But this was not enough. The trustees turned their attention to the property in Georgia, which consisted mostly of human beings. In February 1859, the men traveled to Georgia to appraise Pierce Butler's share of the slaves. Each person was examined and his or her value assessed. This was the preparation for what would be the largest single sale of human beings in United States history. It was an event that would come to be known as "the weeping time." Pierce's financial situation was saved at the expense of his former slaves. In the meantime, the country hovered on the brink of civil war. In 1861 the war erupted. Again the family was divided: Fanny Kemble and their daughter Sarah were pro-North; Pierce Butler and their daughter Frances were pro-South. In early 1861 Pierce and Frances went to Georgia. Upon their return to Philadelphia in August, Pierce was arrested for treason; in September he was released. He did not return to the South until after the war. Following the war, Pierce Butler returned to Butler Island with his daughter Frances. He found numbers of former slaves living there, and arranged that they would work for him as share-croppers. Management of the plantation was difficult, and though Frances returned to Philadelphia, Pierce remained on the island despite the dangers of disease. He contracted malaria and died in August 1867. Following Pierce's death, Frances returned to Butler Island to continue organizing the plantation, and Fanny Kemble moved to Philadelphia. Throughout her life, Fanny continued to perform dramatic readings, to travel, and to publish her journals. Fanny Kemble died peacefully in London on January 15, 1893.

-- A rare and wonderful litho of Fanny Kemble in an exquisite Victorian oval frame (7-1/2" x 11"), with a painted glass matte. Both frame and lithograph are in great shape. On the back of the frame is the clipped name "Miss Kemble". This is a pre-1840s litho and frame.

-- 25 scarce, vintage playbills/broadsides advertising Fanny Kemble's appearances at the Theatre Royal, Covent Gardens from 1829-1831. The specific theatre events advertised with Fanny Kemble are: Maid of Honour, Belvidera, Romeo and Juliet, Euphrasia, Venice Preserved, The Gamester, A Tragedy and Grecian Daughter. Each one is approximately 13"x16". All of these broadsides are on very thin paper, with some wear to edges. All printed by W Reynolds, 9 Denmark-court, Strand.

-- An 1830 print entitled, "The Attitudes of Miss Fanny Kemble as Juliet" from "The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons" a monthly publication dedicated to the high life, fashionables, Fashions, polite literature, fine arts, the opera and theatres. The page exhibits 4 prints of Fanny Kemble in "attitudes" from her performance in Juliet. She made her first appearance on stage when she appeared as Juliet in her father's production of Romeo and Juliet on October 5th, 1829. Fanny's great success in this role was followed by several others in her father's Covenant Garden Theatre. Measures 8.25" x 7", in excellent condition.

-- Very scarce (two sets owned by the collection) Frances Anne Butler (Fanny Kemble) Journal. Philadelphia  Carey, Lea & Blanchard. First American Edition, 1863.  
Description: 2 volumes. Vol I: 252 pages Vol II: 218 pages.  An important and early travel journal. The author recounts her travels around the American east coast, where she was pursued by a number of smitten suitors. Butler is best known by her maiden/stage name Frances Anne Kemble" under which she wrote a number of plays, acted on both sides of the Atlantic and wrote her Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation (1863), and whose harsh, critical description of plantation/slave life, plus her own indiscretions offended several prominent Americans, and which the English public quite adored. An ad in back of Vol. II includes first appearance of Frankenstein also published by Carey, Lea & Blanchard. Period cloth rebacked with paper spine labels.
-- 1863 edition (everything in one volume) of Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation on 1838-1839, printed by Harper & Brothers, New York. Fair condition.

-- Frances Anne Kemble (Fanny Kemble), 1809 - 1893, Scarce three volumes of memoirs, which were published separately, contain some of her writing about slavery but also range over a wide variety of observations about her life on stage, in the arts and living in America.  Many of the passages are in the form of letters.      1. "Records of a Girlhood," 605 pages, published by Henry Holt in 1879 and is a second edition. Here, she writes about growing up in England, life on the stage, coming to America, and her first impressions of the country. The book ends in 1833, the year before her marriage to slave owner Pierce Butler, but already she is making observations about the evils of slavery.  Someone has lightly affixed an 1883 newspaper obituary of the author to a blank page in the back.  It is pasted only along the top edge so it could probably be removed easily.     2. "Records of Later Life," (2 copies) published in 1882 by Henry Holt is a first edition. Here, her observations pick up in 1834, and she writes more about slavery (although that is still only a part of the book) along with accounts of her life and work and observations about major figures of the day from Dickens to a steam ship trip up the Hudson River.


-- Rare first edition copy of, Case of the United States, Alabama Claims, to be laid before the Tribunal of Arbitration, to be Convened at Geneva under the provisions of the Treaty between the United States of America and Her majesty the Queen of Great Britain, Concluded at Washington, May 8th. 1871. Published by the Government Printing office, Washington (1872). 42nd Congress - 2nd Session- Ex. Doc. No.31. The book contains a fold-out map of the SE coast of the USA and its relation to the British West Indies colonies. 204 pages.
-- A vintage engraving of "A Session of the Alabama Claims Arbitrators."
-- The Graphic newspaper, May 4, 1872. Five men are engraved on the front page, with the headline: "The Alabama Claims -- The Geneva Court of Arbitration."

BACKGROUND: The Alabama claims (1862-1872) were a diplomatic dispute between the United States and Great Britain that arose out of the U.S. Civil War. The peaceful resolution of these claims 7 years after the war ended set an important precedent for solving serious international disputes through arbitration, and laid the foundation for greatly improved relations between Britain and the United States. The controversy began when Confederate agents contracted for warships from British boatyards. Disguised as merchant vessels during their construction in order to circumvent British neutrality laws, the craft were actually intended as commerce raiders. The most successful of these cruisers was the Alabama, which was launched on July 29, 1862. It captured 58 Northern merchant ships before it was sunk in June 1864 by a U.S. warship off the coast of France. In addition to the Alabama, other British-built ships in the Confederacy Navy included the Florida, Georgia, Rappahannock, and Shenandoah. Together, they sank more than 150 Northern ships and impelled much of the U.S. merchant marine to adopt foreign registry. The damage to Northern shipping would have been even worse had not fervent protests from the U.S. Government persuaded British and French officials to seize additional ships intended for the Confederacy. Most famously, on September 3, 1863, the British Government impounded two ironclad, steam-driven “Laird rams” that Confederate agent James D. Bulloch had surreptitiously arranged to be built at a shipyard in Liverpool. The United States demanded compensation from Britain for the damage wrought by the British-built, Southern-operated commerce raiders, based upon the argument that the British Government, by aiding the creation of a Confederate Navy, had inadequately followed its neutrality laws. The damages discussed were enormous. Charles Sumner, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, argued that British aid to the Confederacy had prolonged the Civil War by 2 years, and indirectly cost the United States hundreds of millions, or even billions of dollars (the figure Sumner suggested was .125 billion). Some Americans adopted this argument and suggested that Britain should offer Canada to the United States in compensation. Such proposals were not taken seriously by British statesmen, but they convey the passion with which some Americans viewed the issue. After years of unsuccessful U.S. diplomatic initiatives, a Joint High Commission meeting in Washington, D.C. during the early part of 1871 arrived at the basis for a settlement. The British Government expressed regret for its contribution to the success of Confederate commerce raiders. This agreement, dated May 8, 1871, and known as the Treaty of Washington, also established an arbitration commission to evaluate the merit of U.S. financial claims on Britain. In addition, the treaty addressed Anglo-American disputes over boundaries and fishing rights. The arbitration commission, which issued its decision in September 1872, rejected American claims for indirect damages, but did order Britain to pay the United States .5 million as compensation for the Alabama claims. In the book, History of the United States, E. Benjamin Andrews states that the money, plus interest, Alabama Claims damage award was "promptly" handed over to the US where Congress had it banked for 4 years earning 5% interest. When the amount reached million, Congress then convened the Court of Alabama Claims.

   62. Three letters from the American Bar Association written in 1923. Two of these 1923 letters from the American Bar Association to Honorable Christopher T. Callahan of Holyoke, Massachusetts, were written by John E. Hannigan, Boston, MA, State Director, First District. Mr. Callahan was Judge of the Superior Court of Massachusetts.  The first letter, dated January 26, 1923, is an invitation to Callahan to join the American Bar Association.
 -- The second letter in response evidently to queries from Callahan about colored men being excluded from the Bar Association. Mr. Hannigan answers: "There is no law of the American Bar Association excluding colored men. There is a law requiring applicants to state their color. The purpose of this is to inform the Executive Committee. Probably no colored man will pass this committee. The reason is not political but social. The annual meeting of the Association is attended by many Southern lawyers and their families. There are numerous receptions and social foregatherings, culminating in a grand banquet. White men and women of the South will not accept the society of black men and women, though brunette delegates from Porto Rico and the Philippines and yellow-skinned men from the East are usually present. There were bitter controversies in 1913 and 1914 over the admission of W.H. Lewis and one or two other colored men. The Southern members made it plain that, frankly conceding all legal rights to negroes, social intercourse was impossible. There seem to be imperative matters of which they will not or cannot speak which control this issue for them. The rule, an expression of which you found on the application card, requiring statement of color, was the result. Personally I am color blind. I hate prejudice, but am tolerant of men with prejudice. I may be one myself. My dissenting from the other fellow's judgment may be prejudging on my part. I appreciate the instinct of justice manifested in all your acts as judge and in the sentiments of your letter to me. I beg leave to renew my invitation to you, and hope you will authorize me to strike out the qualification. I am sending your letter and a copy of this to the Membership Committee and to the Citizenship Committee. Believe me, Very sincerely, John E. Hannigan. P.S. I enclose copy of my letter to Mr. Wadhams, Secretary of the Membership Committee, accompanying your letter. A similar one goes to Mr. Saner of Dallas, Texas, Chairman of the Citizenship Committee."
 -- The third letter is a copy sent to Mr. Callahan by Hannigan, of a letter Hennigan wrote to a Mr. Wadhams, secretary of the Membership Committee - "March 12, 1923. Dear Mr. Wadhams, I am enclosing letter (copy) from Mr. Justice Callahan, a distinguished member of our Superior Court, together with a copy of my reply. This Southern ex-slave question is certainly embarrassing. On the one hand the Citizenship Committee is seeking to reaffirm the Constitution and its great principles of vested and guaranteed legal equality for all men, and the Membership Committee is pointing with pride to the Association's ideal of the dignity and trained patriotism of the American lawyer; on the other hand every application for membership carries a warning of caste inequality, and a notice that honorable members of the bar, if colored, may not be admitted to the Association." He goes on to state a quote from Lincoln and ends with "Well, I wonder if we can't plow round our log any better than we're doing."
These letters are historic examples of great prejudice against blacks by some members of the American Bar Association in the 1920's.They were purchased in a paper/letter lot at an estate auction. None of the letters have envelopes. All have age coloring, some wear, some edge tears and edge pieces missing, some creases and marks, rusty marks from a paper clip.

   63. An absolutely rare sampler (17"x17") dated June 4th, 1830, signed by it's maker, "Lavinia Wonn." Samplers like this are extremely rare and valuable. Lavinia may have been 8-10 years old when she made this sampler. The archivist of the Oblate Sisters Of Providence, a Black Catholic Order (Baltimore) said the following about the possibility of Lavinia Wonn being a student at St. Frances School for Colored Girls. "We do not have her listed as one of the early students but it is still possible she attended the school since names of the day students were rarely recorded. I will keep my eye out for any mention of her in our records to see if she was a student there."


-- BACKGROUND: The teachers at St. Francis sometimes taught students known as the "Children of The House." These children were not slaves. They were girls who were either orphans or half orphans that the sisters took in. The archivist of the Oblate Sisters of Providence is not aware of any student that was a slave while attending St. Frances. The archivist goes on to state, "We do have several manumission documents and certificates of freedom in our collection of women who obtained their freedom and then became sisters. These girls were taught for free, and usually entered the Convent and became sisters themselves. Some children were taught free but most paid tuition and some even boarded. It was the income from the paying students that supplemented the free tuition. A few girls did remain and become sisters the majority did not. It was against the law in the late 1700's and early 1800's for a Black person to receive an education. Reading and writing were strictly forbidden. It was never illegal to teach anyone in the state of Maryland - not slaves, not free people of color, not anybody. There were no free public schools for black children until 1868 in Maryland while  public schools for white children began in 1828. In a few places schools were quietly operating, one in New England and the other in Baltimore, MD. There were several Protestant schools for black children in Baltimore in the antebellum period. One can review Christopher Phillip's excellent book,  Freedom's Port (except that he doesn't mention the Oblates), for more information and confirmation of what has been stated." The Oblate Sisters of Providence have the largest single collection of 19th century schoolgirl samplers worked by African American girls in the world. Take a look at the images of some of the samplers on their . 

   64. Extremely scarce, First Edition copy of Slaveholding Examined in Light of the Holy Bible, by William Henry Brisbane (Philadelphia, 1847, 222 pages). Minister, editor, author, and doctor, William Henry Brisbane was a South Carolina slaveholder who turned abolitionist, moved north, and freed his slaves. He came to Wisconsin in 1853, settled in the town of Arena, and served as chaplain of the 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry in the Civil War. In this speech, originally delivered in Cincinnati and later issued as a pamphlet, Brisbane explains his transformation from a slaveholder to an anti-slavery activist. William Henry Brisbane, whom the Mercantile Agency (Dunn & Bradstreet) rated a failure in an early credit rating in the 1840s because he had inherited 0,000, and run through the whole fortune in just a couple of years. Upon closer investigation, what actually had happened in this man's life, it turned out that he had inherited a slave plantation in Beaufort, South Carolina, had  come to the conclusion that slavery was wrong, had sold all of his slaves and moved to the North, and then was racked by guilt about the people he had left behind. So he spent his fortune to purchase back the slaves that he had sold when he left the South, and bring them north into freedom. So he's an example of someone who is truly a great emancipator, but financially and professionally ended up a failure. After the Civil War, he was appointed by his friend S.P. Chase, Lincoln's treasury secretary, to return to South Carolina as chairman of the U.S. Direct Tax Commission for South Carolina. His assignment was to confiscate the abandoned plantations in the Port Royal district and sell them for unpaid taxes and put the freed slaves to work on small farms. These were the plantations and farms of his family and former friends and neighbors, most of whom had fled the area. On New Year's Day 1863 years ago, hundreds of free blacks and former slaves in the Port Royal region rose to their feet in thunderous applause after the Rev. William Henry Brisbane read for the first time publicly in the country the legendary Emancipation Proclamation. Brisbane was a truly remarkable man.

   65. -- The Methodist Magazine, 1798. Printed by Henry Tuckniss, 575 pages. This magnificent volume covers the entire year of 1798 with original sermons, experiences, letters, poetry and other religious pieces, together with instructive and useful extracts from different authors. There are a number of original sermons and letters by John Wesley and two comprehensive articles entitled, "A Summary View of the Slave Trade". There are interesting letters to and from Bishop Francis Asbury (first Protestant bishop in North America). Many A.M.E. churches bear his name.
-- A little background on Francis Asbury: Asbury preached in every state. In Virginia, he preached often in Loudoun and Fauquier counties and in the Shenandoah Valley and Piedmont regions. He had no home. He relied on the hospitality of others. When Asbury was 26, his ship from England docked at Philadelphia. He wrote in his journal: "When I came near the American shore, my very heart melted within me, to think from whence I came, where I was going, and what I was going about. But I felt my mind open to the people, and my tongue loosed to speak. I feel that God is here." Asbury was one of several itinerant preachers in early America, but what set him apart was his companion, Harry Hosier, a black man, not a servant but an equal. In May 1781 in Fairfax County, Asbury preached, followed by Hosier. Asbury wrote of the service in his journal: "This circumstance was new, and the white people looked on with attention." Hosier's presence might account for some African American Methodist churches taking the name Asbury, but there was another reason. In 1783 -- the year the Colonies received their liberty from England -- Asbury, in Petersburg, Va., wrote that he and other ministers 'all agreed in the spirit of African liberty.' At times Asbury would leave his host if he saw a black person being mistreated or ask an inhospitable person whether he could stay in the "Negro quarter." The word "slave" was not in Asbury's vocabulary. Just before Christmas in 1797, he wrote, "We should not wondering ask, Where did this or that nation of people come from? either [American] Indians or Africans." Asbury's work took him far afield. He crossed the Allegheny mountains sixty times, often through trackless underbrush. No house provided shelter at night. His rheumatism, worsened by repeated drenchings and cold winds, left his feet grotesquely swollen; someone lifted him onto his horse, his dangling feet unable to get through the stirrups. Incapacitated as well by asthma and pleurisy in the last two years of his life he had to be carried like a child everywhere. When urged to give up traveling he replied that "Come" had always been the operative word he used with younger preachers, never "Go."

   66. A carte-de-visite (CDV) of Theodore or Theodros or Tewodros II (1818-1868), King of Abyssinia and Emperor of Ethiopia (reigned 1855-1868). Born in the western province of Qwara during a period of disunity in Ethiopia, he was called Kassa and was the son of a minor chief. By military prowess he made himself master of Wars, whereupon Queen Menen, the mother of the ruler of Gondor, then the capital, sent an army to crush him. The expedition failed and Kassa was allowed to marry the Queen’s grand-daughter, Tewabetch. By 1854 he was the ruler of Gondor and Amhara, and in 1855 proclaimed himself Tewodros, a significant choice, as legend said that a sovereign of that name would rule justly, conquer Islam, and capture Jerusalem. Tewodros dreamed of reuniting the empire, and restoring its greatness. He attempted to conquer the different provinces, crush the nobles, reorganize taxes, and expropriate church lands, as well as to abolish the slave trade and convert Muslims to Christianity. He tried to create a paid army directly loyal to himself to replace the feudal levies who looted the countryside and obeyed only their own immediate masters.

King of Abyssinia & Emperor of Ethiopia

   Tewodros had rifles smuggled through the Sudan and Massawa, both under hostile Ottoman rule, obliged Protestant missionaries to cast cannon for him, and built roads for his artillery. He also sought to develop relations with Europe, to exchange embassies with foreign powers, and to import gunsmiths and other craftsmen. He accordingly wrote to Queen Victoria, but his letter remained unanswered, so he decided to force the British government to listen by arresting the British envoy and other Europeans, the provoking the British government in 1867 into sending an expedition against him. The British advanced rapidly against his mountain fortress of Magdala. Tewodros, unable to repulse the invaders, killed himself on 13 April 1868. Produced by Eugen Lulves of Hanover, identified verso by a backplate.

Cheswell Document, 1813

   67. An 1813 document in beautiful calligraphy, written and signed by African American Revolutionary War hero, Wentworth Cheswell (1747-1817). Wentworth served his town in varied capacity every year from 1768 to 1817, including terms as town selectman, justice of the peace and town assessor. Wentworth Cheswell is honored as a Revolutionary hero rather closely modeled on the figure of Paul Revere. As the town messenger on the Committee of Safety during the Revolution, he too, had made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community of the impending British invasion. As the town scrivener, he hand-copied the town's records, which date back to 1727. These town records remain a part of Newmarket Historical Society's collection. Born on April 11, 1746, in Newmarket, the son of Hopestill March and Catherine Kennison Cheswill was named in honor of Governor Wentworth. Two accounts describe him as "colored" as it was reported that his grandfather, a former slave named Richard Cheswill, had married a daughter of the Wentworths of Portsmouth. This union was considered a disgrace to the Wentworth family, who sent them away to the woods of New Hampshire. It is in part because of his African American lineage that Wentworth truly stands out as a leader in diversity and equality in New Hampshire.

   Historical Background: In 1768, Wentworth became active in Newmarket town affairs at the age of 22. His first appointed position was as justice of the peace that same year, and he went on to serve as town auditor, coroner and moderator. The Massachusetts Historical Society has in its collection a document that is thought to be the earliest archaeological report from New Hampshire. Coauthored by Mr. Cheswill, this report was later sent to the Reverend Jeremy Belknap of Boston to be included in his history of New Hampshire. The undated document is believed to be written in 1790 or 1791 and details the aboriginal artifacts and relics he had recovered in the area surrounding Newmarket. Many historians agree that Wentworth's writing contains the seeds of modern archaeological theory. Despite the limited scope of Wentworth's writing, scholars defend his title as New Hampshire's first archaeologist. Wentworth stands for all we admired about our Founding Fathers, integrity, dedication and resolve. Wentworth's legacy has gone uncelebrated for far too long. It should be noted that Wentworth Cheswell also was the subject of a national accolade which he had received during a Congessional debate in 1820 over the Missouri Compromise. In his address opposing the legislation that prevented mulattos from attaining Missouri citizenship, Senator Morril of New Hampshire stated that "In New Hampshire there was a man by the name of Cheswell, who, with his family, were respectable in point of abilities, property and character. He held some of the first offices in the town in which he resided, was appointed justice of the peace for the county, and was perfectly competent to perform with ability all the duties of his various offices in the most prompt, accurate and acceptable manner. But this family are forbidden to enter and live in Missouri."

   68. Signed photograph of Leslie Hutchinson. The photo has been hand signed “To Jeanette Kennard, Gratefully Hutch 1942”. Leslie Arthur Hutchinson was born on the Island of Grenada on the 7th March, 1900. His father played the organ in the local church and Leslie learned it at an early age. He studied law in New York and to earn extra money he sang and played the piano in bars at night. By 1925 he had become a member of the Henry 'Broadway' Jones band, playing at Palm Beach, Miami and had made a couple of records. In 1926 he moved to Paris and soon made a name for himself at Joe Zelli's club where he was spotted by London impresario C. B. Cochrane, who booked him to play in the Rogers & Hart revue 'One Damn Thing After Another' at the London Pavilion. The review started in 1927 and Hutch was an immediate hit. He later became the resident entertainer at Quaglino's, which was one of London's top cabaret night spots. Hutch became a big star and his records were very popular. He regularly appeared on radio and TV in the 1950s and 1960s and continued to perform in cabaret. He suffered from ill-health in his later years and died on 19th August, 1969. Only thirty people attended his funeral

   69. Authentic, original manuscript of the dramatic poetry of Evelyn Patterson Burrell entitled, Weep No More.  Copy written in 1973, this work chronicles in narrative poetic verse, the plight of the Black people through history and slavery in the United States. This manuscript was written after her book was published, by Burrell with stage direction to facilitate the performance of the poetry as a play. It has hand written notes/edits by Burrell throughout, illustrations of slavery and photographs. This play consists of 300 lines and (4) four scenes. The play received commendatory critical acclaim. Originally published by Burton Johns, Philadelphia, PA. Dr. Frederick L. Morey, editor and publisher said of it: Weep No More... invokes black militancy within a dramatic framework. Another commentary states, "Evelyn Patterson Burrell's books of poetry bear a resemblance to Alex Haley's 'ROOTS'." Interestingly enough, no black hero is mentioned throughout the work. "A black and cotton-headed man" who portrays the convener of the march for overcoming oppression, and as the assassinated. Minor bumps to the corners, soft cover. Inscriptions by Burrell throughout. Little to no tanning or foxing noted. A good read as well.

   70. An early authentic original program given out at Blind Tom Concerts (ca. 1867) entitled, "Songs, Sketches of the Life of Blind Tom the Marvelous Musical Prodigy, The Negro Boy Pianist, Whose Recent Performances at the Great St. James and Egyptian Halls (London) and Salle Hertz (Paris), Have Created Such a Profound Sensation."  It contains 33 pages of biography about the remarkable life of Blind Tom (1849-1908) otherwise known as Thomas Greene Wiggins or Thomas Greene Bethune.  Included in the program are his musical selections as well as testimonials about his talent from some of the most eminent American and English Journalists and Composers of the time.

Here's a sample paragraph directly from the program -- "Blind Tom's last appearance in Montrose will be this evening, in the Assembly Hall...when he will again play classical selections from Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Bach, Mozart, etc..


His pianoforte solos will be taken from the compositions of Thalberg, Liszt, Chopin and others. He will also sing various songs from popular operas, and ballads from Moore and burns, as well as some of his own compositions. As a proof of his extraordinary gifts, Blind Tom invites any members of the audience to play any piece of music unknown to him, and he, after a first hearing, re-plays it with the most perfect accuracy, however intricate or elaborate in harmony. He can also analyse any chord or discord struck on the instrument, if he is within hearing, naming almost as rapidly as they are struck, each individual note. As an additional proof of his remarkable powers of imitation, he gives recitations in Greek, Latin, German, French, as well as imitations of the Scottish bagpipe, the musical box, the hurdy-gurdy, the Scotch fiddler, the American stump orator, comic speakers, and, in short, any sound he may hear."

-- February 10, 1866 page of Harper's Weekly, with a large image of Blind Tom, along with a write-up.

-- BACKGROUND: Tom was born in Muscogee County (ear Columbus, GA) on May 25, 1849 with a condition that today's doctors might diagnose with the politically correct term "autistic savant"--one of only about 100 cases recorded in medical history. Tom's father Domingo Wiggins, a field slave, and his mother Charity Greene were purchased at auction by James Bethune of Columbus, Georgia when Tom was an infant. Domingo and Charity's former master thought the blind sickly "pickaninny" had no labor potential and he was thrown into the sale as a no cost extra. Although Tom's parents were married, the prevailing custom of the time dictated that female slaves and their children retain the names of their owners. Following slavery tradition, Tom received the name Thomas Greene Bethune. By age of six Tom started improvising on the piano and creating his own musical compositions. He claimed the wind, or the rain, or the birds had taught him the melody. Even though a local music teacher told Bethune that Tom's musical abilities were beyond comprehension and his best course of action was simply to let him hear fine playing, Bethune provided Tom with various music instructors. One of Tom's music teachers later reported that Tom could learn skills in a few hours that required other musicians years to perfect. In October 1857, General Bethune rented a concert hall in Columbus and for the first time "Blind Tom" performed before a large audience that had difficulty comprehending how a blind idiotic slave child could master the piano keyboard. Slaves with musical talent meant income for their owners and in 1858 James Bethune "hired out" Tom to concert promoter Perry Oliver for a period of several years. It has been estimated that Bethune pocketed ,000 from the arrangement and that Perry Oliver made profits amounting to ,000. Tom, now age nine, was separated from his family and exhibited throughout hundreds of cities on a rigorous four-shows-per-day schedule. Not only could Tom perform world classics, he would astound his audiences by turning his back to the piano and giving an exact repetition--a reversal of the keys the left and right hands played. Musicians in the audience were invited to challenge Tom to a musical duel. Tom could successfully reproduce on the keyboard any piece of music a challenger would first perform. And taking that feat one step further--Tom could play a perfect bass accompaniment to the treble played by someone seated beside him--heard for the first time as he played it. Tom would often push the other performer aside and repeat the entire composition alone. When audiences applauded, Tom followed suit--mimicking the sounds of approval. One of the earliest concert reviews published in the Baltimore Sun on June 27, 1860 announced to its readers that Tom was a phenomenon in the musical world--"thrusting all our conceptions of the science to the wall and informing us that there is a musical world of which we know nothing." Throughout his life Blind Tom would tour Great Britain, Scotland, Europe, Canada, the Rocky Mountain states, the far West, and South America. His repertoire included up to 7,000 pieces with approximately 100 of his own composition and he had added the coronet, French horn, and flute to his list of mastered instruments. His life consisted of concert stages, hotel rooms, and train rides. Tom's social graces remained undeveloped. He usually ate his meals in seclusion and required assistance in dressing before appearing onstage before his audiences. A command performance before President Buchanan at the White House drew further attention and the press referred to him as the greatest pianist of the age whose skills surpassed Mozart.

   71. Vintage, signed soft cover copy of John Howard Griffin's book, "Black Like Me". A fascinating account of a white man's journey through the American South as a black man. Griffin colored his skin and assumed a black identity in 1959.
-- Eight original copies of the April 1960 edition of Sepia Magazine with John Howard Griffin on the front cover and his first installment, along with a lot of photographs. Griffin wrote a series of articles abut his experiences for this magazine.
-- 1960 hard cover Catholic Book Club Edition copy of Griffin's book, "Black Like Me."
-- 1992 laserdisc of the 1964 B&W film "BLACK LIKE ME" is 107 minutes.  A few quotes from the packaging:  "Now I know what it feels like to be black!"; "I changed the color of my skin!"; "It's all true ... every living moment!".  Starring James Whitmore as a white man who tries living as a black man to see what it's like.  Also starring Will Geer and Roscoe Lee Browne. 

   72. Cast iron sculpture (heavy) of an African American Lawn Jockey -- Jocko. Pre-1950s. The piece measures 11" tall and 3" square at the base.  Probably a vintage reproduction, the jockey is wearing a red vest with a yellow tie. His cap is red and there is a screw in his cap which is also red.  The paint is in GREAT condition but the piece is a little dusty and dirty. The tethering ring is intact and the screws holding the two sides together are a little rusty. The previous owner said she acquired it in the early 1950's.
    Historical Background:
George Washington created the first groomsman hitching post, (Jocko), in honor of the  slave that froze to death in the 1770s while holding a lantern/horses for George Washington and his soldiers. General Washington wanted to mount a surprise attack on a British during the Revolutionary War. Several blacks, some of which who were slaves and free men, joined the group. A young black man named Tom Graves wanted to fight but George Washington said he was too young and asked the boy to hold a lantern for the troops as they crossed the Delaware.  When the troops rowed back after the battle the reins of the horses were in the hands of Tom Graves, who had frozen to death.  George Washington was awestruck by the boy’s dedication and made an order to make a statue made in his honor. These statues were also used as markers to the Underground Railroad throughout the South. Green ribbons were tied to the arms of the statue to indicate safety. Red ribbons meant to keep going. Most of the time, the slave masters didn't know what the ribbons were for.

   73. Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia, March 20, 1818) "Spain Consents to Abolition of Slave Trade" -- A Treaty concluded and signed at Madrid by Sir H. Wellesley and M. Pizarro. Spaniards prohibited from going North of the line to purchase Negroes from date of last ratification. Notes dates and places of ratifications. More on penalties for trade and importation of slaves and compensation.

   74. An intriguing hand written letter dated December 27, 1927 by Ethetreda Lewis, the editor of the popular book, Trader Horn. In the letter, from Johannesburg, she references the popularity of the book about Alfred Aloysius, who was also known as "Trader Horn". Actually Trader Horn was the first film shot on location in Africa. It featured many authentic shots of African wildlife and a great deal of inauthentic plot. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1930. Starring Harry Carey in the title role, Edwina Booth, Duncan Renaldo, Mutia Omoolu and Olive Carey, the movie tells of the fictional adventures of real-life trader and adventurer Alfred Aloysius "Trader" 'Horn', ("Horn" was a pseudonym) on safari in Africa. The fictional part includes the discovery of a white blonde jungle queen, the lost daughter of a missionary, played by Miss Booth. The realistic part includes a scene in which Carey as Horn swings on a vine across a river filled with genuine crocodiles, one of which comes very close to taking his leg off. The film was written by Cyril Hume (dialogue), John Thomas Neville, Richard Schayer and Dale Van Every, from the book by Alfred Aloysius Horn and Ethelreda Lewis, and directed by W.S. Van Dyke.
-- 1929 edition of the book, Trader Horn. Printed by Grosset & Dunlap with Illustrations from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Productions. Edited by Ethelreda Lewis and Foreword by John Galsworthy...subtitled "Being the Life and Works of Alfred Aloysius Horn."

   75. Vintage set of five Stock Car Replicas 1/64 -- featuring WENDELL SCOTT, the man who broke the color barrier in stock car racing - and he did so in 1963 when he became the first (and still the only) black driver to win a race in what is now the Sprint Cup Series. Facing racial prejudice among not only some of the NASCAR fans, but also fellow drivers and NASCAR officials, Scott eventually won most of his critics over with his mild manners, his eagerness to help others, and his leave-em-in-the-dust racing skills.
 -- Three large sheets of 30 different uncut prototype cards (1991) of African American champion NASCAR driver, Wendell Scott -- along 2 sets of 30 vintage cards (extremely rare). Licensed by Sports Legends.
-- Copy of movie about Wendell Scott, "Greased Lightning" starring Richard Pryor.
   BACKGROUND: Scott, who died in 1990, was from Danville, Va., just inside the state line from North Carolina. It was an area rich in history for stock car racers, and also an area where it was not unheard of to run illegal whiskey from town to town in souped-up cars. Scott was a taxi driver who graduated to running moonshine and eventually to racing stock cars. For any of those jobs, one had to be a master mechanic and a pretty nifty driver. In 1959, at the age of 38, Scott won the Virginia State Sportsman championship. Two years later, Wendell Scott was able to field a car for the Grand National Series. In nearly 500 Grand National races, he was in the top 10 an amazing 147 times. Considering what Scott had to go through to compete in those Grand National races, it is even more amazing.

Ford Motorsport Collector's Edition of 5 sets of stock car replicas

   The South in the early 1960s was still in the grips of Jim Crow, Bull Conner and the sort of segregation that we today know only through history books. Even on the day he won in Jacksonville, the pervasive attitude of Southern society at the time prevented him from receiving his due. "Everybody in the place knew I had won the race," he said years later, "but the promoters and NASCAR officials didn't want me out there kissing any beauty queens or accepting any awards." Despite racing on a budget that made shoestrings seem expensive, Scott made it work. In 1966, he was a career-best sixth in the points. Through it all, he held his own and competed nose-to-nose with many of the legends whose achievements the present-day NASCAR is built upon.
  Two years later, Scott was able to field a car for the Grand National Series. In nearly 500 Grand National races, he was in the top 10 an amazing 147 times. Considering what Scott had to go through to compete in those Grand National races, it is even more amazing. The South in the early 1960s was still in the grips of Jim Crow, Bull Conner and the sort of segregation that we today know only through history books. Even on the day he won in Jacksonville, the pervasive attitude of Southern society at the time prevented him from receiving his due. "Everybody in the place knew I had won the race," he said years later, "but the promoters and NASCAR officials didn't want me out there kissing any beauty queens or accepting any awards."
   Despite racing on a budget that made shoestrings seem expensive, Scott made it work. In 1966, he was a career-best sixth in the points. Through it all, he held his own and competed nose-to-nose with many of the legends whose achievements the present-day NASCAR is built upon. His driving career ended for all intents and purposes in 1973, when he sustained three cracked ribs, a lacerated arm and a cracked pelvis in a massive 21-car pileup at Talladega Superspeedway. Ramo Stott's blown engine nine laps into the race that day caused the crash, and Scott's Mercury was credited with 55th place (out of 60 starters). He died Dec. 22, 1990, after a long battle with spinal cancer, some 27 years and 21 days after the biggest victory of his career.
   He was later elected to the International Motor Sports Hall of Fame, located, ironically, in Talladega, Alabama. Wendell Scott was so under financed and staffed that he came into the pits for gas and tires, got out of his car and helped change the tires with a 4-way lug wrench. Got back in after the tires were changed and continued in the race. Wendell Scott's sacrifice and dedication paved the way for other African Americans like Willy T. Ribbs, Bill Lester, Randy Bethea and more. "I'm so glad we never gave up," said Scott's widow Mary. "When Ned Jarrett and all of those old drivers came to Scott's funeral, they told us he had the respect of all the drivers. I'd say all of those older guys learned to like him and respect him. They knew he was a genuine person and he stood for what he believed. He didn't give up." (from NASCAR.com).

Tuskegee Summer Institute Diploma, 1924

   76. Tuskegee Summer Institute For Teachers certificate (framed) signed by Robert Russa Moton (R.R. Moton), Principal and E. C. Roberts, Summer Institute Director. The diploma was signed on July 5th, 1924.  S. Eloise Walton received the diploma for Primary Methods & Practice Teaching -- for the 1st Term (June 2 - July 5th, 1924). We are doing more research on Eloise. Any ideas?

   BACKGROUND: Tuskegee Summer Institute for Teachers --  Its purpose is to afford teachers an opportunity to increase their proficiency in the classroom and usefulness in the community where they are working. The following courses were offered: English, Mathematics, Science, Alabama History, American History, General History, Geography, Primary Methods and Practice Teaching, Bookkeeping, Funeral Methods and Management, Upholstery and Basketry, Cooking and Home table Service, Home Making, Sewing and Instruction in Dressmaking, Manual Training and Carpentry, Agriculture and Nature Study, Printing, Instruction in Blacksmithing, Dairying, Animal Husbandry, & Canning and Poultry Raising.
COPY OF 1924 AD FOR SUMMER INSTITUTE: 1st Term: June 2—July 5.   2nd Term : July 7—August 9.
Recitation six days a week. Twelve weeks' work in ten weeks. Credits given toward a Diploma.
Strong Teacher Training Courses. Registration Fee: .00 for the entire session. .00 for one tern of five weeks. Board: .00 for the entire session. .00 for one term of five weeks.


   -- Signed 1930 Edition copy of "What The Negro Thinks" by Robert Russa Moton, Garden City: Doubleday, Doran. Hardback Book: 267 pages, 11 chapters. The book is signed in 1933 by Robert Moton "To Mr. Grafton S. Wilcox, With warmest regards..." Grafton Stiles Wilcox was the Managing Editor of the New York Herald-Tribune at the time. The author, an African American writer and educator says: " 'Know the Negro!' When a white man boasts of it he simply discloses how little he does know about this race." And: "In spite of emancipation Negroes still feel it necessary to conceal their thoughts from white people." Moton (1867 - 1940) succeeded Booker T. Washington as the head of Tuskegee Institute. He was an important writer on racial affairs, national and international. Take a look at the intriguing background information below...

  ROBERT RUSSA MOTON: (1867 – 1940) was an educator and the second president of Tuskegee Institute, perhaps lesser known in comparison to the school’s founder and first principal, Booker T. Washington, or the Institute’s third president, Frederick Douglass Patterson. However, Dr. Moton, as did his predecessor, dedicated his life to educating African Americans and shared Washington’s philosophy towards industrial education as a means of advancement for the recently emancipated population. Dr. Moton, the great-great-great-grandson of an “African slave merchant”, who after selling his fellow countrymen to slavers found himself on a ship chained to an African he recently sold to slave traders. The merchant was purchased and taken to Amelia County, Virginia, by a tobacco planter, where some hundred years later his descendant Robert Russa Moton was born on August 26, 1867.  Dr. Moton recounts this story and the events that shaped his life in his1920 autobiography, Finding A Way Out. A graduate of Hampton Institute, Moton also taught at the school and was the administrator for the Native American students attending the Institute.  He later served for twenty-five years as Commandant of Cadets, overseeing the discipline of all the students.  In 1915, Moton was appointed principal of Tuskegee Institute after the death of Booker T. Washington. To the trustees of Tuskegee, Moton’s ability to get along with both black and white southerners and his potential to solicit funding support from northern philanthropists made him the perfect candidate to further the work of Washington. Moton served as principal of Tuskegee for twenty years.  Under his administration, Tuskegee expanded its academic program, added more buildings for the Institute to carry out its training, and strengthen the school’s reputation.  Dr. Moton retired in 1935 and died in 1940.
: What was the primary catalyst behind the mass exodus of Blacks from the Republican Party...going to the Democratic Party?
RESPONSE: In 1922, former President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court William Howard Taft selected Robert Russa Moton to give the chief address at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial. At the time, many considered Moton to be the most powerful African American in the country. In elite, white political and financial circles, his status was unparalleled. In race relations, Moton advocated accommodation, not confrontation. He firmly believed that the best way to advance the cause of African Americans was to convince white people of black people's worth through their exemplary behavior. Never one to rock the boat, he didn't fight segregation or challenge white authority. A protégé of Booker T. Washington, Moton had succeeded him as principal of Tuskegee Institute. From this position, Moton worked long and hard to win the trust of white politicians and philanthropists and secure donations for Tuskegee and other African American institutions and organizations. His power in the country stemmed from the money he could raise from whites who appreciated his conservative views and methods. In addition to his access to leaders in Washington, Moton sat on the boards of major philanthropic organizations with the likes of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller Jr., and his influence was considerable. When Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company, provided the funding to build more than 6,000 "Rosenwald" schools for rural Southern African Americans, Moton's skills were clearly in play behind the scenes. Over the years, Moton's words and deeds impressed Herbert Hoover, who invited Moton to visit him anytime he was in Washington. However, during the Great Mississippi River Flood of 1927, it was Hoover who found himself calling on Moton for assistance.
   The flood began when heavy rains pounded the central basin of the Mississippi in the summer of 1926. By September the Mississippi's tributaries in Kansas and Iowa were swollen to capacity. On New Year's day of 1927 the Cumberland River at Nashville topped levees at 56.2 feet. The Mississippi River broke out of its levee system in 145 places and flooded 27,000 square miles or about 16,570,627 acres. The area was inundated up to a depth of 30 feet. The flood caused over 0 million in damages and killed 246 people in seven states. The flood affected Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Arkansas was hardest hit, with 14% of its territory covered by floodwaters. By May of 1927 the Mississippi River below Memphis, Tennessee reached a width of 60 miles. As the flood approached New Orleans, Louisiana 30 tons of dynamite were set off on the levee at Caernarvon, Louisiana and sent 250,000 ft³/s of water pouring through. This prevented New Orleans from experiencing serious damage but flooded much of St. Bernard Parish. As it turned out, the destruction of the Caernarvon levee was unnecessary; several major levee breaks well upstream of New Orleans, including one the day after the demolitions, made it impossible for flood waters seriously to threaten the city. See more below about the final report led by Moton.

Moton's Final Report

 -- The final Report of the Colored Advisory Commission Appointed with The American National Red Cross and the President's Committee on Relief Work in the Mississippi Valley Flood disaster of 1927. Extremely scarce copy!!! The American National Red Cross, Washington DC, 1927. paper wraps with red cross and black lettering. Minor spoiling to cover. Illustrated 30 pages. Less than a month after the nation's biggest flood disaster, a 17-member commission of prominent African Americans, led by Tuskegee Institute's Robert Moton submitted their report on the disaster. They had been charged with learning whether African American victims of the flood were subject to discrimination "in matters of treatment, living conditions, work details, and relief given."
BACKGROUND: Secretary of Commerce during the Coolidge administration, Hoover had his eye on the presidency. When President Coolidge placed Hoover in command of all flood relief operations during the disaster, it seemed to be the perfect vehicle to raise his national profile and revive his reputation as the "Great Humanitarian." Drawing on lessons he had learned feeding the starving European victims of World War I, Hoover swept into action. He cut through bureaucratic red tape, got aid to victims devastated by the flood and was dubbed a hero by the national press. There was only one thing that could tarnish Hoover's glowing image -- the treatment of African Americans in the Washington County levee camps. Hoover had visited the area and had approved the local flood relief committee's decision, under the leadership of Will Percy, to keep the African American refugees on the levee. But as conditions deteriorated in the camps, word slowly filtered North, and the scandal threatened to derail Hoover's presidential ambitions. Hoover's friends urged him to get what they called "the big Negroes" in the Republican Party to quiet his critics, and Hoover turned to Robert Moton for the job. Hoover formed the Colored Advisory Commission, led by Moton and staffed by prominent African Americans, to investigate the allegations of abuses in the flood area. The commission conducted a thorough investigation and reported back to Moton on the deplorable conditions. Moton presented the findings to Hoover, and advocated immediate improvements to aid the flood's neediest victims.

   But the information was never made public. Hoover had asked Moton to keep a tight lid on his investigation. In return, Hoover implied that if he were successful in his bid for the presidency, Moton and his people would play a role in his administration unprecedented in the nation's history. Hoover also hinted that as president he intended to divide the land of bankrupt planters into small African American-owned farms. Motivated by Hoover's promises, Moton saw to it that the Colored Advisory Commission never revealed the full extent of the abuses in the Delta, and Moton championed Hoover's candidacy to the African American population. However, once elected President in 1928, Hoover ignored Robert Moton and the promises he had made to his black constituency. In the following election of 1932, Moton withdrew his support for Hoover and switched to the Democratic Party. In an historic shift, African Americans began to abandon the Republicans, the party of Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation, and turned to Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "New Deal" Democratic Party instead.

   TIME OUT: I (Joel Freeman) am a registered Independent. Mad at both major political parties in America. It has taken 50-60 years to get into the fiscal & moral mess we are in today, with enough blame to go around -- pointing fingers at BOTH parties. I wanted to provide an alternative view: A gentleman wrote something on a blog that intrigued me. As an African American he stated something that both Republicans and Democrats need to hear:
 "It is time Blacks diversify in the political arena . We need to have Blacks on Dem side and GOP side so that whichever party is in power, WE will have reps at the table. Blacks tend to be fiscally liberal... but morally we are very conservative. If truth be told... we as a people VOTE Democrat, but how many pay yearly dues to the Democrat party, attend monthly meetings in our communities, go to the Democrat Conventions? So unless you are a card carrying member of the Democrat party... you REALLY are an INDEPENDENT who chooses to vote for the Democrat candidate. It takes courage to stand and say you are a Republican. Too many Black Republicans are afraid of being verbally beat up and don't want to deal with the Black "back-lash" from peers and family. So they keep their Republicanism under wraps. I applaud the bravery of any Black who admits he or she is a Republican! I just hope we as a people can learn that politics is a game... a sport! Just like basketball, baseball or football. Heck, if you like the LA Lakers, the Pittsburgh Pirates or the Dallas Cowboys... I still like you. If I like the Grizzlies, the Dodgers or the Lions... you ain't got to hate me and demonize me for my choice.  Its the same with Democrats vs Republicans!!!!!!!!!"

   The aftermath of the flood was one factor in the Great Migration of African-Americans to northern cities. Previously, the move from the rural South to the Northern cities had virtually stopped. As a result of displacement lasting up to six months, millions of Southern blacks moved to the big cities of the North, particularly Chicago. The flood propelled Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, in charge of flood relief operations, into the national spotlight and set the stage for his election to the Presidency. It also helped Huey Long be elected Louisiana Governor in 1928. The flood had the unlikely effect of contributing to both the election of Herbert Hoover as President, and his defeat four years later. He was much lauded for his masterful handling of the refugee camps, but later concerns over the treatment of blacks in those camps caused him to make promises to the African-American community which he later broke, losing the black vote in his re-election campaign. The flood resulted in a great cultural output as well, inspiring a great deal of folklore and folk music. Charlie Patton, Bessie Smith, and many other Delta blues musicians wrote numerous songs about the flood; Randy Newman's "Louisiana 1927" was also based on the events of the flood. Kansas Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie's "When the Levee Breaks" was reworked by Led Zeppelin, and became one of that group's most famous songs. William Faulkner's short story "Old Man" (in the book, Wild Palms) was about a prison break from Parchman Penitentiary during the flood.

-- Vintage LP by Memphis Millie with her classic blues song, "When the Levee Breaks", written and first recorded by husband and wife Kansas Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie in 1929. The song was in reaction to the upheaval caused by the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. It was famously re-worked by Led Zeppelin as the last song on their fourth album. The lyrics in Led Zeppelin's song were based on the original recording.

-- "High Water" in the Mississippi River -- Rare etching/engraving (period) with an African American family stranded upon the top of a house. River has covered the house right up to the roof on many of the houses. Steamboat in background is named, "Stonewall Jackson."

   77. Six different documents (deeds) signed by Blanche K. Bruce. Washington, DC:  These deeds were signed by Bruce when he served as Recorder of Deeds (1890-1893), a position appointed to him by President Benjamin Harrison replacing Frederick Douglass.
BACKGROUND: Blanche Kelso Bruce, the son of a black slave and a white plantation owner, was the first African-American to serve a full term in the U.S. Senate. Bruce was born into slavery in Virginia, but escaped at the start of the Civil War and made his way to Ohio, where he attended Oberlin College. After the Civil War he moved to Mississippi and got involved in local politics. In 1875, during the post-war Reconstruction Era, Bruce was elected by the Mississippi legislature to become one of the state's two U.S. senators. When his term was over in 1881, Bruce was appointed by President James Garfield to the office of Register of the Treasury. As such, Bruce was the first African-American to be represented on U.S. currency. Bruce served as the Register of the Treasury until his death in 1898, when African American, Judson W. Lyons took over.

Samuel Crowther

   78. A rare and interesting cabinet card (CDV) of Samuel Adjar Crowther which probably dates from around the 1860s. Samuel (Adjar) Crowther was born December 31st, 1809 in Africa. He was the first ever African to be ordained by the church Missionary Society who was consecrated a bishop to the Niger region of Africa. He had been sold into slavery at the age of twelve but was rescued by a British Cruiser and was taken to a mission school where he was baptized. In 1842 he went to Church Missionary College in London. He later went back to his people in Africa and worked as a missionary from 1843 to 1851. He spent the rest of his life in evangelistic work in Niger. He established churches, elementary schools and high schools and one college. It was in Niger that he spent the rest of his life. Hand inscribed in faint ink under picture "Samuel Adjar Crowther, Bishop of Niger Territory". Buxton photographer's mark on front and also on back. 4.25" x  6.5".

   79. A truly scarce and unique recital program for the great African-American contralto Marian Anderson. The performance was at the Gulistan Theatre in Dacca, East Pakistan on November 26, 1957, revealing the international impact she experienced. The concert was sponsored by the Pakistan-American Society and the American National Theatre and Academy. Anderson was accompanied by Franz Rupp at the piano. Anderson chose an exquisite repertoire Handel, Schubert, American songs, and Negro Spirituals. The program was Handel Tutta Racoolta Ancor, Handel Chio Mai Vi Possa, Handel Arioso: Dank Sei Dir Herr, Schubert Standchen, Schubert Wohin, Schubert Aufenthalt, Schuber Der Tod Und Das Madchen, Barber Nocturne, Swanson The Negro Speaks of the Rivers, Dougherty Weathers and Autumn, and Negro spirituals Go Down Moses, O What a Beautiful City, He's Got the Whole World in His Hands, and Roll Jerd'n Roll. It's quite an amazing program! The physical set up of the program is unique. Most amazingly, is a letter in the program from the Governor of East Pakistan, welcoming Anderson to Dacca. Marian Anderson, long acclaimed as the world's greatest contralto singer, has been honored by the governments of Japan, Sweden, Finland, Haiti, France, Liberia, and the Philippines, as well as her own countrymen. She has toured Russia, England, Germany, Norway, and Austria and is making her first visit to Dacca as part of her current tour of Asia which is under the Auspices of the American National Theatre and Academy. This program is in fine-excellent condition. There is some aging to the paper, but no creases, tears, stains or bends.
-- This collection includes quite a number of original, vintage Marian Anderson concert programs, dated from 1938 -- many autographed by Marian Anderson. Here are a some of them:
-- Program of November 9 (no printed year) with Franz Rupp, Pianist. Steinway Piano. NBC Concert Service.
-- Symphony Hall Program of November 3 (no printed year) Franz Rupp, Accompanist.
-- Program of January 9, 1944 (with Franz Rupp).
-- Program, "Spencer Fuller Presents Lauritz Melchior". Memorial Auditorium, Worcester, January 12. This program includes an ad for the Nov. 9th Anderson Concert at Symphony Hall. Fair condition. (Rachmaninoff died in March of 1943 and did not perform in the 1st (38-39) series ...so these publications where his performances are advertised would be from the 39/40, 40/41, 41/42 or 42/43 series.)
-- Marian Anderson souvenir program publication (biography, pictorial). Dark green cover. Good condition w/some minor wear. Includes  a picture of the mural depicting Anderson singing at the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday 1939, the launching of the Booker T. Washington in 1942, an excerpt about the DAR denying Anderson a booking at Constitution Hall and the subsequent 1943 invitation. Includes a pictorial of Anderson's home, 'Marianna' in Fairfield County, Connecticut. Back cover ad for a Russian Ballet performance at the Met. "Buy war (and more) bonds" is printed on the last page - this publication is c. 1943-44.
-- "S. Hurok presents Marian Anderson". Souvenir program publication. Biography/pictorial. (Red and White cover). Undated but back cover advertisement includes an upcoming 41-42 The Ballet Theatre Tour from S. Hurok.
-- "S. Hurok, presents Marian Anderson". Lime green cover. Good+ condition. Very minor wear. Clean and intact. This is a wonderful publication which includes an amazing sketch and a photo/portrait of Anderson. Several other photos of Anderson. Includes great full page ads for de Lentheric nouveau parfum and Longines and more. Undated, c. 1937/38?.
-- "S. Hurok presents Marion Anderson". Red cover. Great photos of Anderson and full-page ads. Undated, c. 38/39?
-- 1949 Newsweek issue, with the stunning image of Marian Anderson on the cover.
   80. Scarce 1853 First Edition copy (2 copies) of Solomon Northrup's "Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northrup", dedicated to Harriet Beecher Stowe. 336 pages, with 7 illustrations by Coffin. This is the graphic story of the abduction of a free Negro adult from the North and his enslavement for 12 years in the South -- provides a sensational element which cannot be matched by any of the dozens of narratives written by former slaves. It was this book and Uncle Tom's Cabin which helped motivate the North to fight the American Civil War.

   81. 1887 (two First Edition copies, 1150 pages) and one 1890 (733 pages) -- Three copies of Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising by Rev. William J. Simmons. (The 1887, 1st edition, WorldCat search locates only 50 copies of the 1st edition worldwide.) The book was issued by subscription only. Very few known copies exist, very hard to find vintage copies. With an introductory sketch of the author by Rev. Henry M. Turner. A rare copy of a classic primary source of biographical information on early, notable African-Americans. The work includes biographies of Frederick Douglass, Crispus AttucksAlexander Dumas, Henry McNeal Turner, Nat Turner, and scores of others. A scarce piece of African-Americana. Published by Geo.M Rewell & Co. The book is in fair condition. The owners' name is inscribed inside the cover of the 1890 volume "Mrs. Rosa Carter", Springfield Ohio. Both volumes illustrated throughout with numerous black-and-white portraits, with about 75 illustrations in the 1890 edition and about 125 illustrations in the 1887 edition.
DEDICATION: "This volume is respectfully dedicated to the women of our race, and especially to the devoted, self-sacrificing mothers who molded the lives of the subjects in these sketches, laboring and praying for their success. It is sent forth with the earnest hope that future mothers will be inspired to give special attention to the training of their children, and thereby fit them for honorable, happy and useful lives."
From the Preface:
"I have noticed in my long experience as a teacher, that many of my students were woefully ignorant of the work of our great colored men -- even ignorant of their names. If in a slight degree I shall here furnish the data for that class of rising men and women, I shall feel much pleased. I wish the book to show to the world -- to our oppressors and even our friends -- that the Negro race is still alive, and must possess more intellectual vigor than any other section of the human family, or else how could they be crushed as slaves in all these years since 1620, and yet to-day stand side by side with the best blood in America, in white institutions, grappling with abstruse problems in Euclid and difficult classics, and master them?"
   82. Czech Novel on American Slavery, 1871, "Otrocnik, aneb: Rozum bez srdce. Povidka ze zivota americkych osadniku pro mladez a pratele jeji" [The Slave Merchant, or Brains without Heart; A Tale of American Plantation Life for Young People and Their Friends]. Written by Eduard von Ambach and published in Prague, 1871, by Mikulas & Knapp. Small octavo, 4.25 x 6.75 inches, 80 pages, quarter-cloth with paper boards. Boards rubbed; contents browning, a few small closed tears in the margins, otherwise very good internally. Frontispiece depicting a priest apparently interceding between a black man with a knife and a white man on his knees. Czech translation of a didactic and apparently melodramatic, juvenile novel about American slavery by a German or Austrian author, Eduard von Ambach, (1817-1897), written before or during the Civil War. We have been unable to locate a copy of any Czech or German language edition on OCLC, LOC, or any of the German, Austrian, or Swiss libraries or union catalogues polled by the Karlsruher Virtuelle Katalog (KVK). Nor is there a copy in the Czech National Library. The Austrian National Library does have a copy of a Hungarian edition published in 1864, "A rabszolga-Kereskedö vagyis esz sziv nelkül." Their catalogue listing for that edition includes a German title, "Der Sclavenhändler oder Geist ohne Herz. Skizzen aus den Südstaaten Amerikas", but we have been unable to locate a library holding a copy. Judging from other works by von Ambach on these various databases, it appears he primarily wrote short historical novels for Catholic youth, most of which were published in southern Germany or Austria. Intriguing example of European depiction of American slavery

   83. Rare, huge 16" record for Armed Forces Radio Services (Basic Music Library) from WW-II, Volume no.R-39/40 SIDE-1:Church Choir: 5-tracks... SIDE-2: Dorothy Maynor with Frank Black and the NBC Symphony Orchestra:3-tracks. A number of songs, including: Swing Low Sweet Chariot, Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child, Wherefore Dist Thou Leave Me, Eternal Father Strong To Save, Cross of Christ, Onward Christian Soldiers, From Greenland's Icy Mountains and Crown Him With Many Crowns. The total time on the entire record is about 25 minutes. Mint condition. We have no idea as to how many of these exist. Our hunch is that this is quite a scarce historical item.
BACKGROUND: Born Dorothy Leigh Maynor September 3, c. 1910 in Norfolk, Virginia, to Reverend John J. Maynor and Alice Jeffries Maynor; died February 19, 1996, West Chester, Pennsylvania; married Reverend Shelby Rooks, June 24, 1942.
Education: Hampton Institute, B.A., 1933; Westminster Choir School, B.A., 1935; studied singing with Wilfred Klamroth and John Alan Haughton, New York City, beginning 1936.
-- A nice signed program from the 40's or early 50's featuring Dorothy Maynor, sponsored by the Portland, Maine, Community Concert Association. Dorothy Maynor's signature is an original.
-- Vintage Amphion Club program of operatic arias and Negro spirituals performed by noted African American singer Dorothy Maynor at the Russ Auditorium, San Diego, California -- March 30, 1942. Sponsored by Victor Red Seal Records. 6¼" x 12½".
-- Life Magazine article (Dec. 11, 1939) about Dorothy Maynor, "Negro Singer From Virginia Makes Exciting Concert Debut."
-- Dorothy Maynor: 8 x 10 black and white photo is signed in blue ink. Inscribed: Best Wishes to the "326th Opera Club."

   84. Extremely rare 1878 First Edition copy of Music And The Highly Musical People ,Remarkable Colored Musicians, by James W, Trotter, [Black author] with illus of him, Boston Lee & Shepherd. 353 pp and 2nd part 152 pp.  12 illus of black singers & Musicians, with other illustrations. There are chapters on musicians from New Orleans, Chicago, Newark, St Louis, Memphis, Nashville, etc. Here are some of the musicians: Eliz Taylor Greenfield [the black swan], Thomas Bowers, [The  American Mario], Blind Tom, the Colored American Opera Company, Georgia Minstrels, Jubilee Singers [Fisk University],  Frank Johnson and His Favorite Military orchestra, and 30 others -- along with 162 pages of serious music works by Black composers from the authors collection, words and music. Pictorial. Cloth with musical Instruments in gold. Bookplate of William Buckner 1917., Scarce, saw only one other copy available. A great book of Black American musical history.
-- Two deeds to land in Washington, D.C. signed: "Jas. M. Trotter, Recorder" on 3½" by 8½" filing portion of deed 8½ inches by 14 inches. Washington, D.C. December 14, 1887. One of the deeds is to land on Maryland Avenue and 13th Street, S.W., purchased by Erastus Kurtz Johnson, founder with his brother-in-law William Wimsatt of the Johnson and Wimsatt Lumber Company of the District of Columbia. Today, the Mandarin Oriental Hotel is at 1330 Maryland Ave., S.W.
-- BIO -- James Monroe Trotter: Born in Grand Gulf, Mississippi on November 8, 1842. His mother, Letitia, was a slave, and his father was Richard S. Trotter, his mother's owner. Letitia, Trotter, and his brother eventually escaped slavery, making their way to Cincinnati, Ohio, where James Trotter enrolled in the Gilmer School. He also attended the Albany Academy in Athens County, Ohio, where he received training as a schoolteacher. Upon graduating from this institution, Trotter taught in Black American schools in Pike, Muskingum, and Ross Counties, Ohio. In June 1863, Trotter enlisted in the 55th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment. By the Civil War's conclusion, Trotter had attained the rank of Second Lieutenant. Upon leaving the military, Trotter returned to Ohio, settling in Chillicothe, where he married Virginia Isaacs in 1868. The Trotters eventually moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where James Trotter became the first Black American to secure employment in the Boston branch of the United States Post Office. Trotter remained in this position for several years, but he eventually quit this job, unhappy that whites with fewer or the same years of experience as him were routinely promoted over him. Undaunted by the racism that he faced, Trotter continued to advance himself. He published a book, Music and Some Highly Musical People, in 1880, still read today. In 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed Trotter to the position of Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia, succeeding Frederick Douglass. Trotter served until 1890; he was succeeded by former U.S. Senator Blanche K. Bruce.

-- Three 1877 hand-written letters. Two of the letters in the collection were handwritten by H. McDowell who was visiting Leipsic, Germany. The recipient was C.N. Cobb who I believe was visiting London. The third item is a letter from a steamship company from London, informing Mr. Cobb that all arrangements are made for his departure from London to New York. Total of 7 pages. One of the letters (November 22, 1877) states, "Didn't go to hear the Jubilee Singers, but I heard they had a good house and the "Tagblatt" (Day Sheet, newspaper) spoke highly of them. They gave a second concert this eve. They were at church yesterday, but did not sing, except with the congregation...".
-- Service of Songs -- Negro Spirituals for the Emancipation of the Slave in the Southern States of America. In 1876 "The Story of the Jubilee Singers and Their Songs was written by J.B.T. Marsh. This is an edition was printed by W. J. Gibbs (Bromley, Kent about 1922) which omits the history published in the original book about the Fisk University Singers, but provides 139 songs sung by them all over Europe.
-- Negro Spirituals and the Underground Railroad -- The Underground Railroad helped slaves to run to freedom. A fugitive could use several ways. First, they had to walk at night, using hand lights and moonlight. When needed, they walked (“waded”) in water, so that dogs could not smell their tracks. Second, they jumped into chariot, where they could hide and ride away. These chariots stopped at some “stations”, but this word could mean any place where slaves had to go for being taken in charge. Negro spirituals like “Wade in the Water”, “The Gospel Train” and “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” directly refer to the Underground Railroad.

   85. 2-Volumes of Anti-Slavery Papers, by James Russell Lowell. Volume I contains 28 article, published during 1844 - 1848 from "The National Anti-Slavery Standard." Volume II includes 27 articles which were published over a period of almost two years in "The National Anti-Slavery Standard" -- from January 11, 1849 through November 14, 1850.

   86. First Edition (1895) A very rare antique book, "Afro-American Encyclopedia: The Thoughts Doings And Sayings of The Race", compiled and published by James T. Haley, Haley & Florida. It's illustrated with beautiful half-tone engravings and offers a huge assortment of enlightening literature and statistics of the times. The publication was offered door to door and sold by subscription only. I can only imagine how few were sold and kept all these years. It is no doubt a very scarce book! The hard cover is made of a pebbled maroon cloth with titles and gilt, along with designs in black on spine and upper part of the cover. Near perfect pages. It's approx. 10-1/4" x 7-1/2", 640 pages.

   87. Two original late-17th century French engravings by Nicolas II de Larmessin (c. 1632-c. 1694). The subject is the first is that of Emperor of Mono-Motapa, an archaic name for greater Zimbabwe. Chimbganda Matombo (1634-1698) seems most likely the Emperor depicted; the Monomotapa Empire was reputed at the time to be the site of Biblical Ophir and King Solomon's mines, a fact


which partly contributed to the European settlement of Southern Africa (and which perhaps accounts for the references to gold mines in the descriptive text.) Underneath the portrait, the caption reads (with apologies for my transcription from the archaic French):
"LE GRAND ROY MONO-MOTAPA, Fort Puissant et cy Riche en Or, q. d'Aucuns l'apelle l'Empereur de l'Or, Il a plusiers Roys ces tributaires, compris sous l'ethiopie Inferieure, desquels les Enfans, Sont Elevez dans son palais, pour Contenir les Peres dans son Obbeissance Son royaume est de tres grande Estendue ayant de Circuit de 800 lieves, il soutien de fortes Guerres contre le Prete-Ian, Empereur des Abbissins, Il fair sa Cour a Zimbaoe [Great Zimbabwe], ou il Entretiens pour sa garde Ordre des femmes et 200 chiens, Grands, et furieux, La Relation de lannee 1631, nous apprend q ce Roy Mono-motapa Ces toit fait baptiser avec toutte sa cour, par les Peres Jesuistes, ce Monarque n'est servuy qu'a Genoux, il'y'a en ce Royaume des femmes qui Vont a la Guerre, et rendent aussy bons service q les hommes, dans ces armees, il y a grand nombre d'Elephans, force Abbondances de Sucre, plusiers mines d'Or, Ces peuples sont Noirs Vaillans et cy dispos quils Surpassent a la Coursse, les plus Viste Chevaux; les Idolastres, Sorciers, Adulteres, et larrons, y sont tres Rigoureusement Punis;"

Emperor of Zimbabwe


   Emperor of Guinea

   -- The subject of the second image is "Tombut, Roy de la Guinee": a West African monarch. The engraving is on ivory-colored, partially watermarked laid paper. It measures approximately 6 1/2 x 9 1/4 inches (160 x 230mm). A small number has been handwritten in ink at the top of the portrait oval. I suspect the "Guinee" here refers to a larger area than present-day Guinea, and would have included Mali ("Tombut" seems to have been synonymous with "Timbuktu") and / or Senegal. Underneath the portrait, the caption reads (with apologies for my transcription from the archaic French):
 "TOMBUT, ROY DE LA GUINEE, Le Plus Puissant et Redoutable de la Nigritanne, en la partie Occidentalle d'Ethiopie, depuis La Mer Atlantique, Jusqu'au dela du Fleuve Senega, Sa Puissance est cy grande q. peut mettre en campagne, Jusqu'a 300 Milles hommes d'Armes, Aussy ce dait il Redouter au point qui ce fait rendre Tribut par les autres Roys ces voisins, de leurs bon gre. Ou Sinon les y Contraint bien par la force, Sa Grandeur paroit dans sa Garde Ordinaire, qui est de plus de 3000 gentilhommes et Chavaliers, et tres Grand Nombres de Pietons, quy ce Servent pour l'Ordinaire de fleches Empoisonnees a la Guerre, Il Entretien quantite d'hommes Doctes, mais il est Grand Ennemy des Juifs; ces peuples Sont fort Noirs, d'humeur fort douces, Grands Coureurs, et Sauteurs, forts, Adroitz; et bien Courageuz dans leurs Especes de Guerres."


   BACKGROUND: Larmessin was one of a family of celebrated Parisian publishers, booksellers, and engravers who were responsible for several collections of portraits of royalty and notable individuals, including Tableaux historiques, ou sont graves les illustres francois et estrangers de l'un ou l'autre sexe (c. 1662), and Les Augustes Representations de tous les Roys (c. 1688). I have seen engravings from the same series elsewhere dated c. 1685; this example may be from an earlier or somewhat later printing of one of these collections. It is, however, quite evidently a late-17th printing and not a modern reproduction. Under the caption, the engraving reads "A Paris Chez P Bertrand Rue St Jacques a la Pomme d'or Proche St. Severin. Avec Privil du Roy [Louis XIV]"

-- 1688 engraving of an African king on his throne surrounded by his subjects that comes from a travel book by Montanus. The engraving measures 5" by 6.5" on a full page of text, has later wash hand coloring, and is in good condition.
-- Arnoldus Montanus was a Jesuit priest, based in Amsterdam, who published a series of travel/voyage books based mainly on the reports from his fellow Jesuits in their travels around the world. Most were based on continents (Asia, Africa, America) but others were more concentrated (Mesopotamia, China, Japan, Persia, Syria & Palestine). Many of these books were translated into German from the original Dutch by Dr Olfert Dapper. This fascinating engraving comes from the 1688 edition of the volume on Africa.

   88. CDV of Thomas Carlyle, along with a set of 37 books by Thomas Carlyle, published in the 1800's. This is the People's Edition, cloth with gilt spines. It includes a copy of Thomas Carlyle's infamous essay, "Occasional Discourse on the Nigger Question." This essay was published in 1849 in Fraser's Magazine of London. Carlyle revamped this essay and reprinted it in 1853 as a pamphlet entitled by the same name.  In response to Carlyle, John Stuart published his own "The Negro Question" in Fraser's Magazine.  Carlyle did not, to our knowledge, respond.  But in 1867, Carlyle published his Shooting Niagara -- And After? in Macmillan's Magazine, where he took aim at the Jamaica Committee, in which Mill was actively involved.  These are the central exchange of blows in the Carlyle-Mill debate on the "Negro" question. In Carlyle's initial 1849 essay, Dr. Phelin M'Quirk, the purported narrator, is naturally a fiction. "Exeter Hall" refers to the coalition formed in 1830s of liberal dissenting Christians active in the ending of slavery. The "dismal science" is, of course, economics -- in fact, the jeer makes its first appearance here. "Quashee" is a derogatory Caribbean term for a "feisty" black slave. Why this Scottish man of letters took up this peculiar cause -- and with so much passion and venom -- remains puzzling.  But Carlyle's 1849 essay should not be read merely as a reactionary defense of slavery.  There are subtler veins in the paper, consistent with Carlyle's more youthful  Romanticist philosophy.  Add to this his personally deeply-held racism and the obvious enjoyment he takes at annoying the bourgeoisie and poking at Christian sensitivities, and his strange choice of subject may become just a bit clearer. There is still absolutely no justification for the chosen topic and the way he treated it.
Here is an excerpt: "...Do I, then, hate the negro? No, except when the soul is killed out of him, I decidedly like poor quashee; and find him a pretty kind of man. With a pennyworth of oil, you can make a handsome glossy thing of Quashee, when the soul is not killed in him A swift, supple fellow; a merry-heart- ed, grinnin', dancing, singing, affectionate kind of creature, with a great deal of melody and amenability in his composition. This certainly is a notable fact: the black African, alone of wild men, can live among men civilized. While all manner of Caribs and others pine into annihilation in presence of the pale faces, he contrives to continue; does not die of sullen, irreconcilable rage, of rum, of brutish laziness and darkness, and fated incompatibility with his new place; but lives and multiplies, and evidently means to abide among us, if we can find the right regulation for him. We shall have to find it; we are now engaged in the search; and have at least discovered that of two methods, the old Demerara method and the new Demerara method, neither will answer. Alas, my friends, I understand well your rage against the poor negro’s slavery; what said rage proceeds from; and have a perfect sympathy with it, and even know it by experience. Can the oppressor of my black fellow-man be of any use to me in particular? Am I gratified in my mind by the ill usage of any two or four-legged thing; of any horse or any dog? Not so, I assure you. In me too the natural sources of human rage exist more or less, and the capability of flying out into “fiery wrath against oppression,” and of signing petitions, both of which things can be done very cheap. Good heavens, if signing petitions would do it, if hopping to Rome on one leg would do it, think you it were long undone!"

   89. Neighbor Jackwood by J.T. Trowbridge. Originally published in 1857. Hurst reprint no date, circa later 1800s. An antislavery novel by the Boston author of juvenile literature about the beautiful Camille Delisard, the daughter of a Frenchman and his slave, who is sold after her father is killed by his wife. She escapes to Vermont, where she is protected from a villain who wants to claim her as a fugitive slave. She then marries her rescuer, Hector Dunbury. The work, Trowbridge's first success, is considered notorious for the marriage between the white hero and the multiracial heroine. It was made into a play.

   90. Sir Rex Niven's book, "Nine Great Africans", published in 1964 by G. Bell and Sons, LTD of London. The nine great Africans are: 1. Arabi the Egyptian 2. Mutesa the Chief 3. Menelik the Emperor 4. Seyyid Said the Sultan 5. Chaka the Soldier 6. Muhammed the Askia 7. Usuman the Preacher 8. Crowther the Bishop 9. Aggrey the Teacher. Excellent historical overviews of each person.

   91. Court order form William Carlisle to Constable of Sussex county Delaware to recover a debt owed Eli Coverdale by Clement Cannon. The documents are given under hand and seal, at Johnstown the 16th of Sept 1814. Johnstown or Johnson's corner, later became Reliance Md. and was located at the Maryland ,Delaware border. Clement Cannon appears to be a close relative of Patty Cannon and the following information is offered .
BACKGROUND: Patty Cannon began her life of crime in the early 1800's as the leader of a gang that was organized to kidnap free blacks and sell them into black market slavery. Legends say that she was a large, unruly woman with enormous strength and a ruthless streak that few dared to cross. It was said that the locals knew of the gang's activities and that they used a tavern, run by Patty's son-in-law Joe Johnson, as a headquarters and a holding place for the kidnap victims. There was little that the citizens of Johnson's Corners, as Reliance was called then, or the surrounding area were going to do about it. Even law enforcement officials were reluctant to halt the illegal operations, given the lack of concern that most felt for African Americans in those days. 

   92. Scarce, First Edition copy of The Sons of Allen: Together with a Sketch of the Rise and Progress of Wilberforce University, By Rev. Horace Talbert. The Aldine Press, Xenia, Ohio, 1906. A first edition in good condition; with index, frontis sketch of Bishop Richard Allen with tissue guard, and sketches of each man represented,    9" X 6"   286 pages. Bishop Richard Allen founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church. "Not yet fifty years from slavery, these sketches portraying the proud success of lawyers, doctors, authors, editors, ministers, business men, scientists, college students, etc. are worthy of redemption from obscurity as an earnest of still greater things promised by the future."---from the preface

   93. October 23, 1850 Philadelphia letter to William D. Lewis, Esq. (Collector of the Customs House) by John Birnes (?), a man seeking employment as an oath giver to fugitive slaves. He explains that he knows the laws of fugitive slaves and can perform the customs house duties. The return letter is written on the same paper. There is a Bloods Despatch one cent stamp on the upper left. It is written in pen, back folded to an envelope / cover. Measures 15 1/2 by 9 3/4 inches. It is in excellent condition.

   94. "The Revolution in America" -- a lecture by John Elliot Cairnes, A.M., Professor. Contents address the immorality of slavery and movements to abolish slavery in the Northern states and District of Columbia....Author of "The Slave Power" Delivered before the Dublin Young Men's Christian Association in Connexion with the United Church of England and Ireland, in the Metropolitan Hall, October 30th, 1862. The Right Rev. H. Verschoyle, D.D. Lord Bishop of Kilmore, Elphin and Ardagh in the Chair. Title, 43pp.

   95. Three-fifths (slaves): An 8-page newspaper, The Balance and Columbian Repository, Hudson NY -- Tuesday July 2, 1805. Published by Harry Croswell, Warren-Street, Hudson. There is an interesting 2-page anti-slavery article in relation to the US Constitution and citing slave population statistics in the southern/northern states written by Mr. James Elliot, who was a Representative from Vermont. You may have heard of slaves being referred to as three-fifths of a human being. This article is the first mention I have seen presenting the concept of the numbers and ratios of representatives (Congress and Senate) from the northern states and slave-holding southern states. Elliot makes the case for slaves being represented as three-fifths in the United States so that the number of votes for anti-slavery legislation in the northern states would be more -- hopefully defeating the slave trade. This is a political perspective, with the desire to fight the practice of slavery in America. The South was counting slaves as a part of their number of constituents, hence a greater number of pro-slavery votes. The Northern states didn't have near the same number of slaves, so there was less representation in Congress and the Senate. Take a look at a transcription of the full article .
 -- Background: The three-fifths ratio was not a new concept. It originated with a 1783 amendment proposed to the Articles of the Confederation. The amendment was to have changed the basis for determining the wealth of each state, and hence its tax obligations, from real estate to population, as a measure of ability to produce wealth. (It started out as a way of increasing taxes and then later reversed as a way to counter the representation in government. The above-mentioned article reveals the latter view.)
   Initially the North had proposed counting all the slaves; the South insisted that slaves were not as productive as free workers, and suggested counting half the slaves. After proposed compromises of 2/3 and 3/4 failed to gain sufficient support, Congress finally settled on the three-fifths ratio proposed by James Madison. The proposed ratio was, however, a ready solution to the impasse that arose during the Constitutional Convention. In that situation, the alignment of the contending forces was the reverse of what had obtained under the Articles of Confederation. In amending the Articles, the North wanted slaves to count for more than the South did, because the objective was to determine taxes paid by the states to the federal government. In the Constitutional Convention, the more important issue was representation in Congress, so the South wanted slaves to count for more than the North did.
   On July 12th, 1787, the Three-fifths Compromise was enacted. Delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia that year accepted a plan offered by James Madison determining a state’s representation in the U.S. House of Representatives. The issue of how to count slaves split the delegates into two orders. The northerners regarded slaves as property who should receive no representation. Southerners demanded that Blacks be counted with whites. The compromise clearly reflected the strength of the pro-slavery forces at the convention. The “Three-fifths Compromise” allowed a state to count three fifths of each Black person in determining political representation in the House. Rather than halting or slowing the importation of slaves in the south, slavery had been given a new life — a political life. Even when law stopped the importing of new slaves in 1808, the south continued to increase its overall political status and electoral votes by adding and breeding slaves illegally. The Three-fifths Compromise would not be challenged again until the Dred Scott case in 1856.

   96. An intriguing engraving shows the famous horse named Wagner and Cato, the slave boy, who won his freedom riding it in 1839, some 36 years before the first Kentucky Derby race in 1875. It is a fascinating story. This particular framed engraving (definitely 19th century), hung on one of the walls of the long established, Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, NC. On the back of the frame, written in an old-looking ink, is the list of the horses that were sired out of the union between Wagner and Chestnut H. in 1834. The list includes Maria West, Sir Charles, Sir Archy, Bosphorus, Sally Shark, Rigulus and many more...
-- BACKGROUND: In the book, Black Maestro Joe Drape writes, "The most often told tale handed from one generation of Bluegrass stable boys to the next was the one that gave them the most hope. It was about Cato, the slave jockey who gained his freedom by winning one of the most important races ever held in Kentucky. On September 30, 1839, in Louisville, some ten thousand people -- nearly half of the river town's population and newspapermen from as far away as Baltimore and New York -- came to the Oakland Race Course to see Cato and a Virginia-bred horse named Wagner take on the pride of Kentucky, a home-bred named Grey Eagle. It was a winner-take-all match for a purse of ,000, but the prize money was dwarfed by the betting action that stretched from Louisville to New Orleans and New York in a race that became notorious because 'more money, Negroes and horses were wagered and lost' than in any other race in the United States. Nationally, the big money was on Wagner, a winner of twelve of fourteen starts, but Kentuckians were backing Grey Eagle, a strapping silver colt who had won two of its four starts and had run the fastest two miles in America. A White jockey, Stephen Welch rode him. To take the money and the bragging rights, either Wagner or Grey Eagle had to win two out of three heats each at the distance of four miles. When Cato and Wagner won the first heat, a hush fell over the race track: How had a slave rider aboard a Virginia horse just


out-ridden the glorious Grey Eagle and a White boy? They had not seen anything yet. In the second heat, Cato simply outthought Welch, who was still reeling after a humiliating defeat. He loped Wagner behind as Welch gunned Grey Eagle to the front for one mile, two miles, and murderously, into the third mile. By the final mile, Cato had Wagner at Grey Eagle's neck, but instead of whipping him past, he took firm hold. Wagner felt powerful between his legs and it was too early to try to win the race. Cato put a stranglehold on the horse, so both rider and horse could catch their breath. As the two horses hit the stretch together, the outcome was truly in doubt" Grey Eagle stuck a neck out in front, Wagner took it back by a nose, Welch dug in to get the lead back by a head, but with a final burst, Cato and Wagner lunged past the finish line, first by a neck. It was a race for the ages and its retelling among the Bluegrass stable boys took on epic significance, especially the part after the race. Wagner's owners not only granted Cato his freedom, but hoisted the rider on their victorious horse with a satchel full of the purse money."

   97. An extremely rare First Edition anti-slavery play by the Belgian, Louis DelmerL'Esclave (The Slave, an abolitionist dramatic play, in four acts). Printed Brussels & Paris 1890. What makes this particular book scarce is that it was signed by Delmer in 1890 to the explorer, Henry M. Stanley (famous for the 1871 question, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?") Contemporary red half-morocco leather with the original printed wrappers bound-in, 140 pages.
BACKGROUND: Delmer was fiercely anti-slavery abolitionist which is borne out here and in his other limited writings. Delmer was secretary to the anti-slavery society in Belgium which seems to have had it’s heartland in the Dutch part of the country. A bit odd as he carried a French name. He may also be the same Louis Delmer that wrote on early autos, bicycles etc. We are checking into this bit of trivia. While a rare an important piece penned during the time of the Belgian atrocities in the Congo, this copy must be the most desirable of all in that it is a presentation copy inscribed by Delmer to Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), the man who explored Africa. The inscription is in French and roughly translates as "To Henry M Stanley: intrepid explorer and witness to the horrors of the enslavers. Humbly and respectfully Louis Delmer, Brussels 24 April 1890." Books with a Stanley provenance are extremely difficult to find commercially. The British antiquarian bookseller who sold this book to us stated, "In all my years of bookselling I have never come across such a bold and confidant inscription." This is quite an exciting item as Stanley spent his early working life in the deep South which is probably where he developed his distaste for slavery. What is ironic is that in later years Stanley spent much energy defending himself against charges that his African expeditions had been marked by callous violence and brutality. Stanley's opinion was that "the savage only respects force, power, boldness, and decision." Stanley would eventually be held responsible for a number of deaths and was charged with being indirectly responsible for helping establish the notoriously wicked rule of Léopold II of Belgium over the Congo Free State.

   98. A letter (Dec. 16th, 1792) handwritten by Levi Hart to his son, William Hart (in Norwich), with a quotation from Proverbs 3:6 (In all thy ways acknowledge Him, and He shall direct thy paths) at the bottom of the letter.
-- The extremely rare 40-page Levi Hart's 30th anniversary sermon given at his church in Preston, CT. on February 28th, 1792 (copy owned/signed by Lydia Goits).
-- BACKGROUND:  A 23-page letter the Rev. Levi Hart of Connecticut wrote in 1775 to Samuel Hopkins of Rhode Island became a blueprint for abolishing slavery in the North. Excerpts indicate that people even then thought slavery immoral, but that abolition posed the twin problems of compensating slave owners (a sort of reverse reparation) and controlling the freed slaves. Hart's original letter includes a payment formula.

   99. An 18th century whale's tooth with excellent scrimshaw work depicting two female, two male African slave and a slave ship...with the name, Jacob Ives. This artifact was sent to one of the premier experts (Dr. Stuart Frank) at the Whaling Museum in New Bedford, MA. Dr. Frank stated that while the tooth is genuine and old, the scrimshaw work was done much later...perhaps late 1800s or early 1900s. His assessment was that it was an intriguing collectible with fine scrimshaw, but not scrimshaw work etched by real whalers in the early 1800s. The fact that the words "Slave Ship" were etched over the top of the ship is a clear indicator that the artistic work was done later. Those involved in the Slave Trade would have never artistically rendered those words (Slave Ship) at the time of the Trade. This is an intriguing piece, reflective of a horrific period that had occurred prior to the time of its creation. Was the whale's tooth etched by an African American artist? We will probably never know.
-- BACKGROUND: African Americans in the Whaling Industry, From Colonial times to the twentieth century -- The whaling industry, centered until the 1870s in New Bedford, employed a large number of African Americans. This was in part due to the Quaker tradition of tolerance in the New Bedford area, but more importantly, to the large demand for manpower in an expanding industry requiring unusually large crews. Some black seamen in the business were Americans, from the Northeast and the South, some were from the West Indies, and a significant group was from the Azores Islands off the African coast. Whatever their origin, black seamen found acceptance as hard workers and skilled mariners in an industry that was physically demanding, dirty, and often financially unrewarding. Men of African ancestry were active in New England's whaling industry as sailors, blacksmiths, shipbuilders, officers, & owners. By the 1840s, Black sailors constituted about one-sixth of the labor force; and by 1900, African Americans and Cape Verdeans had become a majority. When the center of the industry moved to San Francisco in the 1870s, African Americans continued to form a large percentage of the crews. The whaling business was no doubt the largest employer of African Americans seamen on the West Coast until it ended shortly before World War I.
-- The Whaling Museum of New Bedford, MA presents the following information: African Americans have been a presence in New Bedford since its early days. Runaway and freed slaves were attracted by the Quaker majority's early (1716) opposition to slavery and the prospect of employment on whaleships. Free seamen from continental Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, and the Caribbean also became part of the African American heritage of New Bedford. Blacks served among the crews of whaleships before the American Revolution (1775-1783). Some were runaway slaves, like Crispus Attucks, who spent twenty years as a whaler and merchant seaman, before he was killed in the Boston Massacre (1775), or John Thompson from Maryland, who found safe haven on the New Bedford Bark Milwood on its 1842-1844 voyage. Others were free Africans or West Indians. It is known that more than 3,000 African-Americans served on New Bedford whalers between 1803 and 1860. However, after the turn of the twentieth century, Cape Verdeans became the backbone of the whaling industry. Although a number of African-Americans served as boatsteerers (harpooneers) and a few as mates (officers), they rarely rose to the post of captain. Absalom Boston, Pardon Cook, and Paul Cuffe were three notable African American whaling masters. There were also a few African American captains who went to sea with all-African American crews. They represented a small percentage of all whaling vessels. The toggle harpoon head developed in 1848 by Lewis Temple, an African American blacksmith in New Bedford, was the most successful of all harpoon designs. After the American Revolution (1750-1783), the northern states abolished slavery. Massachusetts took the step in 1780. New Bedford became an important stop on the "underground railway," a network of people opposed to slavery, who hid runaway slaves in homes and churches. Frederick Douglass found refuge in New Bedford from 1837-1841. He worked at Coffin's Wharf as a ship caulker before becoming a renowned abolitionist, orator, politician, and writer.

   100. December 13, 1895 handwritten 2-page letter from Benjamin Drew (Plymouth, MA) to his nephew, who is opening a museum (Bangs) in Demorest, GA. In the letter Drew is responding to his nephew's request for artifacts and images from his travels around the world -- images from China, Indian relics, piece of Plymouth Rock, a piece of timber from the wreck of the "Sparrowhawk." Drew also reminisces about the few years in the 1850s when he was Principal of the St. Paul, Minnesota public school system. He also talks about the school that was named after him in St. Paul. Very newsy and personal.
-- Two First Edition hard-to-find copies (1856) of Benjamin Drew's book, The Refugee: or the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada. Published by John P. Jewett and Company, Boston.
-- Rare book by Benjamin Drew, -- Hints and Helps For Those Who Write, Print, Teach, Read or Learn. Published in 1891 by Lee & Shepard Publishers, Boston. 214 pages. Brown hard-covered book in fair condition. Shows the broad interests of Drew.
-- BACKGROUND: Benjamin Drew (1812-1903) was an American abolitionist from Boston who, in the mid-1850s, traveled throughout Upper Canada interviewing scores of refugees from the American slave states. He transcribed their narratives and published them in 1856 in a book entitled The Refugee: or the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada. Drew's work was made possible thanks to the support of the Canadian Anti-Slavery Society and John P. Jewett, a renowned anti-slavery sympathizer from Boston who had unexpectedly reaped a fortune from publishing Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852. At the time, there were about 30,000 African-Americans in Upper Canada. One of the escaped slaves that Drew interviewed was Harriet Tubman, who was based in St. Catharines but made several trips to the south to lead slaves to freedom in Canada. Drew protected the identity of many of his informants and used fictitious names for reasons of safety. His publisher, John P. Jewett, vouched for Drew's integrity and intelligence. Long out of print, Drew's book is the only collection exclusively about fugitive slaves in Canada. It is an invaluable record of early black Canadian experience.

   101. Very rare bronze plaque by famous Belgian artist, Paul Wissaert (1885-1972) - Return of Prince Albert from Africa. Front: Depicts a young African boy waving at a ship, inscribed: "La jeunesse Bruxelloise au Prince Albert à son retour d'Afrique - About 1909." Reverse: The map of Africa, detailing Prince Albert's 1,500 mile trek through Africa. Size: 28" x 19"
BACKGROUND: The death of Leopold II (see image to right) on December 7th, 1909 brought some hope that the people of Belgium would have an awakening of conscience, and attempt to do away with the wholesale butchery and slavery in Africa that brought them as a "civilized and Christian" nation to shame before the whole world. Leopold's successor, King Albert, had visited the colony during the year before his accession.


   Starting at Katanga, which he reach by way of Cape Town and Rhodesia, Prince Albert had walked 1,500 miles through the Congo forests. He was not allowed to see the atrocities that were going on in the Congo, but he heard enough during his journey to make him thoroughly dissatisfied with existing conditions. The passing of the evil Leopold II (1835-1909) gave Belgium and Prince (later King) Albert a chance to right the horrific wrongs of the past. Leopold II, King of Belgium from 1865 until his death, had an avid interest in acquiring overseas colonies. Since the Belgian people and legislature did not share this enthusiasm, Leopold founded and ruled the Belgian Free State (1885) as his personal domain. There he developed a brutal slave economy dedicated to extraction of rubber and ivory for Leopold's personal enrichment. Two courageous African Americans, George Washington Williams (Baptist minister, lawyer, member of Ohio Legislature) and William Sheppard (missionary), risked much to bring evidence of the Congo atrocities to the outside world. Embarrassed by these abuses, the Belgian parliament finally compelled Leopold shortly before his death to cede control of the Congo to Belgium (1908). On the positive side of the ledger, Leopold's nephew, Prince Albert (1875-1934), ascended the throne as ALBERT I in 1909. His wife became Queen Elizabeth. History remembers Albert I in a more positive light. He led Belgium's heroic resistance to German invasion in 1914, giving British and French forces crucial time to prepare their ultimately successful defense of French soil. Laeken, built by Napoleon, was the Belgian royal residence in Brussels.

   102. Chambers' Edinburgh Journal -- May 27, 1843 -- Article (1/2 page) titled "Slavery in America" -- A very detailed account of the horrors that white abolitionists faced, as well accounts of the torturous deaths of negroes. A very shocking article that details some recent instances of death of abolitionists and slaves. One tells of the Mississippi slave (Joseph), "June 16, 1842 -- The body was taken and chained to a tree immediately on the bank of the Mississippi, on what is called Union Point. The torches were lighted and placed on the pile. He watched unmoved the curling flame as it grew, until it began to entwine itself around and feed upon his body; then he sent forth cries of agony painful to the ear, begging some one to blow his brains out: at the same time surging with almost superhuman strength, until the staple with which the chain was fastened to the tree, drew out, and he leaped from the burning pile. At that moment the sharp ring of several rifles was heard, and the body of the negro fell a corpse to the ground. he was picked up by two or three, and again thrown into the fire and consumed." Another tells of an abolitionist from Norfolk, hanged -- "We learned, by arrival of the steamboat Kentucky last evening from Richmond, that Robinson, the Englishman mentioned in the Beacon (Saturday), as being in the vicinity of Lynchburg, was taken about fifteen miles from that town and hanged on the spot, for exciting slaves to insurrection." This is a very historic article that shows the sentiment of the British and their disbelief on the inhumanity of the slaveholders, who are "unwilling to concede anything".
                              -- to see the overview of all reported lynching in the United States from 1882 - 1968.
Here are some of the quotes from this 1843 edition:
-- "Abolition editors in the slave states will not dare to avow their opinions; it would be instant death to them."
-- "Even white men were were executed on the most frivolous pretences -- an intimacy with negroes, or an act of humanity towards them, appearing to the august tribunal quite sufficient reason for forfeiture of any human life..."
-- "The cry of the whole south should be death, instant death, to the abolitionist, wherever he is caught."
-- "Let us declare through the public journals of our country that the question of slavery is not and shall not be open to discussion; that the system is too deep-rooted among us, and must remain forever; that the very moment any private individual attempts to lecture us upon its evils and immorality, in the same moment his tongue shall be cut out and cast upon the dunghill."
BACKGROUND: Lynching, regardless who is lynched, is an horrific crime against humanity. It's not only the cowardly murder of a human being, but it also is the gutting of the conscience of the perpetrators. Everyone loses, including the society at large. From statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute, February 1979. The overall total of reported blacks (3,446 ) lynched between 1882 and 1968 is more than double than that of whites (1,297) being lynched. Out of the 44 states mentioned above, 23 of the states reported more whites being lynched than blacks. According to Edward Knappman's book, Great American Trials, a lynch mob stormed a jail in the Big Easy (New Orleans) in 1891 and lynched 11 Italian-Americans who were accused of killing police Superintendent (David Hennessy) a year earlier. At least one of the defendants, according to the book, might have been innocent. They were victims of what has been called America's greatest mass lynching.  to see the overview of all reported lynching.

   103. First Edition (1892) copy of Washington's Barbadoes Journal (1751-52). The daily journal of Major George Washington, kept while on a tour from Virginia to the island of Barbados, with his invalid brother, Major Lawrence Washington -- by Joseph Meredith Toner (1825-1896).
BACKGROUNDLawrence Washington, George’s older half-brother and guardian, fell victim to tuberculosis and doctors in Virginia recommended a change of climate. The family’s thoughts must have immediately gone to Barbados where there was a long-standing medical tradition of treating lung infections. As well, Lawrence’s wife, one of the prominent Fairfaxes of Virginia, was related through marriage to Gedney Clarke, resident in Barbados. The two brothers sailed from the Potomac River, through the Chesapeake, on the brigantine the “Success” on a rough non-stop journey to Barbados, arriving on November 2, 1751. Because smallpox was in the Clarke household where they were to reside, they had to rent a house, choosing one on the outskirts of Bridgetown, on an escarpment overlooking the main harbor, Carlisle Bay. George kept a journal while on the island and the pleasures and problems of his two-month stay are carefully recorded. He commented on the hospitality of the islanders and with reason, since he and his brother were royally entertained in some of the splendid plantation houses that existed on Barbados. Dinner invitations interspersed with theatre events, fireworks displays and horseback rides in the countryside kept the enthusiastic George very occupied.  However, Lawrence was not responding to the treatment of the local doctors and this caused great concern.  Also, George himself fell ill with smallpox and was laid up for three weeks. He was scarred, but more importantly was given immunity for life from this virulent disease. In later years when smallpox decimated the  American revolutionary troops their leader, General George Washington, went unscathed. As well Washington saved the lives of countless numbers of his troops by ordering one of the first mass inoculations against the disease. What path could American historical events have taken if he had not acquired immunity ? Lawrence became worse and he decided to move to a cooler Bermuda, where his health deteriorated even more. He later went home to Mount Vernon where he died in July 1752.  George went home alone, departing the island on December 22, 1751. As historian Jack Warren has written, “George Washington’s visit to Barbados proved to be a turning point in his life – a dividing line between his intensely provincial and ordinary youth and a young adulthood marked by extraordinary energy and ambition, in which he began the ascent that would make him the transcendent hero of American history.” When traveling to Barbados, visiting the "George Washington's House" would be educational.

   One of the finest African American heroes: ETHEL WATERS. A spellbinding singer of songs, an actress of magnanimous power, Waters was a force of nature who enthralled audiences and even the stoniest of critics in nightclubs, vaudeville, recordings, Broadway, radio, movies and television. One of the finest black female entertainers of her century, she is the premiere trailblazer of the sisterhood.

   104. Extremely rare contract/agreement signed on January 25, 1950 by Ethel Waters and Charles Samuels for two books, "His Eye is on the Sparrow" and "The Sparrow Sings the Blues."
-- Seven first edition copies of Ethel's book, co-written by Charles Samuels.
-- Very rare, fine Moroccan leather bound First Edition copy of "His Eye is On the Sparrow." Thick leather with gold imprints on cover..
-- 1951 Ethel Waters "His Eye Is On The Sparrow" book ad. The ad screams, "Smash Best Seller!" A book-of-the-month-club selection. An increasingly scarce original print advertisement.
-- Nine mint condition copies of the the rare 45 (rpm) of Ethel Waters singing His Eye is on the Sparrow with the "1500 Voice Billy Graham New York Crusade Choir" in Madison Square Gardens, directed by Cliff Barrows. In 1957 Ethel accepted the invitation to sing at the Billy Graham event at Madison Square Garden; began regular participation with at similar Billy Graham events.


-- "Cabin in the Sky" Studio acetate edition 12" 78 rpm disc (February 24, 1943), with a lot of hand written information on the disc. 8A (USA). End theme song from film (same title). One sided acetate, exceptionally heavy. Time: 4' 38." It bears the hand written initials of the recording engineer, date (Feb. 24, 1943), matrix number...DCO39982A. Ethel Waters sings beautifully with Rochester -- with orchestra accompaniment and a choir. Beautiful soundtrack.    At the time miss Waters was at the peak of her career. After many years of singing mainly blues, she was a top hit on Broadway and finally Hollywood! During WW2, the major studios made a couple of films only with Afro American cast. "Stormy Weather" and this one were the most popular. Many jazz stars, comedians and dancers (tap & Lindy Hop). The label sticker with the info is on the silent (virgin) side, the grooves with the music on the other side. There was no issue at the time of course. This acetate was probably for working purpose in the studio (lip syncing with film, assembling, montage, etc.) Grade: VG+ (some little scars and light wear, sounds very good but some surface noise). Ethel appeared in the musical Cabin in the Sky and co-starred with Louis Armstrong and the young Lena Horne (a Waters disciple in many ways) in its film version two years later.
-- Vintage sheet music from the Metro- Goldwyn-Mayer picture movie Cabin In The Sky with Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington and his orchestra! Movie stars Lena Horne and Ethel Water were in the movie.
-- Cabin in the Sky film.
-- Ethel Waters Signed in Ink 5 " X 7".  Circa 1938.  This came out of a lot of Photos all about 1938.
-- Personalized note dated Jan 20, 1950 and signed by Ethel Waters. She was an American blues and jazz vocalist and actress. She frequently performed jazz, big band, and pop music, on the Broadway stage and in concerts, although she began her career in the 1920s singing blues. Her best-known recording was her version of the spiritual, "His Eye is on the Sparrow", and she was the second African American ever nominated for an Academy Award. The recipients name and address have been removed.
-- One-of-a-kind test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "Come Up and See Me Sometime," Brunswick #6885, Matrix: B-14956-C. Ethel Waters and the Brunswick Studio Band, in New York City, dated March 16, 1934. Brunswick. Frank Guarante or Charlie Margulis, Bunny Berigan (tp), Frank Luther Trio (Frank Luther, Zora Layman, Leonard Stokes).

-- BACKGROUND: Vocalist and actress Ethel Waters (1896-1977) was a key figure in the development of African American culture between the two world wars. She broke barrier after barrier, becoming:
(1). the first black woman heard on the radio.
(2). the first black singer to perform on television.
(3). the first African American to perform in an integrated cast on Broadway.
(4). the first black woman to perform in a lead dramatic role on Broadway.
As a singer Waters introduced over 50 songs that became hits, including standards of the magnitude of "St. Louis Blues" and "Stormy Weather." Her jazzy yet controlled vocal style influenced a generation of vocalists, black and white, and her career, encompassing stage, song, and screen, flowered several times in comebacks after tumbling to low points. Today Waters is hardly ever mentioned in the same breath with other major African American performers of the1920s and 1930s. While the careers of jazz artists like Louis Armstrong or even her blues singing contemporary Bessie Smith are exhaustively dissected by historians, Waters is remembered chiefly by listeners and performers with a special interest in the early years of the American popular song industry. Only a few reissues of her recordings have been made available on compact discs and online music services. There are several reasons for this disparity, all of which can be reduced to the idea that Waters and her career could not easily be mythologized. Her field was pop, not the jazz or blues that has typically fascinated investigators of the American musical past, although she was touched creatively by both those genres. She lived and worked for decades, enduring the tragic death of Billie Holiday, a singer with a background similar to her own. And late in life she turned to gospel music, appearing with prominent conservative figures in an era when African American militancy was on the rise. "You don't become a jazz legend by growing old, playing grandmothers, and palling around with Billy Graham and Richard Nixon," noted singer Susannah McCorkle in an essay on Waters that appeared in American Heritage Magazine.
Yet Waters overcame a childhood as bitterly hard as Armstrong's or Holiday's. She was conceived when her mother, 12 years old at the time, was raped at knifepoint. Born in Chester, Pennsylvania on October 31, 1896 and growing up in and around nearby Philadelphia, she was raised by a grandmother and two alcoholic aunts, who abused her physically.  She never lived in the same place for more than 15 months. She had neither a bed nor a bathtub and had vivid memories of opening closet doors only to come face to face with a rat on numerous occasions. She said of her difficult childhood, "I never was a child. I never was coddled, or liked, or understood by my family." By the time she was seven, Waters was serving as lookout for prostitutes and pimps in what she called Philadelphia's "Bloody Eighth Ward." "I played with the thieves' children and the sporting women's trick babies," Waters recalled in her autobiography, His Eye Is On the Sparrow." It was they who taught me how to steal." Despite this unpromising start, Waters demonstrated early the love of language that so distinguishes her work. Some bright spots came in a Catholic school she began attending when she was nine; where nuns noticed her gifts for speaking and mimicry and her powerful memory (Waters called it "elephantine"). Waters married an older man named Merritt Purnsley in 1910. The marriage was abusive and ended after less than a year; she later married and divorced twice more, never had children, and rarely spoke of her marriages. As a teenager, Waters was often hired out by her grandmother as a housecleaner or chambermaid jobs that seem dismal now, but for Waters seemed to open up a whole new world. She dreamed of being hired by a wealthy woman who would take her on travels around the world, and she would stand in front of mirrors in the houses she cleaned and do song-and-dance routines. Waters had already impressed Philadelphia churchgoers as a singer as far back as age five. A nondrinker and nonsmoker, Waters dealt with the pressures of live theater by eating. Her weight ballooned to more than 300 pounds, and roles dried up. Nearly losing her California home, Waters was forced to appear wherever she could in minor nightclubs. But things turned around with her appearances as a grandmother in Pinky(1949), an Elia Kazan-directed film that brought her an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress. For much of the 1950s Waters steadily pulled in audiences as the star of her own one-woman show. But, living alone in an apartment in New York City, she felt isolated and unfulfilled. In 1957, Waters attended a revival held at Madison Square Garden as part of the Billy Graham Crusade. She joined the Graham choir at first, then began to lend her gifts as a gospel soloist to Graham. After Waters announced that she had become a born-again Christian in 1957, her weight dropped from 380 to 160 pounds. Through Graham she met and became friends with Richard Nixon and his family, and she espoused politically conservative positions. Waters performed at the White House in 1971, returning the following year as a guest at the wedding of presidential daughter Tricia Nixon. She was also honored by Graham at a 1972 testimonial dinner attended by a galaxy of Hollywood stars. Her final appearance came at a Billy Graham Crusade event held in San Diego in August of 1976. She suffered from cataracts, heart disease, diabetes, kidney failure, and cancer, and finally died on September 1, 1977 at the home of future biographer Paul DeKorte. "Because of her trailblazing style, Waters deserves to be as widely listened to and loved as the jazz icons Bessie Smith and Billie Holiday," McCorkle noted in 1994, and Waters was honored on a U.S. Postal Service commemorative stamp that year. But a decade later historians were still just beginning to appreciate her accomplishments.

   105. David Livingstone (1813-1873) letter -- Extremely rare hand written letter (dated 6, July 1865) from David Livingstone and signed by him that gives a human glimpse into the life of a man of supreme commitment to God and to the people of the continent of Africa. The 4-page letter is to a Mr. William Logan (see below) thanking him for a present and relating a story about his great grandfather who was committed to prison for writing to the Minister on behalf of a poor woman, but how God showed his faithfulness! David's mother died on June 18th, 1865. Perhaps this was a letter to a Mr. Logan thanking him for the gift of a book by Janet Hamilton. Was it given at his mother's funeral in June? We don't know, but something stirred the memory of a story his mother loved to tell. It is a long detailed letter with excellent content that gives a glimpse into the heart and mind of David Livingstone other than the ones of him living in the stark and sometimes dangerous conditions in Africa. It is signed in the inside of page 3, where Mr. Livingstone went to finish his letter. This is a very special item! On June 19th David Livingstone had received a telegram, which stated that his mother had died the day before. According to William Blaikie's account (pp 355-356), taken from another letter written by Livingstone, Monday, 19th June -- A telegram came, saying that mother had died the day before. I started at once for Scotland. No change was observed till within an hour and a half of her departure.... Seeing the end was near, sister Agnes said, 'The Saviour has come for you, mother. You can "lippen" yourself to him?' She replied, 'Oh yes.' Little Anna Mary was help up to her. She gave her the last look, and said 'Bonnie wee lassie,' gave a few long inspirations, and all was still, with a look of reverence on her countenance. She had wished William Logan, a good Christian man, to lay her head in the grave, if I were not there. When going away in 1858, she said to me that she would have liked one of her laddies to lay her head in the grave. It so happened that I was there to pay the last tribute to a dear good mother.
-- This letter is from the Russell Aitken collection with provenance material (letter and invoice from 1949). Aitken was an artist (sculptor), expert marksman, big-game hunter and adventure writer whose substantial philanthropy reflected his passions for art and sport (died in 2002, 92 years of age). There is a thin piece of tape to strengthen an inside edge.
-- Handwritten front of envelope signed by David Livingtone.
-- Ulva, Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Ulbha) is an island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, off the west coast of Mull. This is the location of Janet Hamilton, the New Moorland parish and the Hamilton jail mentioned in the letter below.

Here is the letter July 6th, 1865 -- 18 days after the death of his mother): "My Dear Mr. Logan, Thank you very much for your present and I assure you that I read Janet Hamilton's book with very great pleasure and I thank her kindly for the kind words she uttered in reference to me. ... tell her that my maternal great grandfather was in New Moorland parish at a time when but few could use their views as she can -- and a poor woman who got but sixpence a month from the parish employed him to write a petition to the minister for more. This incensed his reverence so much that he committed my grand father [Gavin Hunter] to Hamilton Jail. He there imitated King David among the Philistines and feigned madness. A sergeant who had his pick of the prisoners to be drafted as soldiers said to him, "My footman and I don't believe that you are insane but tell me your case and...befriend you" He replied that he had a wife and three children who must starve without his services and was greatly distressed in mind on their account. The sergeant gave him  three shillings, a larger sum than he had ever possessed in his life before, for a common labourer...pay at the time was put three pence (Scotts...) per diem. The sergeant then went to his officer and said that one of their recruits was clearly out of his mind and obtained permission to dismiss him. Many a prayer there no doubt ascended on behalf of this soldier...of my great grandfather...all his kindness was returned unto his own bosom by Him who put the kindly feelings unto his heart. I heard this told by my grandfather and lately by my mother. We go off this afternoon. Many thanks for your friendship. For the departed now numbered...all no death for whom we give thanks that they died in the Lord.  David Livingstone"

-- First Edition copy of "The Personal Life of David Livingstone, by William G. Blaikie (1880). The book is chiefly from his unpublished journals and correspondence in the possession of his family. The contents of the above-mentioned letter are in this book.

: David's mother had a great store of family traditions, and, like the mother of Sir Walter Scott, she retained the power of telling them with the utmost accuracy to a very old age. In one of Livingstone's private journals, written in 1864, during his second visit home, he gives at full length the above-mentioned story, which some future Macaulay may find useful as an illustration of the social conditions of Scotland in the early part of the eighteenth century.
-- The story recounted in the letter above is corroborated by a paragraph in "The Personal Life of David Livingstone, by William G. Blaikie (1880) -- "Mother told me stories of her youth: they seem to come back to her in her eighty-second year very vividly. Her grandfather, Gavin Hunter, could write, while most common people were ignorant of the art. A poor woman got him to write a petition to the minister of Shotts parish to augment her monthly allowance of sixpence, as she could not live on it. He was taken to Hamilton jail for this, and having a wife and three children at home, who without him would certainly starve, he thought of David's feigning madness before the Philistines, and beslabbered his beard with saliva. All who were found guilty were sent to the army in America, or the plantations. A sergeant had compassion on him, and said, 'Tell me, gudeman, if you are really out of your mind. I'll befriend you.' He confessed that he only feigned insanity, because he had a wife and three bairns at home who would starve if he were sent to the army. 'Dinna say onything mair to ony body,' said the kind-hearted sergeant. He then said to the commanding officer, 'They have given us a man clean out of his mind: I can do nothing with the like o' him,' The officer went to him and gave him three shillings, saying, 'Tak' that, gudeman, and gang awa' hame to your wife and weans, 'Ay,' said mother, 'mony a prayer went up for that sergeant, for my grandfather was an unco godly man. He had never had so much money in his life before, for his wages were only threepence a day."
-- Janet Hamilton (mentioned in letter above and was also known by Mr. Logan) was a nineteenth century Scottish poet. She was born as Janet Thomson at Carshill, Shotts parish, Lanarkshire, 12 Oct. 1795, the daughter of a shoemaker. In her childhood the family moved to Hamilton, and then to Langloan, in the parish of Old Monkland, Lanarkshire. Her father at length settled down in business for himself as a shoemaker, and John Hamilton, one of his young workmen, married Janet in 1809. They lived together at Langloan for about sixty years, and had a family of ten children. Having learned to read as a girl, Janet Hamilton in her early years became familiar with the Bible, with Shakespeare and Milton, with many standard histories, biographies, and essays, and with the poems of Allan Ramsay, Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns. Before she was twenty she had written numerous verses on religious themes. but family cares prevented further composition until she was about fifty-four. During her last eighteen years she was blind, and her husband and her daughter Marion read to her. She died on 27 Oct. 1873, having never been ‘more than twenty miles from her dwelling.’ A memorial fountain has been placed nearly opposite her cottage. In the letter above, David could have been referring to either of the following books published by this time:

  • Poems and essays of a miscellaneous character on subjects of general interest. 1863 Glasgow
  • Poems of purpose and sketches in prose of Scottish peasant life and character in auld lang syne, sketches of local scenes and characters : with a glossary 1865. Glasgow. (This was probably the book that caused David to be reminded of his mother's story...)

-- William Logan (1813-1879 -- recipient of Livingston's letter) Born near Hamilton, the son of a weaver, Logan was greatly affected by seeing a Glasgow missionary die of typhoid. Secular employment having no charms for him, he went to work with sufferers of the disease in London and Leeds. From 1840 to 1842 he was in Rochdale, returning to Glasgow where he attended classes at the university while working as a missionary.  While he was a student at the college he joined the city mission. His district was in the High Street, the physical, social, moral, and spiritual condition of which he found very bad. It taxed all his energies. Besides conducting regular religious services on Saturday evenings, he held a meeting for the members of his Bible-class, at which he taught them music, and gave lectures on chemistry, with experiments, generally closing with practical remarks for their daily guidance. His self-denying work remains to this day. He also spent time in various prisons, studying the causes of crime, before undertaking a second spell of missionary work in northern England. Many a young man and young woman has had cause to bless William Logan. Mr. Logan's literary work was a labor of love. He was the author of the "Moral Statistics of Glasgow;" "Early Heroes of the Temperance Reformation;" but in editing "Words of Comfort for Bereaved Parents" he took especial delight. The first few editions contained about fifty pages; its tenth British edition, 490 pages; its circulation reaching 25,000 copies. An American edition had also an extensive sale. Quiet and unobtrusive in manner, yet with broad sympathies, Mr. Logan was ready to help every good work. While attentive to business, yet, like a true disciple, he was constantly going about doing good; and only to a few was it known how generously he helped and encouraged the struggling poor. His interest in the arts led to his erecting a monument to the memory of David Gray, the Kirkintilloch poet. He was also the constant friend of Janet Hamilton, the poet of Coatbridge. He not only showed her all manner of friendly attentions, but did more perhaps than any one else to bring her into fame, buying her books largely and sending copies to influential critics and literary men who might otherwise have failed to notice them. To him, Janet Hamilton in some measure, owed her recognition. If any young minister was in trouble through charges of heresy, William Logan was sure to find his way to his side and cheer him with his sympathy. His "Words of Comfort for Parents Bereaved of Little Children" - the idea of which was suggested by the help he obtained from friendly letters when his girl Sophia was taken from him at the age of five years - have gone far and wide into houses of mourning and have been stained by blessed tears they have helped to bring. Mr. Logan was, in his day, one of Scotland's most zealous temperance reformers. His last illness was severe and brief. On 16th September, 1879, he passed into eternity. There were thousands he had never seen who felt that they had lost a friend when his death was announced. His resting-place is in the Glasgow Necropolis. A handsome monument to his memory was erected a few years since.

-- David Livingstone and slavery  "And if my disclosures regarding the terrible Ujijian slavery should lead to the suppression of the East Coast slave trade, I shall regard that as a greater matter by far than the discovery of all the Nile sources together." -- Quoted from a letter Livingstone wrote to the editor of the New York Herald. Livingstone's letters, books and journals did stir up public support for the abolition of slavery. However he became humiliatingly dependent for assistance on the very slave-traders whom he wanted to put out of business. Because he was a poor leader of his peers, he ended up on his last expedition as an individualist explorer with servants and porters but no expert support around him. At the same time he did not use the brutal methods of maverick explorers such as Stanley to keep his retinue of porters in line and his supplies secure. For these reasons from 1867 onwards he accepted help and hospitality from Mohamad Bogharib and Mohamad bin Saleh (also known as Mpamari), traders who kept and traded in slaves, as he recounts in his journals. They in turn benefited from Livingstone's influence with local people, which facilitated Mpamari's release from bondage to Mwata Kazembe. Livingstone was also furious to discover some of the replacement porters sent at his request from Ujiji were slaves.
-- It was early in the morning of May 1st, 1873. Exhausted, David Livingston was confronted by one of his servants by his bedside. “You must rest Mr. Livingston, you must sleep!” “No!” David Livingston replied, “I must pray for Africa! Please prop me up by my bed to pray.” At 4 a.m. on David Livingstone's friends heard an unusual noise, lit a candle To their amazement, David Livingston had died on his knees, praying for the country that he had given his entire life and strength to evangelize!

David Livingstone -- Magic Lantern slide

The tribal leaders gathered from all areas of the continent of Africa to honor this great general of God. They removed his heart and buried it reverently at the foot of a mulva tree. A wood monument was erected. They embalmed his body by filling it with salt, leaving it in the sun to dry for 14 days, then wrapping it in cloth, before enclosing the body in the bark of a Myonga tree, over which they sewed heavy sail cloth. This package was tied to a long pole so that two men could carry it. Along with his papers they started toward Zanzibar on a 1,000-mile trip that was to take nine months. They began a relay to hand carry his body to the coast where an awaiting vessel would carry him back to his homeland for burial. They arrived in February of 1874 and gave the body to the officers of the British Consul. When the body arrived in England on April 15, there was some doubt about the identity of the remains. However, upon examination of the mangled left arm, the doubt disappeared. On April 18, 1874, almost a year after his death, London came to stop as he was buried in Westminster Abbey with the kings and the great. At his funeral were his children, Susi, Henry Stanley--and the aged Robert Moffat, who started it all.

-- Victor Animatograph Co. Hand Colored Glass Magic Lantern Slide (above), circa 1915. This is a portrait of David Livingstone (1813-1873). Victor Animatograph slide mount measures about 4" x 3 1/4", image size is about 2 1/2" x 2."

   106. Autographed Letter (dated November 23, 1840), written and signed by ‘Thomas Clarkson’ -- to ‘My dear friend’, informing him that “I have received the Manuscript safe”, asking him to correct the work and send it to the Press, concluding that “I consider that I cannot judge so well of my own writings as others”. 1 page 9 x 7 inches, folds, light creasing, occasional very light stains, generally in good condition. Playford, 23 November 1840. A fine letter by the veteran campaigner, Thomas Clarkson (1760-1846), a tireless anti-slavery abolitionist, friend of William Wilberforce, and philanthropist. “I think in about 5 days I shall send you more Copy, which will be the last except about a sheet and a half. I entreat you to look over the Copy, which is next coming to you, with as searching an Eye as the last, and that you will favour me with your Remarks.”
-- In 1841 Clarkson’s published work was ‘A Letter to the Clergy of Various Denominations and to the Slaveholding Planters in the Southern Parts of the United States of America’. The letter mentioned above is probably about the manuscript pages for Clarkson's book.
-- BACKGROUND: Thomas Clarkson was among the foremost British campaigners against both slavery and the slave trade. He was born in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, on 28 March 1760 and educated at the grammar school there where his father, the Rev. John Clarkson, was headmaster.  In May 1787, Clarkson was one of the twelve men who formed the Committee for Abolition of the African Slave Trade. Clarkson took on the role of fact-finder, and for the next two years rode around the country gathering evidence against the trade. In some places, notably the major slave-trading ports of Bristol and Liverpool, this was a dangerous activity, not least because Clarkson tried openly to gather support for the abolition campaign. On his periodic returns to London, Clarkson passed his evidence to the Abolition Committee, who arranged for the campaign to be taken to parliament where William Wilberforce was leading the effort to outlaw the trade. In February 1788, a committee of the privy council started to take evidence on 'the present state of the African trade'. While Wilberforce steered the campaign through parliament, Clarkson continued to produce new evidence, evidence which Wilberforce put to good use in his famous speech of 12 May 1789. The abolition campaign lay dormant until the early years of the nineteenth century. In 1803, Clarkson returned to the committee and, in the following year, its efforts were renewed with a new campaign. Clarkson once again toured the country gathering evidence while Wilberforce again introduced the Abolition Bill before parliament. The Bill fell in 1804 and 1805, but gave the abolitionists an opportunity to sound out support. A public campaign once again promoted the cause, and the new Whig government was in favor as well. In January 1807, the Abolition Bill was again introduced, this time attracting very considerable support, and, on 23 February 1807, parliament voted overwhelmingly in favor of abolition of the slave trade. Clarkson was celebrated as a national figure and a model of philanthropy. In 1808, on the crest of this wave, he wrote the comprehensive History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade. This book provides the historian with much of the detail of the abolition campaign, and is an important record of the movement. However, some felt that Clarkson overplayed his own contribution (he had, after all, been absent between 1794 and 1803). Modern historians have also noted the rather self-congratulatory tone of the work, which did much to foster the myth of virtuous philanthropy of the anti-slavery 'saints'. Nonetheless, Clarkson's dedication to the cause is undoubted. With the abolition of the slave trade, public interest in the issue waned temporarily. Clarkson remained committed, not only to abolition of the trade around the world, but to the complete emancipation of the slaves in British colonies. He remained active on both fronts, including traveling to France in 1818 to press the Czar of Russia, Alexander I, to suppress the slave trade. In 1823, the Anti-Slavery Society was formed to press for emancipation. Clarkson and Wilberforce were vice-presidents, His health, however, was not good and so he was unable to participate fully in the early  1830s, when the Emancipation Bill was finally passed. Indeed, he was almost blind from cataracts, but these were cured after a successful (if dangerous) operation in 1836. This cure allowed him once more to read and write with ease. Clarkson continued to write anti-slavery pamphlets into the 1840s, despite having retired to Playford Hall, an Elizabethan manor in Suffolk, after his last appearance at the Anti-Slavery Society in 1840. He died on 26 September 1846, at the age of 86, and is buried in Playford church.

Troy Conference Missionary Society Certificate
June 21, 1852, signed by Edmund S. Jones

   107. An antique framed engraving. It is of a membership certification to the Troy Conference Missionary Society, an auxiliary to the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church.  It is dated June 21st 1852. Signed by Edmund S. Jones (local pastor of State Street Church in Troy, 1852), President and Stephen. D. Brown (entered Troy Conference in 1837, transferred to the NY Conference in 1865, died in 1875), Secretary. The print depicts a trumpeting angel hovering above a congregation of African American slaves and Native Americans. The annual Troy Conference event (7 days) was held that year in Plattsburgh, NY. This life membership certificate is for Mrs. Sophia Jones, stating that she paid ten dollars. The top of the certificate shows some white spotting. The top left corner is clipped and there is a 1 x 4 inch water stain at the bottom. Measures 19 1/2 x 23 1/2 inches. Very nice antique frame is probably original to the piece. Some pastors of the Troy Conference were noted abolitionists (Don Papson and Andrew Witherspoon). George S. Brown (1801-1880) was an African American missionary to Liberia six times. A part of the Troy Conference, he founded Sandford's Ridge UM Church and was a much-sought-after stone mason in the region.

   108. An extremely scarce first edition (1730) copy of "An Historical Account of the Incorporated  Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Containing their Foundation, Proceedings, and the Success of their Missionaries in the British Colonies, to the Year 1728," by David Humphreys. Issued London, 1730 by Joseph Downing. pp. 356, retaining blank endpapers. Period full leather binding, raised bands, gilt devices in compartments. Fascinating, unique and very rare early 18th century survey of religion on the British colonies. Includes chapters regarding South Carolina, North Carolina, Pennsylvania,  New York, New Jersey, New England, "the Negroe Slaves", the Iroquois Indians, etc. Includes ornate engraved head & tail pieces scattered throughout. In Good+, mostly clean condition. Boards detached, crudely repaired with binding tape, boards rubbed and scuffed, leather dried and cracked in spots, some light scattered foxing & soiling throughout the text block. Otherwise internally and overall the volume remains tight, sound and fairly well-preserved. De-accessioned from an institution with bookplate, perforated stamp to title page. Measures 5" W x 8" H. A rare early 18th century book directly discussing the inhabitants of the east coast of America at this early date.
BACKGROUND: The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) was founded by royal charter in 1701, the oldest and indeed the only mission agency formally established by the Church of England, approved by Convocation, approved and supported by Parliament, its charter giving all diocesan bishops ex officio membership and requiring that it report itself annually to the lord chancellor. While the archbishop of Canterbury and the English, Irish, and Welsh bishops have been closely involved in the society's work through most of its first three centuries, the guiding personality in its foundation was Thomas Bray, a parish priest and the bishop of London's commissary for Maryland. Two years previously, in 1699, he was instrumental in setting up a less formally constituted Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK), largely concerned with providing education, books, and libraries for English and American parishes. SPG's concern was with recruiting and sending missionaries, clergy, and schoolteachers, and with the associated funding. A problem relating particularly to the eighteenth-century part of the history arises from an evangelical missiography that seems to be obliged to say that nothing of significance happened before William Carey dawned upon the British mission scene at the end of the eighteenth century, and that SPG must therefore have been merely some sort of colonial-church society. Several misconceptions, theological as well as historical, are wrapped up in this notion. Suffice it to say by way of example that the precise records preserved in the SPG missionaries' twice yearly returns, the Notitia parochialis, make it clear that as many nonwhites, Native Americans, and Negro slaves were brought to Christian faith in the early eighteenth century through the SPG's mission to North America as were reported a century later by the many evangelical missions from Britain. At the same time, the work undertaken among the colonists, laying the foundations of the Episcopal Church of the U.S.A., was certainly seen as a missionary endeavor, what we would now call re-evangelization. Hence, the title "Three Centuries of Mission," not "a century building a colonial church followed by two of mission." It is a complex story, both as the domestic context and constitution of the society changed and as missionary ambitions expanded within and beyond British colonial and imperial regions, and later, during and after decolonization. The first historical account was published in 1730, written by the secretary at that time, David Humphreys, and covering the first three decades, in the Caribbean in a small way, but chiefly in North America among native Americans, African slaves, and settlers, and hopeful that the "mighty English Empire ... should be Christian."
-- -- Interesting, scarce book: "Two Hundred Years of the S.P.G.: An Historical Account of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701-1900 (Based on a Digest of the Society's Records)." By C. F. Pascoe. Published in London by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1901. 1429 indexed pages. Illustrated with a fold-out chart, some b&w photos. Front and interior hinges split, probably re-glued, delicate. Gilt on front cover strong. Fraying at spine ends, cover tips. Library number on spine. Rear exterior hinge starting to split in a couple of spots. Front end papers missing. Older personal library plate on front pastedown. Fold-out chart has protruded on top edge, resulting in some tattering along that edge. One page adjacent to the fold-out partially pulled from binding. 

   109. A 1925 ladies class ring from the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. This college was founded in 1868 after the civil war and was for the American Indians and African Americans. The school is located in Hampton, Virginia and has a rich history. The ring was tested and is 14k gold weighing in at 4.9 grams (3.2 dwt). The ring is in good condition but some of the black enamel is chipped. The ring size is just over an 8. There are some initials inside the ring.
-- Signatures of three Native-American Indian students of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute dated September 18, 1888: Joe LaRoche (from Lower Brule), Matthew Young Eagle (from Standing Rock) and Joseph Beaupre (from Yancton).
-- Rare First Edition (1893) of book, Twenty-Two Years' Work of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute -- Owned by W. L. Weaver. 520 pages. With historical and personal sketches and testimony on important race questions from within and without, to which are added, by courtesy of Messrs Putnam's Sons, N.Y., some of the Songs of the Races gathered in the School . Hampton Normal School Press. A look at the early days of Hampton University, when it was in its earlier incarnation of the "Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute," committed to the white man's education of African Americans and Native Americans. Almost the entirety of this book is taken up with fascinating short biographical sketches of former Hampton students (including Booker T. Washington) - their trials an tribulations, their successes and failures. This is the scarce first edition, not to be confused with the modern Kessenger Publishing Co. reprint. Hardbound, 520 pages plus several pages of the music and words from "Cabin and Plantation Songs As Sung by the Hampton Students;" includes the original folding sketch of the Institute and the one page map of the area. It is interesting that the bio sketches of Joe LaRoche, Matthew Young Eagle and Joseph Beaupre are all included in this fascinating volume.

   110. -- Very scarce First Edition 1888 copy of, "Der Sclavenhandel in Afrika und seine Greuel, beleuchtet nach den Vorträgen des Cardinals Lavignerie und Berichten von Missionaren und Forschern." by Walter Helmes. (German translation of title: The Slave Trade in Africa and its atrocities, enlightened by the lectures of the Cardinal Lavignerie and reports of missionaries and researchers). Writings of the Abolitionist movement at the end of the 19th century, based on the lectures of Cardinal Lavigerie, accounts of missionaries and explorers. 8vo. 8.6 x 5.8 inches. 60 pp., 2 leaves uncut. With frontispiece portrait of Cardinal Lavigerie. Original printed boards binding.
BACKGROUND: Charles Martial Allemand Lavigerie (31 October 1825–26 November 1892) was a French cardinal archbishop of Carthage and Algiers and primate of Africa. He was born at Bayonne, and was educated at St Sulpice, Paris. He was ordained priest in 1849, and was professor of ecclesiastical history at the Sorbonne from 1854 to 1856. In 1856 he accepted the direction of the schools of the East, and was thus for the first time brought into contact with the Islamic world. Cest lit, he wrote, que J'ai connu enfin ma vocation. Activity in missionary work, especially in alleviating the distresses of the victims of the Druzes, soon brought him prominently into notice; he was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and in October 1861, shortly after his return to Europe, was appointed French auditor at Rome. Two years later he was raised to the see of Nancy, where he remained for four years, during which the diocese became one of the best administered in France. While bishop of Nancy he met Marshal MacMahon, then governor-general of Algeria, who in 1866 offered him the see of Algiers, just raised to an archbishopric. Lavigerie landed in Africa on the 11th of May 1868, when the great famine was already making itself felt, and he began in November to collect the orphans into villages. The later years of his life were spent in ardent anti-slavery efforts, and his eloquence moved large audiences in London, as well as in Paris, Brussels and other parts of the continent. He hoped, by organizing a fraternity of armed laymen as pioneers, to restore fertility to the Sahara; but this community did not succeed, and was dissolved before his death.

   111. 1862 Autograph Letter Signed "Joshua R. Giddings" (5 1/4" x 8") two conjoined pages, separate sheets with postscript signed "J R G" -- folds, soiling, slight separation at two folds, on rare pictorial stationery of the UNITED STATES CONSULATE GENERAL, British North American Provinces...Montreal, December 8th 1862 -- written about 17 months before his death.
-- "My Dear Wife: I have just recd a dispatch from the State department on other business but no answer to my application for Leave of absence is yet received and I shall say nothing more on the subject short of one or two weeks and you must not expect me home before the last week of this month or short of two weeks. I feel very anxious about you & the girls and shall go home without leave pretty soon if I fail to obtain it. The weather is now cold and dry. The thermometer at Zero. The houses white with frost all day. Mens' beards filled with ice from their breath and the severe weather of a Montreal winter is on us. In the mean time, my ... pains have mostly ceased and at no time have I experienced any pain in the region of the heart and I am now in better health every way except those sciatic pains there I have been for years and should enjoy life well except for anxiety ... Tell Laura or Maria to write me all about things soon as you get this. Love to all affectionately, Joshua R Giddings -- PS I have directed Lysander to send you and Molly each a set of Tins.   JRG"
BACKGROUND: Joshua R. Giddings of Ohio was elected as a Whig to the 25th Congress to fill a vacancy and was sworn in on December 3, 1838.  In November 1841, the 135 enslaved African Americans on board the ship Creole overpowered the crew, murdering one man, while sailing from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to New Orleans, Louisiana. They sailed the vessel to Nassau, Bahamas, where the British declared most of them free. Congressman Giddings argued that once the ship was outside of U.S. territorial waters, the African Americans were entitled to their liberty and that any attempt to re-enslave them would be unconstitutional. A vote of censure was passed upon him by the House of Representatives in response to his motion in defense of the slave mutineers in the Creole case. Abolitionist Joshua R. Giddings resigned, but his constituents quickly reelected him and sent him back to Congress. Throughout his 20 years of service, Giddings used the floor of the U.S. Congress to debate the issues of slavery. The Giddings' home in Jefferson, Ohio served as a station on the Underground Railroad before and after his election to Congress. On March 25, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Giddings as the U.S. Consul General to the British North American Provinces [Canada]. This is where the above letter was written. He served until his death in Montreal on May 27, 1864.
-- Hard-to-find First Edition book by Joshua R. Giddings -- The Exiles of Florida: Or, The Crimes Committed By Our Government Against the Maroons, Who Fled From South Carolina and Other Slave States, Seeking protection Under Spanish Laws.  Columbus, Ohio:  Follett, Foster and Company, 1858.  Inscribed by W.T. Coggeshall.  338 pages.  Brown cloth covers.  The covers are soiled, rubbed, and worn.  The contents are bright and complete.
BACKGROUND: During the early part of the nineteenth century, the United States conducted a brutal campaign to re-enslave Blacks who escaped slavery and found freedom in Native American settlements in Florida. Giddings told the truth as he documents the struggle waged by these brave Africans and their Native American hosts. An early indictment of slaveocracy, The Exiles of Florida is an account of the Florida Wars, which were waged by U.S. forces against an unoffending community of Blacks and Native Americans. Both groups were viewed as a threat to the status quo and the expansionist anthem of an emerging United States.

-- Scarce first edition copy of Correspondence Between Mr. Webster And Lord Ashburton: 1. On Mcleod's Case. 2.The Creole Case 3.The Subject Of Impressment. printed in Washington, DC 1842. 32 pages. Stitched. Interior remains tight, clean and compete.
: The Creole case was the result of a slave rebellion in 1841 on board the Creole, a ship involved in the United States coastwise slave trade. The trade flourished for a half century or longer. In 1841, a brig named Creole (also known as USS Creole) was transporting 135 slaves between Hampton Roads, Virginia and New Orleans. Led by Madison Washington, nineteen slaves on board the Creole revolted, and directed the ship to be taken to Nassau on the island of New Providence in the Bahamas, then a British colony. During the slave revolt a white slave trader, John Hewell, was killed, and a slave died later of heavy wounds. According to international law, the slave revolt on this ship was not piracy, but a mutiny, and fell under the jurisdiction of the local authority where the crime occurred. The Creole case generated diplomatic tension between Great Britain and the United States, and political rumblings within the United States itself. The Creole revolt ignited the attack on slavery by northern abolitionists in 1842. In a New York Evangelist newspaper story, “The Hero Mutineers,” Madison Washington was named the ‘romantic hero.’ This is so because Madison showed his empathy towards the white crew members on the Creole. He stopped his fellow slave mates from murdering them, and even dressed the sailors’ wounds after the revolt. Secretary of State Daniel Webster stated that the slaves were legal properties and demanded their return. By this time, Great Britain had ended slavery in its nation and its colonies, so the British ignored the US claim. Representative Joshua Reed Giddings of Ohio introduced a series of nine resolutions in the United States House of Representatives that argued that Virginia state law did not apply to slaves outside of Virginian waters, and that the US federal government should not act to protect the rights of the slaveholders in this case. The resolutions provoked strong emotions. The House censured Giddings, who promptly resigned. The voters of Ohio reelected him soon afterwards.

   112. A 4 page hand-written letter by Elizur Wright dated September 23, 1881. It is to the editor of the Newton Republican about errors in his new manuscript book (Myron Holley) and discusses La Fontaine, the famous book he had translated from French to English. He gives example of letter sent to him by J. Howes. Each page numbered and has Wright's letter head. Approximately 8 by 11 inches. Very important American abolitionist. With others, he helped founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833. He also developed actuarial tables and the mathematics for calculating life insurance premiums. Considered the founder of life insurance. The book Elizur mentioned in the letter was, Myron Holley; and What He Did For Liberty and True Religion, published in 1882.
BACKGROUND: Wright was part of a devout Christian family who held anti-slavery beliefs and instilled in him a strict moral character. In 1826, Wright graduated from Yale and began to teach, first in Groton, Massachusetts, then at Hudson, Ohio as a mathematics and philosophy professor at Western Reserve College. It was during this time that Wright first encountered the writings of William Lloyd Garrison. Garrison's pamphlet, "Thoughts on African Colonization," persuaded Wright to believe that slavery should immediately be abolished, and that the plan for deportation of blacks to an African colony would be immoral and ineffective. Wright became involved with the newly created Liberty Party and began to separate from the evangelists and the religious anti-slavery movements, believing that government intervention was the way to abolition.

   Wright was arrested and charged for aiding in the escape of the first black man to be seized in New England under the Fugitive Slave Act. He was not convicted. He edited the Massachusetts Abolitionist and the Chronotype before eventually becoming estranged from the Abolitionist movement altogether. Moreover, due partially to disappointment in the Church's lack of support for the Abolitionist cause, and to a slowly growing desire to find secular solutions to social problems, the formerly pious and devout Congregationalist became an atheist.

   113. La Solidarieta Israelitica e i Falascia. First Edition published in 1907. [translation of title] Israelite Solidarity and the Falasha. Controversial lecture by an Orthodox Rabbi and scholar on behalf of the Ethiopian "Falasha" Jews delivered in the Great Jewish Synagogue in Florence on the First Day of Passover by Dr. Samuel Hirsch Margulies. Firenze (Florence): Galletti e Cassuto, 7 pages. Text is in Italian. Original lecture pamphlet, bound in marbled boards, with handwritten label to spine. Stamp to title and last page, wear to extremities, otherwise in very good condition, internally clean.
BACKGROUND: This historically significant lecture given by the Chief Rabbi of Florence, influential religious figure at the time and foremost supporter of Falasha Jews, marks the beginning of Pro-Falasha committees established by Margulies, under the advocacy of Faitlovitch for the Ethiopian Jewish community. In October 1906, Dr. Jacques Faitlovitch, who was committed to Beta Israel (Falasha) research and relief, went to Italy with the intent to gain support for his campaign. Italian Jews embraced the movement on behalf of the Falashas. With the help and leadership of the Chief Rabbi of Florence, Dr. Samuel Margulies, Faitlovitch established in Florence the first Pro-Falasha Committee. Professor Moise Funzi and Advocate R. Ottolenghi were also original committee members. This is one of the earliest lectures since the formation of the committee, and contains excerpts from Psalms, Exodus, Ruth, etc. The Beta Israel or Falasha is a group formerly living in Ethiopia that has a tradition of descent from the lost tribe of Dan. Tradition states that they are descendants of Solomon and the queen of Sheba, and for centuries they have maintained separated, culturally and physically, from their African neighbors. 'Falasha' is Amharic for "Exiles" or "Strangers," a term used by non-Jewish Ethiopians, though the Jews consider it derogatory. For centuries the Falasha Jews have been treated as outsiders, practicing a form of Judaism that appears to predate much of the Old Testament. They also have a long history of practicing such Jewish traditions as kashrut, Sabbath and Passover and for this reason their Jewishness was accepted by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel and the Israeli government in 1975. They emigrated to Israel en masse during the 1980s and 1990s, as Jews, under the Law of Return, though some who claim to be Beta Israel still live in Ethiopia. Their claims were formally accepted by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel, and are accordingly generally regarded as Jews. Other terms by which the community have been known include Kayla and the Hebrew Habashim, associated with the non-Jewish Habesha people.
     Dr. Samuel Hirsch Margulie
s (1858-1922), was an Orthodox Rabbi and a scholar. He was born in Berezhany, western Ukraine (then mainly Polish speaking town with mixed Polish, Ukrainian and Jewish population in the kingdom of Galicia of Austro-Hungarian Empire), and studied at the Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary and at the universities of Breslau and Leipzig. He was Rabbi in Hamburg, district rabbi of Hesse Nassau, and in 1890 was appointed chief rabbi of Florence. In 1899 he became principal of Italy’s only rabbinical seminary, the Collegio Rabbinico Italiano when it transferred from Rome to Florence. Margulies was a powerful spiritual force in Italy and trained many of its religious leaders. He founded and edited Rivista Israelitica, the learned journal published by the Seminary. His scholarly publications included an edition of Rabbi Saadiah’s Arabic translation of the Psalms.
     Dr. Jacques Faitlovitch (1881-1955), was an Orientalist, devoted to Beta Israel (Falasha) research and relief work. He made 11 missions to Ethiopia. In 1904 he went to Ethiopia for the first time and spent 18 months among the Beta Israel, studying their beliefs and customs. The results were published in his Notes d'un voyage chez les Falachas (1905). In his view the Beta Israel were Jews needing help to resist Christian missionary activity, which threatened their survival as a Jewish community. He promised them to enlist world Jewry on their behalf and took two young Beta Israel with him to Europe to be educated as future teachers. Having failed to win the support of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, he organized "pro-Falasha" committees in Italy and Germany to raise funds for Jewish education for the Beta Israel in Abyssinia and abroad.

   114. Monarchs of Minstrelsy -- Extremely rare book that provides some clues about the beginnings of the term, "Jim Crow." Original 1911 FIRST EDITION of “Monarchs of Minstrelsy” by Edw. Le Roy Rice. The book was published by Kenny Publishing Company.  The book measures 8 1/4 x 10 1/2” and is complete with 366 pages + Advertisements. 
BACKGROUND: This book is an entire history, up until the year it was printed, of the Minstrel Stage and the most notable Blackface Performers. Blackface was an important performance tradition in the American theater for roughly 100 years beginning around 1830.  In both the United States and Britain, blackface was most commonly used in the minstrel performance tradition, but it predates that tradition, and it survived long past the heyday of the minstrel show.  The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the Civil War, black people in blackface. White blackface performers in the past used burnt cork and later greasepaint or shoe polish to blacken their skin and exaggerate their lips, often wearing woolly wigs, gloves, tailcoats, or ragged clothes to complete the transformation. Later, black artists also performed in blackface.  Stereotypes embodied in the stock characters of blackface minstrelsy played a significant role in cementing and proliferating racist images, attitudes and perceptions worldwide. In some quarters, the caricatures that were the legacy of blackface persist to the present day and are a cause of ongoing controversy. This book chronicles the most prominent blackface performers beginning with Daddy” Rice (born in NYC on May 20, 1808 died September 19, 1860).  Thomas "Daddy" Rice introduced the earliest slave archetype with his song "Jump Jim Crow" and its accompanying dance. He claimed to have learned the number by watching an old, limping black stable hand dancing and singing, "Wheel about and turn about and do jus' so / Eb'ry time I wheel about I jump Jim Crow." Other early minstrel performers quickly adopted Rice's character. This book is profusely illustrated throughout with drawings and photographs. 
HISTORY ABOUT JIM CROW -- Dr. Ronald L.F. Davis states: The term Jim Crow is believed to have originated around 1830-32 when a white, minstrel show performer, Thomas "Daddy" Rice, blackened his face with charcoal paste or burnt cork and danced a ridiculous jig while singing the lyrics to the song, "Jump Jim Crow." Rice created this character after seeing (while traveling in the South) a crippled, elderly black man (or some say a young black boy) dancing and singing a song ending with these chorus words:

"O, Jim Crow's come to town, as you all must know,
An' he wheel about, he turn about, he do jis so,

An' ebery time he wheel about he jump Jim Crow."

The first time Rice performed this song was in an old theatre on Fifth Street in Pittsburgh. The effect was electric. The thunderous applause that followed was never heard before within the shell of that old theatre. With each succeeding couplet and refrain the uproar was renewed.

Dr. Davis goes on to say: Some historians believe that a Mr. Crow owned the slave who inspired Rice's act--thus the reason for the Jim Crow term in the lyrics. In any case, Rice incorporated the skit into his minstrel act, and by the 1850s the "Jim Crow" character had become a standard part of the minstrel show scene in America. On the eve of the Civil War, the Jim Crow idea was one of many stereotypical images of black inferiority in the popular culture of the day--along with Sambos, Coons, and Zip Dandies. The word Jim Crow became a racial slur synonymous with black, colored, or Negro in the vocabulary of many whites; and by the end of the century acts of racial discrimination toward blacks were often referred to as Jim Crow laws and practices. Although "Jim Crow Cars" on some northern railroad lines--meaning segregated cars--pre-dated the Civil War, in general the Jim Crow era in American history dates from the late 1890s, when southern states began systematically to codify (or strengthen) in law and state constitutional provisions the subordinate position of African Americans in society. Most of these legal steps were aimed at separating the races in public spaces (public schools, parks, accommodations, and transportation) and preventing adult black males from exercising the right to vote. In every state of the former Confederacy, the system of legalized segregation and disfranchisement was fully in place by 1910. This system of white supremacy cut across class boundaries and re-enforced a cult of "whiteness" that predated the Civil War.

JIM CROW LAWS: The phrase "Jim Crow Law" first appeared in 1904 according to the Dictionary of American English, although there is some evidence of earlier usage. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow," a song-and-dance caricature of African Americans performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832 and was used to satirize Andrew Jackson's populist policies. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" had become a pejorative expression meaning "African American" by 1838, and from this the laws of racial segregation became known as Jim Crow laws. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated. These Jim Crow Laws were separate from the 1800–1866 Black Codes, which also restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education.  Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

- An April 29, 1905 edition of The Freeman newspaper. with article about "The Jim Crow Negro." In the article, the author is describing the recently published 12-page booklet by J.W. Cromwell by the same title. In it the writer states, "The author...does not claim to have discovered anything new about us, but modestly says he intends to indulge in a description and give  verdict of this class of negroes..."

BACKGROUND: Edward C. Cooper founded the Indianapolis Freeman, the first black illustrated newspaper, in 1888. It was the VERY FIRST National Black illustrated newspaper and its motto (in the masthead) reads: "A National Colored Weekly Newspaper." Subsidized by the Republican Party for some of its existence, the Freeman enjoyed large circulation because of its news coverage’s variety and scope and its attention to black culture. It is similar in appearance to the NY Daily Graphic but concentrates on news and events of particular interest to the national Negro Community. In the 1890s, the Freeman acquired a reputation as the country’s leading black journal. Black press historian, I. Penn Garland, called it “The Harper’s Weekly of the colored race.” The Freeman achieved this status with a team of correspondents covering issues and events of interest to African Americans across the nation. In 1889, Mississippi correspondents wrote of opportunities in the Yazoo Delta Region and encouraged blacks to migrate to Arkansas, Kansas, and Texas. The Freeman provided extensive coverage of the 1893 Cincinnati conference on black progress and reported on discrimination and prejudice, such as the 1892 incident in Harrisburg, PA, where painters went on strike because they did not want to work with a recently employed black man. In 1897, the Freeman also reported on lynchings in the South, providing information on victims’ race and other statistics starting from 1885. Always a strong advocate of blacks’ rights, the Freeman ran an 1889 editorial predicting that black Americans, growing tired of meekly waiting for their rights, “will cease to bend their knees in supplication.” The editorial cited the actions of past black figures--Toussaint L’Ouverture, Crispus Attucks, Nat Turner--as examples of black assertiveness against adversity. Cooper sold the Freeman to George L. Knox in 1892. Although the paper leaned toward the Republican Party, Cooper also had shown an independent streak, even endorsing Grover Cleveland in 1888. Under Knox, however, the paper became more strictly partisan, a party organ for Indiana Republicans. With the coming of World War I (WW I) and the 1920s resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan (which dominated Indiana politics), Knox broke away from the Republican party, and the Freeman became a strong advocate for black rights, supporting the NAACP, calling for a ban on Birth of a Nation in 1915, and adopting a strong and persistent anti-lynching campaign. During WW I, the paper editorialized on the hypocrisy of a nation fighting a war to save democracy at the same time it tolerated blatant racism in its laws and institutions. The Freeman also covered extensively the wartime achievements of black Hoosiers. In the 1920s, the Freeman experienced economic problems; in 1927, it folded.

    115. 1866 Dutch book about Theodore Parker, a famous American abolitionist heavily involved in the Anti-Slavery movement in the United States. A biography in French was published in 1863 by the French Protestant theologian, Albert Reville, that obviously tied in with the European interest in the question and in the Civil War.  The English translation of the title of his monumental book was "The Life and Writings of Theodore Parker." This is a rare Dutch translation of Reville's work that was published in Anheim, Holland in 1866 by D.A. Thieme entitled "Het Leven En De Werken Van Theodore Parker -- Een Hoofdstuk Uit De Geschiedenin Van De Afschaffing Der Slaverij In De Vereenigde Staten." 376 pages in robin's egg blue wraps. Some chipping to front cover and spine but overall good-very good condition. Deals with Parker's anti-slavery efforts, kidnappers, his trip to Europe, etc.
BIO -- Theodore Parker: (August 24, 1810 – May 10, 1860) was an American Transcendentalist, abolitionist, and reforming minister of the Unitarian church. Parker's own words and quotes he popularized would later influence Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1850, Parker quoted and made popular the words of John Wycliffe in his prologue to the first English translation of the Bible to use the phrase, "of all the people, by all the people, for all the people" which later influenced Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. In words made famous by Martin Luther King, Jr. a century later, Parker predicted the success of the abolitionist cause: "I do not pretend to understand the moral universe; the arc is a long one… And from what I see I am sure it bends toward justice."

     116. Hon. Charles Sumner (MA) "The Crime Against Kansas", given May 19, 1856 -- Passionate Anti-Slavery speech
(The speech that led to the near-fatal beating of Sumner at the hands of Congressman Preston Brooks -- 3 year recuperation, with some time spent in Europe.)
Hon. Charles Sumner (MA) "The Apologies for the Crime Against Kansas: The True Remedy", given May 19 and 20, 1856
-- "The Border Ruffian Code in Kansas", May 1856
-- "Subduing Freedom in Kansas", Report of the Congressional Committee, July 1, 1856
-- Speech of Hon. Howell Cobb, 1856. 16pp, 8vo, on the Resolutions reported by the Select Committee to investigate the alleged assault upon Senator Sumner by Mr. Brooks in the House of Representatives, July 10, 1856. This speech regards the physical assault on Senator Sumner by Mr. Preston Brooks on the floor of the Senate because of a vehement anti-slavery speech by Sumner. Brooks was a member of the House of Representatives from South Carolina.

Charles Sumner being beaten by Preston Brooks in Senate building

Included in the speech is a discussion how or if Preston Brooks should be punished by the House, and what is the precedent for misbehavior in the House. Partially unopened at top, foxing, else very good condition.

    117. Rare edition of "Bricks Without Straw," a Novel by Albion W. Tourgee, LLD (Late Judge of the Superior Court of North Carolina, Author of A Fool's Errand). Publisher:   Fords, Howard & Hulbert. Assuming to be a First Edition but not stated. Copyright Date: 1880 with Pages 521 plus advertisements.
ABOUT BOOK: A classic of American political fiction first published in 1880, a mere three years after Reconstruction officially ended, Bricks Without Straw offers an inside view of the struggle to create a just society in the post-slavery South. It is unique among the white-authored literary works of its time in presenting Reconstruction through the eyes of emancipated slaves. As a leading Radical Republican, the author, Albion W. Tourgée, played a key role in drafting a democratized Constitution for North Carolina after the Civil War, and he served as a state superior court judge during Reconstruction. Tourgée worked closely with African Americans and poor whites in the struggle to transform North Carolina’s racial and class politics. He saw the ravages of the Ku Klux Klan firsthand, worked to bring the perpetrators of Klan atrocities to justice, and fought against what he called the “counter-revolution” that destroyed Reconstruction. Bricks Without Straw is Tourgée’s fictionalized account of how Reconstruction was sabotaged. It is a chilling picture of violence against African Americans condoned, civil rights abrogated, constitutional amendments subverted, and electoral fraud institutionalized. Its plot revolves around a group of North Carolina freed people who strive to build new lives for themselves by buying land, marketing their own crops, setting up a church and school, and voting for politicians sympathetic to their interests, until Klan terrorism and the ascendancy of a white supremacist government reduce them to neo-slavery. This edition of Bricks Without Straw is enhanced by Carolyn L. Karcher’s introduction, which sets the novel in historical context and provides an overview of Albion W. Tourgée’s career, a chronology of the significant events of both the Reconstruction era and Tourgée’s life, and explanatory notes identifying actual events fictionalized in the novel.

Manute Bol

    118. Two Manute Bol growth charts. One is signed by Manute Bol, the 7'7" Center for the Washington Bullets, Golden State Warriors and Philadelphia 76ers. Read the Joel Freeman (veteran chaplain for the Washington Bullets/Wizards, '79-'98) wrote about Manute.
-- A pair of basketball shoes worn by Manute in an actual NBA game in 1987, signed by #10, Manute Bol.
-- One hundred genuine copies of Manute Bol's Memorial Service at the Washington National Cathedral on June 29, 2010.
BACKGROUND: Former NBA player Manute Bol died June 19, 2010 at the age of 47. Many know him only because of his basketball career and because of his astounding height -he was 7′ 7″. But there was a lot more to the Sudanese star. Here is a tribute that was written before his death. "What truly made Manute Bol stand out though was not his height; rather, it was the humanitarian side of him that made you believe every effort he gave as a basketball player was meant to serve a higher cause and purpose. For Bol, that cause was trying to do whatever he could do to support the poor, destitute nation he was from. For example, Bol started the Ring True Foundation in an effort to deliver aid to his poor countrymen. Most of the million Bol made playing basketball went to support Ring True. Bol also used his celebrity and peoples’ curiosity with his size to make extra money after his playing career was over. There was the celebrity boxing match with The Fridge as well as the time he suited up for the Indianapolis Ice of the Central Hockey League. In both cases the money he made went back to the Sudan. Bol also has been active politically in the Sudan, hoping to affect change that will improve conditions in the country."

   119. Autographed copy of Lay Bare the Heart, an Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement by James L. Farmer, Jr. New York. Arbor House. 1985. Hard cover. Very Good in Very Good dust jacket. DJ is worn at edges. The author, a founder of CORE, sets the record straight regarding the civil rights movement and documents the conditions under which Black people lived prior to the movement. 370 pages. Strong signature by Author. 
BACKGROUND: James L. Farmer, Jr. was born in 1920 in Marshall, Texas to James L. Farmer, Sr., a professor at Wiley College, a historically Black College. His father was an American author, theologian, educator, and the first African-American from Texas to earn a doctorate (at Boston University). James L. Farmer, Jr. was a Child prodigy: at the age of 14, he was attending Wiley College, where he was the captain of the debate team. His part in its winning performance was portrayed in the 2007 film, The Great Debaters, directed by and starring Denzel Washington.

Judge Cox (left) and the jury that convicted Guiteau
(Notice African American juror -- 2nd from left. From sheet music to "The Verdict March" by Eugene Blake)

    120. An extremely rare copy of The Verdict March by Eugene L. Blake and published by F. W. Helmick in 1882 (donated by Dr. Joanna Kirkpatrick). Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 – June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer who assassinated U.S. President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881 at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station. After a long, painful battle with infections possibly brought on by his doctors' poking and probing the wound with unwashed hands and non-sterilized instruments, Garfield died on September 19, eleven weeks after being shot. Most modern physicians familiar with the case state that Garfield would have easily recovered from his wounds with sterile medical care, which was common in the United States 10 years later. Guiteau's trial was one of the first high-profile cases in the United States where the insanity defense was considered.
   The jury took three days and 175 potential jurors to complete the jury -- including, against the wishes of Guiteau, one African-American juror. The jury consisted of twelve men as listed in the New York City Daily Graphics newspaper: John P. Hamlin (restaurant keeper), Frederick W. Brandenburg (cigar dealer), Henry J. bright (retired merchant), Charles J. Stewart (merchant), Thomas H. Langley (grocer), Michael Sheenan (grocer), Samuel F. Hobbs (plasterer), George W. Gates (machinist), Ralph Wormley (colored laborer/plasterer), W.H. Brawner (commission merchant), Thomas Heinlein (iron worker), and Joseph Prather (commission merchant).  (Sources: Wikipedia, Squidoo, and University of Missouri-Kansas Law School)

   Charles E. Rosenberg wrote a book in 1968 titled, "The Trial of the Assassin Guiteau: Psychiatry and the Law in the Gilded Age" (University of Chicago Press). Rosenberg wrote the following:

   Ralph Wormley, colored, a plasterer for the Pension Bureau, expressed what must have been the consensus among Washingtonians – if among prospective jurors, an outspoken one – when he said that “the man is partly crazy or something of the kind, and it seems to me that no sensible man would have done such a thing anyway.”

   Even in the trial’s earliest stages, during the choosing of the jury, Guiteau made it clear that he planned to play an active role in the proceedings. He was especially animated during the first day of jury selection, discussing tactics in a loud voice and giving constant advice to his legal colleagues, Scoville and Robinson.


   Not all was accepted. He asked, for example, that no Negroes be allowed on the jury and that they be challenged peremptorily. Yet Scoville did accept Mr. Wormley. (As a minor political appointee, Wormley was not worth one of the government’s challenges; although Wormley had said that Guiteau was certainly unbalanced he had also declared that any proven murderers should hang.)

   It was no easy task to find jurors; even those accepted asked to be excused while almost all those questioned expressed varying degrees of hostility toward the prisoner. It was not until Wednesday, Nov. 16, after three days of selection, that the final juror was chosen. The first group of 25 had been exhausted the first day, another 75 the second day, and it was not until a third of 75 was called that the jury could be completed. It was a mixed and satisfactorily representative group. All, of course were male, and one, as we have seen, was a Negro.

   Despite the presence of a Negro in the jury box, Guiteau remarked heatedly that he disliked being called by his middle name [Julius]; it had too much of the “nigger about it.”

Notice juror, Ralph Wormley, is seated in
front of window, 4th from left in back row.

   -- TWO COMPLETE ORIGINAL NEWSPAPERS, the NEW YORK DAILY GRAPHIC (NY City, pictured above) dated Jan 27th & 28th, 1882. The NY Daily Graphic was the first daily American newspaper with daily illustrations. These two issues contain an inside, double page woodcut illustration and a cover illustration of the VERDICT of GUILTY in the murder trial of CHARLES GUITEAU, the man who assassinated President James Garfield in July, 1881. A lot of information is written about the trial.

   If anyone has more specific information about the African American juror in this 1882 trial (Ralph Wormley) please contact us (contact info below).

  121. Scarce first edition (1849) antiquarian book, "Narrative of the Life of Henry Bibb." First published in 1849 and largely unavailable for many years. An extremely important story. Reader's Copy -- This book is in poor condition, but it is a fascinating object that reflects the many years this story has compelled readers to read about the life of slavery first-hand. The majority of pages are in good shape, though some have small or medium tears. Foxing throughout, insect damage, water stains; hinges are cracked, loose; binding is weak, loose and extremely worn. 206 pages.
"I was brought up in [Kentucky]. Or, more correctly speaking ... I was flogged up; for where I should have received moral, mental, and religious instruction I received stripes without number, the object of which was to degrade and keep me in subordination. ... I have been dragged down to the lowest depths of human degradation and wretchedness, by Slaveholders."-Henry Bibb

   BACKGROUND:  The life and adventures of Henry Bibb is among the most remarkable slave narratives. Born on a Kentucky plantation in 1815, Bibb first attempted to escape from bondage at the age of ten. He was recaptured and escaped several more times before he eventually settled in Detroit, Michigan, and joined the antislavery movement as a lecturer. Bibb's story is different in many ways from the widely read Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave and Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. He was owned by a Native American; he is one of the few ex-slave autobiographers who had labored in the Deep South (Louisiana); and he writes about folkways of the slaves, especially how he used conjure to avoid punishment and to win the hearts of women. Most significant, he is unique in exploring the importance of marriage and family to him, recounting his several trips to free his wife and child. Bibb's compelling narrative of escape and recapture, of love and renunciation, is virtually unique in the annals of the slave narrative. Bibb offers a striking self-portrait of a man caught between two worlds, a slave past that he could not cast off or forget, and a future in freedom to which he urgently desired to commit himself.

Henry Bibb

   122. An original 1843 Seaman's Protection Certificate from the District of New Bedford in Massachusetts, signed by Quaker Abolitionist and employer of Frederick Douglass, Rodney French.  This is Protection Certificate number 1233 dated 14th November 1843. This is a printed document with sepia ink manuscript entries measuring just over 13" x 8" (33cm x 20.5cm). Rodney French was later Mayor of New Bedford (1853-1854). The document is decorated with an engraving of an American Eagle at the top and reads:

PROTECTION - No.1233 - UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - State of Massachusetts....District of New-Bedford - I Rodney French Collector of the District aforesaid, Do Hereby Certify, That Jeremiah B. Russell an American Seaman, aged 19 years, or thereabouts, of the height of 5 feet, 4" inches, light complexion, brown hair, gray eyes, born at Dartmouth Massachusetts has this day produced to me proof in the manner directed in the Act entitled "An Act for the relief and protection of American Seaman," and pursuant to the said Act, I do hereby Certify, that the said Jeremiah B. Russell is a CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set my Hand and Seal of Office, this 14th day of November in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty Three - Rodney French, Collector

BACKGROUND: These Protection Papers were essentially passports issued to American sailors to protect them from impressment into the Royal Navy of Great Britain.  This particular Protection Paper is noteworthy since it was issued and signed by Rodney French who was a prominent Quaker Abolitionist who had employed Frederick Douglass.  This Protection Paper may have some connection to the Whaling industry which was flourishing in New Bedford at the time this document was issued in 1843. This Protection Paper is original complete and fully intact.  There is some staining on the document which you can see in the photos.  French signed the document twice.  The signature at the top of the page is clear but the signature at the bottom of the page next to "Collector" is almost entirely washed out.  Only a partial trace of French's signature is visible at the bottom of the document.  

In September 1838 Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery. In in that same year (1838), the Douglasses settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts, where Douglass found work as a caulker for whaling ships. It was at that time that he dropped the name "Bailey," in order to protect himself from slave catchers, and became known as Frederick Douglass. The following is an excerpt from Frederick Douglass's My Escape from Slavery describing his association with Rodney French in New Bedford:

   The season was growing late and work was plenty. Ships were being fitted out for whaling, and much wood was used in storing them. The sawing this wood was considered a good job. With the help of old Friend Johnson (blessings on his memory) I got a saw and "buck," and went at it. When I went into a store to buy a cord with which to brace up my saw in the frame, I asked for a "fip's" worth of cord. The man behind the counter looked rather sharply at me, and said with equal sharpness, "You don't belong about here." I was alarmed, and thought I had betrayed myself. A fip in Maryland was six and a quarter cents, called fourpence in Massachusetts. But no harm came from the "fi'penny-bit" blunder, and I confidently and cheerfully went to work with my saw and buck. It was new business to me, but I never did better work, or more of it, in the same space of time on the plantation for Covey, the negro-breaker, than I did for myself in these earliest years of my freedom. Notwithstanding the just and humane sentiment of New Bedford three and forty years ago, the place was not entirely free from race and color prejudice. The good influence of the Roaches, Rodmans, Arnolds, Grinnells, and Robesons did not pervade all classes of its people.

   The test of the real civilization of the community came when I applied for work at my trade, and then my repulse was emphatic and decisive. It so happened that Mr. Rodney French, a wealthy and enterprising citizen, distinguished as an anti-slavery man, was fitting out a vessel for a whaling voyage, upon which there was a heavy job of calking and coppering to be done. I had some skill in both branches, and applied to Mr. French for work. He, generous man that he was, told me he would employ me, and I might go at once to the vessel. I obeyed him, but upon reaching the float-stage, where others [sic] calkers were at work, I was told that every white man would leave the ship, in her unfinished condition, if I struck a blow at my trade upon her. This uncivil, inhuman, and selfish treatment was not so shocking and scandalous in my eyes at the time as it now appears to me. Slavery had inured me to hardships that made ordinary trouble sit lightly upon me. Could I have worked at my trade I could have earned two dollars a day, but as a common laborer I received but one dollar. The difference was of great importance to me, but if I could not get two dollars, I was glad to get one; and so I went to work for Mr. French as a common laborer.

   The consciousness that I was free--no longer a slave--kept me cheerful under this, and many similar proscriptions, which I was destined to meet in New Bedford and elsewhere on the free soil of Massachusetts. For instance, though colored children attended the schools, and were treated kindly by their teachers, the New Bedford Lyceum refused, till several years after my residence in that city, to allow any colored person to attend the lectures delivered in its hall. Not until such men as Charles Sumner, Theodore Parker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Horace Mann refused to lecture in their course while there was such a restriction, was it abandoned.

   The following is additional information on Seaman's Protection Papers:
Seamen's Protection Certificates were usually printed documents, varying in size and style, that were carried by American seamen as proof of citizenship. The certificate was obtained by the individual through the customhouse, public notary, or U.S. Consul when required in a foreign port. It contained the person's name, birthplace, approximate age, height, skin color, eye and hair color, and other distinctive descriptive information, such as the location of scars or tattoos. "United States of America" was often printed prominently across the top, and the word "protection" might also appear. Small engravings of the American eagle often served to decorate and establish the nationality of the document. A serial number was included on every Customs Protection Certificate for record keeping purposes. The wording of the document was standardized, having been transcribed on many examples, verbatim from the Act of 1796. The Act of 28 May 1796, entitled "An Act for the Protection and Relief of American Seamen, provided certificates for the protection of American seamen from the threat of impressment by the Royal Navy. Prior to this act, a mariner could obtain a similar document from a public notary. An individual desiring protection was required to bring some authenticated proof of citizenship to the customs collector, who, for a service fee of 25 cents, would issue him a certificate. Most seamen of the day, however, were so transient that they were unable to produce the required proof, and so the condition was altered to allow him to bring a notarized affidavit, instead, in which the seamen and a witness swore to his citizenship. Because it was easy to abuse this system, the Royal Navy did not always honor the Protection Certificates as valid. Collectors were required to keep a record book of the names of individuals receiving protections and send quarterly lists to the State Department. As the threat to American freedom on the high seas began to disappear, Protection Certificates became more valuable as identification, and they were used as such until 1940, when the Seamen's Continuous Discharge Book replaced them. These documents are common items in maritime collections and are important research sources for an study of American seamen.

   123. First edition copy of a book by William Still. THE UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872.  (entered into Library of Congress 1871). Thick 8vo; hardbound in the original cloth-covered boards; frontis portrait of Still with tissue guard; all plates present except Charles D. Cleveland, as with all other copies we have seen described; vi,780pp.

  This is a rather scarce in 1st edition copy of William Still's book. Was reprinted several times in the 19th century, including revised editions in 1879 and 1886. Subtitled: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters, &c; Narrating the Hardships, Hair-Breadth Escapes and Death Struggles of the Slaves in Their Efforts for Freedom, As Related By Themselves and Others, or Witnessed By The Author Together with Sketches of the Largest Stockholders, and Most Liberal Aiders and Advisers of the Road...Illustrated with 70 Fine Engravings By Bensell, Schell and Others...Sold Only By Subscription. This is a classic and essential work in the history and understanding of the Underground Railway that helped so many people escape from slavery in the 19th century.

   BACKGROUND: The author was a remarkable individual often called "The Father of the Underground Railroad". He was an abolitionist, historian, and also had a small coal business. He was born to ex-slaves in New Jersey. He is credited with helping hundreds of slaves (as many as 60 each month) escape to freedom. In fact, when he was helping one man, he discovered that it was his own brother, Peter Still, the two of them having been separated since childhood. He kept impeccable records about the people he helped, and he had in-depth knowledge of the routes, safe houses, and so forth in the underground network. Harriett Tubman generally stopped off at his home on her way north with freed slaves. This book documents the stories and escape methods of almost 650 individuals and the people who helped them. The plates include scenes of the harrowing escapes as well as portraits of notable individuals who worked tirelessly in the effort - some well known, such as Lucretia Mott and William Lloyd Garrison, and others much less widely known.

William Still -- "Father of the Underground Railroad"


   124. A number of movie theater lobby cards, posters and inter-office memos from the Toddy Pictures Company during the 1940s. Plus there are hand-written notes, perhaps from Henry R. Arias (Astor Export Corp), detailing plans for the implementation of an exclusive three-year deal for the international rights to many of Ted Toddy's "race/negro" films.
Here are some of the films represented in this marvelous collection of 1940s movie memorabilia (donated by Gary Blevins): Bronze Venus (with Lena Horne), Sunday Sinners, Woman's A Fool, Caldonia, Paradise 'n Harlem, Murder on Lenox Avenue, The Beast of Borneo, Harlem on the Prairie, Voodoo Devil Drums, Beware (with Louis Jordan), Pigmeat Alamo Markham, Mantan Messes Up, Shut My Big Mouth, The Wrong Mr. Wright, Crime Street, Ill Wind, A Night With the Devil, The Corpse Accuses, Fight That Ghost, House-Rent Party, Gangsters on the Loose, Prison Bait, Murder rap, His Harlem Wife, Fighting Americans, Crooked Money, Condemned Man, Gun Moll, Buck and Bubbles Laugh Jubilee, Pigmeat Markham's Laugh Hepcats, Up Jumped the Devil, Night Cub Girl, One Round Jones, Mr. Washington Goes to Town, Eddie Green's Laugh Jamboree, Professor Creeps, and more.... 

The Bronze Venus with Lena Horne

   BACKGROUND: Ted Toddy was a movie executive, entrepreneur and showman. He first worked for Universal Pictures and later for the Southern division of Columbia Pictures before forming what would later become the Atlanta-based Toddy Pictures Company, devoted to the production and distribution of "race" films, in 1940. Archival material relating to the Toddy Pictures Company was presented to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1999 by actor Giancarlo Esposito, and is deposited in the Special Collections of the Margaret Herrick Library of the Academy, located in Beverly Hills. Toddy was running a carnival in Atlanta in 1952 when he purchased the 1934 Ford Model 730 Deluxe Sedan in which famed bank robbers Clyde Barrows and Bonnie Parker had met their deaths, and he exhibited it both at the carnival and on the road for a number of years. When Bonnie and Clyde (1967) came out in 1967, Toddy got the car out of storage and exhibited it nationwide as the "True Bonnie and Clyde Death Car." It's currently exhibited at the Primm Hotel & Casino on I-15 on the Nevada-California state line.

   125. ENGRAVING: Scene on a West Indian Plantation -- Slaves Receiving the News of Their Emancipation. Emancipation Day – Friday, 1 August 1834 – was celebrated throughout the British Caribbean at chapels, churches and government-sanctioned festivals, some of which were held under the watchful eyes of hundreds of extra troops. The previously enslaved populations also awoke to a fresh set of concerns. A new raft of law-and-order measures had been introduced. Under the new 'apprenticeships', newly 'freed' people were still expected to remain on the plantations and put in 10-hour days. Absenteeism would result in imprisonment in one of the many new jails (equipped with treadmills) that were being built to contain recalcitrant workers. Additional tiers of 'special officers' and stipendiary magistrates were created to police the changes. 'Apprentices' could still be flogged without redress, females included. The apprenticeship scheme would come to an end only in 1838, after the Anti-Slavery Society, following an inspection tour of the West Indian colonies in 1836, had produced another barrage of pamphlets and petitions. 

  126. ENGRAVING: View of the Slave Coast, East Africa. Various views that slave ships would have seen as they approached the coast to pick up more slaves.
 --  Genuine Slave shackles for wrists or ankles from Ghana's Slave Castle. The elders of the town allowed these shackles to become a part of The Freeman Institute Black History Collection. These shackles had been used by their ancestors for holding slaves until the slave ships arrived.

  127. Bronze image by DuBois of slave-holder whipping his slave for spilling the contents of a basket (16" tall, with heavy marble base).
  SCULPTOR: Often described as a quiet, humble man, Jess E. DuBois paints every day. In a testimony to the cultural diversity that has long defined Colorado, he creates the artistry that reflects his Cherokee and African American roots. Working in mediums ranging from oils, to pastels, to bronze sculpture, to glass -- art is the most important thing in Jess DuBois’ life. Although Mr. DuBois’ subject matter ranges from landscapes to still life to portraits, it’s his ability to see the personal, individual qualities of people that make his portraitures so special. He finds subjects whose faces capture the spirit of the West today -- a spirit which is multiracial, multilingual and as diverse as the Indian, Spanish and pioneer cultures from which the region derives its heritage. Jess DuBois feels strongly about art as a positive influence in young people’s lives, and four decades of his art has inspired, enriched, mentored and motivated many young Denver artists.
-- Harriet "Moses" Tubman bronze figure
(16" tall) created by DuBois (above) from the famous image of Harriet published in Sarah H. Bradford's 1869 book about her. A 3-dimensional image of Harriet Tubman in her Civil War scout uniform (see comparison between engraving and sculpture below).

   BACKGROUND: Araminta Ross was born a slave in Bucktown, Maryland about the year 1820.  She would later take her mother's name, Harriet, and in 1844 she would marry a free black man named John Tubman.  Five years later, in 1849, fearing that she would be sold further south, Harriet Tubman escaped, making her way north to Philadelphia.  In Philadelphia, Tubman found employment and found herself working with abolitionists like William Still and John Brown (who would refer to Tubman as "General" and call her "the bravest person on this continent").  Within a year she returned to Maryland to help members of her family escape.  She would eventually lead hundreds to freedom by the same route, via an extensive network known as the Underground Railroad.  Her grit, faith, and determination as a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, earned Tubman the admiration of leading abolitionists, including Frederick Douglass.  Of her forays into the South to free slaves, William Still, in his 1871 book, The Underground Railroad, wrote:

Her success was wonderful. Time and again she made successful visits to Maryland on the Underground Rail Road, and would be absent for weeks at a time, running daily risks while making preparations for herself and her passengers. Great fears were entertained for her safety, but she seemed wholly devoid of personal fear. The idea of being captured by slave-hunters or slave-holders, seemed never to enter her mind. She was apparently proof against all adversaries. While she thus maintained utter personal indifference, she was much more watchful with regard to those she was piloting. Half of her time, she had the appearance of one asleep, and would actually sit down by the road-side and go fast asleep when on her errands of mercy through the South, yet, she would not suffer one of her party to whimper once, about "giving out and going back," however wearied they might be by the hard travel day and night. She had a very short and pointed rule or law of her own, which implied death to any who talked of giving out and going back. Thus, in an emergency she would give all to understand that "times were very critical and therefore no foolishness would be indulged in on the road." That several who were rather weak-kneed and faint-hearted were greatly invigorated by Harriet's blunt and positive manner and threat of extreme measures, there could be no doubt. After having once enlisted, "They had to go through ordie." Of course Harriet was supreme, and her followers generally had full faith in her, and would back up any word she might utter. So when she said to them that "a live runaway could do great harm by going back, but that a dead one could tell no secrets," she was sure to have obedience. Therefore, none had to die as traitors on the "middle passage." It is obvious enough, however, that her success in going into Maryland as she did, was attributable to her adventurous spirit and utter disregard of consequences. Her like it is probable was never known before or since."

128.  1856 Porter Slave Tags (Charleston, SC). Sheet of 12 on lead. Slave tags were only issued by the city of Charleston and Charleston Neck (SC) from 1800 to 1865. BACKGROUND: Slave tags were a form of licenses issued to slave owners who leased out their slaves for specific jobs. The city earned a fee of per year, per tag, and the slave owner earned a fee for the slave's earnings as a leased-out laborer. Each tag was holed at the top and was required to be worn by the hired slave during his or her period of servitude.  The various known occupations for slave tags include servant, porter, carpenter (rare), mechanic, fruiterer (very rare), fisher (rare), cook (rare), drayman (rare) and seamstress (rare). A couple of other trades are believed to exist, but no specimen is known today. Charleston had 15,354 slaves in 1830 and 14,673 in 1840. About 12 to 20 percent saw work as hired-out slaves during that period.


129.ENGRAVING: The Negro Exodus : The old style and the new. Published Date: 1880 (9 3/4 x 14 in.). From Harper's weekly : a journal of civilization. (New York : Harper' s Weekly Co., 1880).


  BACKGROUND: In the decades following the Civil War, over a half-million blacks (and an even larger number of whites) migrated from the American South to the North and West.  A concentrated and notable period of this black exodus occurred in the late 1870s and early 1880s, an episode of which is illustrated in the central image of this unsigned Harper's Weekly cartoon.  During those few years, an estimated 40-60,000 Southern blacks moved to Kansas, the primary destination, or other regions of the Great Plains or lower Midwest. Blacks left the South for a variety of reasons.  The economy of the South, already devastated by the Civil War, suffered further during the economic depression of the 1870s.  Southern blacks were vulnerable because the great majority were poor farmers, working under a tenant system that kept them in debt and unable to buy their own land.  They were often barred from entering other occupations by the racial prejudice of white employers or, increasingly, by state and local law.  In politics, the end of Reconstruction during the 1870s resulted in the disfranchisement of black men through intimidation, violence, or voting restrictions.  Finally, there was a strong religious element in the migration to Kansas, which was promoted and perceived as the Promised Land where American blacks could live together and be free of the detrimental effects of bigotry. A leading advocate of the "Great Exodus" was Benjamin Singleton, a former slave from Tennessee who had escaped to the North.  He and Columbus Johnson formed a real-estate company that advertised across the South and assisted thousands of blacks in moving to Kansas in 1877-1879.  (In later years, Singleton became a black nationalist and started a back-to-Africa movement.) However, the mass migration during its principal years (1879-1881) was the work of many organizers and supporters.  Southern blacks received information about Kansas and other areas through letters from settlers, mass meetings, and circulars.  Adding to an air of expectancy was the "Exodusters" belief that God was delivering them from their bondage to the Promised Land.  Coming mainly from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, groups of blacks paid nominal fees to sail up the Mississippi River, then traveled westward to Kansas.  In February 1880, shortly before this cartoon appeared, 900 black families arrived in St. Louis en route to Kansas.  The size of the black exodus thrust it into the national spotlight, with politicians and the press debating its cause and effect.  Although a variety of reasons--economic, political, religious, social, and personal--were involved, most white commentators reduced the issue to one of politics.  Republican politicians and newspapers focused on the denial of suffrage to Southern blacks (who voted overwhelmingly Republican).  Democrats countered that Republicans sponsored the migration in order to reduce Southern representation in the U.S. House of Representatives (which is based on population). Although Kansas officials had initially encouraged the migration, they began in late 1879 attempting to divert it to Illinois and Indiana.  This alarmed Midwestern Democrats, including Senator Daniel Voorhees of Indiana (a state almost evenly divided between the two parties), who introduced a resolution establishing a committee to investigate the cause of the exodus.  Senator William Windom, a Republican from Minnesota, tacked on an amendment which required the committee to make recommendations to the full Congress if the cause was found to the suppression of civil rights.  The Voorhees Committee held hearings during the early months of 1880, a presidential election year.  At its conclusion, the majority Democrats and the minority Republicans issued conflicting reports judging the cause to be that which each had originally assumed it to be. This cartoon contrasts the Great Exodus of 1879-1881 with the plight of a runaway slave in an earlier time (inset picture).  Whereas the slave crouches in fear as he hides from a passing steamboat, the Exodusters disembark openly from a riverboat as white men observe from on deck.  While some travelers seem weary and harried, the artist conveys a sense of camaraderie and joy.  In reality, although some of the black migrants did find success in Kansas, the state did not prove to be the Promised Land for most.  They experienced economic privations in what was still called the Great American Desert, and the mass nature of the migration aroused the latent racism of a number of white Kansans.  

 --  Afrikanische Volker (African People). An early chromolithgraphic book plate depicting various tribes throughout the continent of Africa. Circa 1896.


 -- Five Scenes of Slavery. Steelplate engraving by Henry Winkles (1849) depicting the punishment of black slaves in the Southern States of the USA. From Bilder-Atlas zum Conversations-Lexikon (F.A.Brockhaus), 1849. Henry Winkles, had previously gone to Germany in 1824 and opened up a studio for steel engravers in Karlsruhe, returning to England in 1832.

   130.  First edition hardback book by William Wells Brown (1814? - 1884) is titled The American Fugitive in Europe: Sketches of Places and People Abroad With a Memoir of the Author.  It was published in 1855 by John P Jewett and Company of Boston in 1855.  This is an ex-library copy with the usual markings.  Rear hinge is sound; front hinge is weakening.   Some loss to top and base of spine. "During my sojourn abroad I found it advantageous to my purse to publish a book of travels, which I did under the title of 'Three Years in Europe, or Places I have seen and People I have met.' The work was reviewed by the ablest journals in Great Britain, and from their favorable criticisms I have been induced to offer it to the American public, with a dozen or more additional chapters."

  BACKGROUND: William Wells Brown (November 6, 1814 – November 6, 1884) was a prominent African-American abolitionist lecturer, novelist, playwright, and historian. Born into slavery in the Southern United States,  Brown escaped to the North in 1834, where he worked for abolitionist causes and was a prolific writer. His novel Clotel (1853) is considered the first novel written by an African American: it was published in London, where he was living at the time. Brown was a pioneer in several different literary genres, including travel writing, fiction, and drama. Lecturing in England when the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law was passed in the US, which required people in the North to aid in the capture of fugitive slaves, Brown stayed for several years to avoid the risk of capture and re-enslavement. After his freedom was purchased by a British couple in 1854, he and his family returned to the US, where he rejoined the abolitionist lecture circuit. A contemporary of Frederick Douglass, Wells  Brown was overshadowed by the charismatic orator and the two feuded publicly.

   William was born into slavery in Lexington, Kentucky. His mother Elizabeth was owned by Dr. Thomas Young and had seven children, each by different fathers. (In addition to William, her children were Solomon, Leander, Benjamin, Joseph, Milford, and Elizabeth.) William's father was George W. Higgins, a white planter and cousin of Elizabeth's master Dr. Young. Higgins had formally recognized William as his son and made his cousin Young promise not to sell the boy.  Young did sell him, and William went through several sales before he was twenty years old. William spent the majority of his youth in St. Louis. His masters hired him out to work on the Missouri River, then a major thoroughfare for steamships and the slave trade. In 1833, he and his mother attempted to escape, and they were captured in Illinois. In 1834, Brown made a second attempt at escape, and this time he successfully slipped away from a steamboat when docked in Cincinnati, Ohio, a free state. In freedom, he took the names of Wells Brown, a Quaker friend, who helped him after his escape by providing food, clothes and some money. In 1834, he married a woman by the name of Elizabeth Schooner, and they had two daughters. In 1849, Brown and his two daughters moved to Paris to attend the International Peace Conference. In 1851, his estranged wife, Elizabeth, died, and Brown returned to the United States in 1854. In 1860, Brown married Anna Brown. From 1836 to about 1845, Brown made his home in Buffalo, New York' where he worked as a steamboat man on Lake Erie. He helped many fugitive slaves gain their freedom by hiding them on the boat to take them to Buffalo, New York or Detroit, Michigan or to Canada. He later wrote that from May to December of 1842, he had helped 69 fugitives get to Canada. In 1847, he published his memoir, the Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself, which became a bestseller second only to Frederick Douglass' slave narrative. He critiques his master’s lack of Christian values and the brutal use of violence in master-slave relations. When Brown lived in Britain, he wrote more works, including travel accounts and plays. His first novel, entitled Clotel, or, The President’s Daughter: a Narrative of Slave Life in the United States (1853), is believed to be the first novel written by an African American. Perhaps because of the rising social tensions in the 1850s, Brown became a proponent of African-American emigration to Haiti, an independent black republic in the Caribbean since 1804. He decided that more militant actions were needed to help the abolitionist cause. During the American Civil War and in the decades that followed, Brown continued to publish fiction and non-fiction books, securing his reputation as one of the most prolific African-American writers of his time. He also played a more active role in recruiting blacks to fight in the Civil War.

   131. The genuine prototype of anatomically-enhanced underwear designed by former Black Panther leader, Eldridge Cleaver, for his fashion line of Eldridge de Paris clothing. This pair of underwear was donated to the Collection by Pat Matrisciana. Pat was the gentleman who raised all of the funds and secured the legal counsel that got Eldridge Cleaver released from prison.
  BACKGROUND: (NY Times) -- Eldridge Cleaver's frequent personal and political reinventions fascinated -- and sometimes appalled -- the public. Having come to prominence in the late 1960's as the author of ''Soul on Ice'' and as the mediagenic mouthpiece for the Black Panthers, Cleaver, who died in 1998, renounced his militancy in the mid-70's to join the Republican Party. Spiritually, he underwent similarly radical conversions, from being an atheist to becoming a born-again Christian who prayed with the televangelist Billy Graham. He was also a short-lived Moonie, founded the Cleaver Crusade for Christ in 1979 and the following year formed his own religion, Christlam, along with an auxiliary called the Guardians of the Sperm. Then he converted to Mormonism. Still, it may come as a surprise to many that, in 1975, Cleaver, then living in exile in Paris after a 1968 shootout with the Oakland police, took out an ad in The International Herald Tribune seeking investors and manufacturers for his fledgling men's-wear collection. ''Millions in profits envisioned,'' the classified read. It neglected to add that at the heart of the line were his patented Cleavers, pants in which a man's genitals were outlined in a socklike codpiece. ''I want to solve the problem of the fig-leaf mentality,'' Cleaver told Newsweek. ''Clothing is an extension of the fig leaf -- it put our sex inside our bodies. My pants put sex back where it should be.''

Eldridge Cleaver
(ex-Black Panther)

   -- Jet Magazine (September 21, 1978) with pictured article, "Eldridge Cleaver Designs Pants for Men Only" -- Article starts on page 22, and goes on to detail his fashion designs. "Unlike other pants on the market, the pants that Cleaver designs and sells are tailored to accommodate the man's..." Cleaver took ,000 from his book royalties (Soul On Ice) and lecture fees to establish Eldridge Cleaver, Ltd.

   132. Much, much, much more...




No images or content on this page may be used without .  © 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.



Proud Chief from Madagascar, late 1800s

1619 Document from Bolivia mentioning the sale of
Manuel, a slave -- with glimpses into colonial life.




St. Bartolome Hospital's slave roster (14 pages, Peru), 1811

Williams Jubilee Singers, Sheet Music, early 1900s

Anthony Benezet, (1852 engraving)
 (One of the early American Abolitionists)

This ticket was held by someone in the stands witnessing Jesse Owens winning his Gold Medal for the 200m race at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin on August 5th --


British Foreign Office Anti-Slavery Circular, 1843. Priceless.







--  M O R E   I T E M S --

"Roots" First Edition (2 copies), signed by Alex Haley, 1976
Mid 1800s hand-written poem, "The Negroes Complaint" (poem by Cowper)
Receipt for work done by Pompy Skidmore, a free Negro, Albany New York Hospital--March 13,1784
Alexandre Dumas: His Life and Works, First Edition
Innocents Abroad: The New Pilgrim's Progress by Mark Twain, First Edition, 1869
Many 16 MM films about slavery, Black History, Cab Calloway, Harlem Globetrotters, Jesse Owens, etc.
Several First Edition book of Poetry by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, with his Slavery Poems
First Edition book, Too Loo Byrd: Negro Waif, signed by author
Mills Brothers signed unpublished photo, 40s
Scarce Isabel Smith Colored Women's Club receipt book
Boxing gloves and hand written/signed letter by Muhammad Ali
NBA Basketball shoes signed by Julius "Dr. J" Erving, Chris Webber, Michael Jordan, and many others
Hand written/signed letter by noted abolitionist, Charles Sumner, March 26, 1870, with CDV
Hand written essay "The Constitution and Slavery", by L. Moore (1923?), Voorhees School, Denmark, SC
Several scarce 1936 German Olympic photo albums, with pictures of Jesse Owens
Sketches of the Rise, Progress and Decline of Secession, by W.G. Brownlow, 1862
Small, late 1800s British china pot with John Brown's home pictured on it
Original Government Printing Office Anti-Segregation poster, 1943. First one ever printed
1820s Affidavit (Will) regarding the disposition of slaves, Campbell County, VA
  Lenox, MA document mentioning a free Black man, Jerry Kotter (possibly fought in Revolutionary War), 1823
About 75 postal First Day Covers (FDC) from around the world depicting African history
Genuine First Edition of "David Livingstone's Travels and Researches in South Africa", 1858
Signed Programs (3) and ticket from Louis Armstrong's famous British Tour, July 5, 1958
1934, 1st Edition -- "Six Plays For A Negro Theatre", Walter Baker Company (pub.), by Randolph Edmonds
Early full leather copy of The Life and Posthumous Writings of William Cowper by William Hayley, 1805
Civil War era letter from Troy Seminary (NY) referencing Rev. Beecher's talk at the school about John Brown
Two postcards (1913) written and signed by William R. Morris, Fisk U. Professor and 1st Black lawyer in MN
Extremely rare (signed) poem by Countee Cullen, 20 years of age (Dec. 12, 1923) -- "When I Am Dead"
London Illustrated News engraving of Africa's East Coast Slave Port, Mombassa, Kenya, 1875
00 check made out to CASH signed by Roots author, Alex Haley, Norris, TN (1988)
1933 "Sophisticated Lady", Duke Ellington sheet music
Actual poster of a Harlem Globetrotters game in San Francisco, 1957
Signed Lofton Mitchell Theatre program (2 copies), "Blood In the Night"
Hand written letter signed by abolitionist/actress Fanny Kemble, with steel engraving of her likeness
Vintage sheet music (1946) for the song "HEY! BA-BA-RE-BOP" by Lionel Hampton
1860 original engraving, "View of San Domingo, Hayti" (from the Harbor). Hand colored in line-wash mount
Handwritten letter by Joe Clark (Lean On Me)
Cotton Club Menu and Program featuring Cab Calloway and the Nicholas Brothers, 1930s
"The Negro In Our History" by Carter G. Woodson. Published by Associated Publishers, Washington, D.C.
Vintage August 1776 The Lady's Magazine (published in England), with intriguing article "The Origin of Blacks"
Vintage 1956 Lionel Hampton Program (UK) signed by Herbert Hogan (drums), Retney Bauer (tenors) & Scoville Browne( clarinet)
National Association Of Negro Musicians Program (NANM) at the Metropolitan Baptist Church, Washington, D.C., July 11, 1937
Some Account Of The Life Of Captain Paul Cuffee. Published by the Tract Association Of Friends, 1887
The Black Slaves of Prussia, An Open Letter Addressed to General Smuts by Frank Weston, Bishop of Zanzibar
The Colored Embalmer Magazine, Number Five (Chicago), 1928
110 issues of 1833 Philadelphia's National Gazette and Literary Register newspaper (Jan - June)
Paul Robeson and Lawrence Brown program (London, 1938)
Story of the Fisk Jubilee Singers and their Songs (four First Edition copies)
Unusual Staffordshire pottery figurine of John Brown and 2 small Black children , 6" tall
Original 1778 document -- census of whites, free mulattos, free blacks & slaves in various towns of Porto (Puerto) Rico
20-page 1893 article, "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa by Henry M. Stanley, illustrated by famed Frederic Remington
Original 1775 document number of whites, free mulattos, free blacks & slaves in various towns of Cuba
Certified framed remnant of the leather driver's seat of the actual bus Rosa Parks sat in in December, 1955
Rare signed First Edition copy of Edward Matthew's autobiography of (1866)
Period 8x10 color photo of Rosa Parks' arrest, December 1955
July 9, 1938 Liberty Magazine featuring article, "How It Feels To Be A Negro" by Walter White
Original print/frame of Maj Gen Charles Cotesworth Pinckney -- Pinckney Treaty with Spain legally affected Amistad situation
The rare Methodist Magazine for 1798 printed by Henry Tuckniss, containing many sermons and poetry (some about Slavery)
Anti Slavery Struggle with Orations -- 1884, 314 pages. Book contains copies of some of the great speeches.
Young Christian Worker, Oct, 1918 - A small missionary magazine illustrated with many African American photos.
Very rare uncut sheet (4-1/2" x 6") of 12 Porter slave tags, Charleston, VA -- made from lead, dated 1856
Two original watercolor paintings of "Negroes" by London-born painter, Robert Lee (ca. 1820)
"Between You and Me" First Edition copy signed by Pearl Bailey (1989)
Williams' Original Dixie Jubilee Singers magazine
Original 1950s Father Divine booklet and photo. Father Divine (c. 1880 – September 10, 1965)

Speeches and Congressional Reports -- Genuine Congressional Pamphlets

Rare message Of The United States transmitting a report of Secretary of State "Relating To Negotiations For The Suppression of the Slave Trade", Jan 15, 1821.
“Suppression of the Slave Trade”, 19th Congress - House Of Representatives, May 22, 1826
24th Congress 1st Session - Legislature Of Kentucky - "Resolutions Respecting Abolition Societies" 1836 Government Document.
26th Congress 1stSession - Message from the President Of United States. "Information in relation to the abuse of the flag of the United States in subservience to the African Slave Trade, and the taking away of slaves the property of Portuguese subjects". March 14, 1844
"Message from The President Of The United States transmitting Copies of dispatches from the American minister at the court of Brazil, relative to the Slave Trade." 29th Congress - February 20, 1845
"The True Grandeur of Nations", Charles Sumner's first major speech (delivered in Boston), July 4th, 1845.
"Legislature of Connecticut in Relation to Slavery" -- 24th Congress, December, 1847
30th Congress 1st Session - House Of Reps. "Slavery Resolutions of the Legislature of New York", February 1848
 “Rights of Congress to Legislate for the Territories of the US, and its Duty to Exclude Slavery Therefrom”, by Horace Mann (MA) June 30, 1848
August, 1850 -- Proceedings of the Senate on the Fugitive Slave Bill, the Abolition of the Slave Trade in the District of Columbia and the Imprisonment of Free Colored Seamen in Southern Ports
31st Congress, 2nd Session. Message Of The President Of The Unites States, communicating , In compliance with a resolution of the Senate, a report of the Secretary of State, with documents relating to the African Slave Trade. December 17th, 1850.
1852 speech of Hon. Charles Sumner to Repeal The Fugitive Slave Bill, delivered in the Senate, August 26, 1852
U.S. Congressional Census (1854 edition). This volume detail the exact number of slaves, mulattoes, and free blacks in the country
Speech before Congress, "No Slavery in Nebraska: No Slavery in the Nation: Slavery an Outlaw" by Gerrit Smith, April 6, 1854
Hon. John P. Hale (NH) "The Wrongs of Kansas", given Feb. 26, 1856
Hon. Henry Wilson (MA) "The State of Affairs in Kansas", given Feb. 18, 1856
Hon. John J. Perry (ME) "Comparative Nationality and Sectionalism of the Republican and Democratic Parties", given May 1, 1856
U.S. Congressional Census (1860 edition). This volume detail the exact number of slaves, mulattoes, and free blacks in the country.
Hon. Henry Wilson (MA) "The Slave Power", given Jan. 20, 1860.
Hon. Henry Wilson (MA) "Territorial Slave Code", January 25, 1860.
(Henry Wilson later became the Vice-President of the United States)
“Employment of Laborers of African Extraction in the Island of St. Croix”, 37th Congress. June 6, 1862
“Liberated Africans”, 37th Congress 3rd Session, January 7, 1863
“Slaves in Disloyal States”, 37th Congress, February 19, 1863.
“Bureau of Freedmen’s Affairs”, 39th Congress - Report of The Minority of the Select Committee on Emancipation, Jan 20, 1864
"Memorial Addresses on the Life and Character of Henry Wilson", 162-page book (1867), Published by Order of Congress
“Riot At Norfolk” 33th Congress -. Jan 24, 1867. Referred to the Committee on Freedmen's Affairs.
“Colonization of Persons of African Descent”, 41st Congress, March 23, 1870.
"Proposed Annexion of the Island of San Domingo" Senate speech by Charles Sumner, December 21, 1870
"Congressional Report of the Commission of Inquiry to the Island of Santo Domingo", 297 pages, with large map, 1871
Memorial Addresses of the Life and Character of Charles Sumner Senator of MA, Delivered in the Senate and House of Rep, 43rd Congress, April 27, 1874
The account of the Hearings before the United States Commission on CIVIL RIGHTS Vol. 1 - Voting, held in February 16-20,1965 in Jackson Mississippi
 -- a number of other pamphlets...

     -- Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report of Secretary of State relating to the negotiations for the suppression of the Slave Trade: January 15, 1821, referred to the committee on so much of the President's message as relates to the Slave Trade. by United States. Department of State.    President James Monroe (John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State). The contentious struggle bettween Federalists and Republicans was over and the slavery issue was defused with the Missouri Compromise (1820). James Monroe had been the U.S. Ambassador to Britain at the time of Chesapeake-Leopard affair. He had as a result become familiar with naval affairs. After Congress passed the Slave Trade Act (1819), Monroe ordered the small U,S. Navy "to seize all vessels navigated under our flag engaged in that trade." [Hagan, 93-94.] The Navy dispatched five ships to African waters (January 1820-August 1821). , beginning with the frigate Cyane. She was followed by the brig Hornet, frigate John Adams, and schooners Alligator and Shark, both fast 200-ton Baltimore clipper types, 86 feet long, mounting 12 guns, with crews of 70, which were well suited for running down slave ships. The numbers of Africans freed, however, were limited, primarily because of diplomatic reasons. Those freed from the slavers were transported to the American Colonization Society in what was to become Liberia. The American squadron was recalled in 1824 and did not return to West Africa until 1843.

Boxing Cards, Magazines, Newspapers, Plates and Coins (some examples)



George Dixon, 1910

Joe Gans & Joe Jeannette, 1910

Jack Johnson, 1940s

Peter Jackson, 1894



"The Negro History Bulletin", started by Carter G. Woodson, the creator of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History (ASALH) in 1915. Woodson started Negro History Week in 1926, which later became Black History Month in 1976. Pictured representative issues are from 1931-1948, edited by Woodson, prior to his death in 1950. This collection has many issues.

"Crisis", a magazine published by the NAACP, started publishing November 1910 under the leadership of W.E.B. Du Bois. The following is the purpose of the magazine in his own words -- "The object of this publication is to set forth those facts and arguments which show the danger of race prejudice, particularly as manifested today toward colored people. It takes its name from the fact that the editors believe that this is a critical time in the history of the advancement of men. Catholicity, tolerance, reason and forbearance can today make the world-old dream of human brotherhood approach realization: while bigotry and prejudice, emphasized race consciousness and force can repeat the awful history of the contact of nations and groups in the past. We strive for this higher and broader vision of Peace and Good Will. The policy of The Crisis will be simple and well defined: It will first and foremost be a newspaper: it will record important happenings and movements in the world which bear on the great problem of inter-racial relations, and especially those which affect the Negro-American. Secondly, it will be a review of opinion and literature, recording briefly books, articles, and important expressions of opinion in the white and colored press on the race problem. Thirdly, it will publish a few short articles. Finally, its editorial page will stand for the right of men, irrespective of color or race, for the highest ideals of American democracy, and for reasonable but earnest and persistent attempt to gain these rights and realize these ideals. The Magazine will be the organ of no clique or party and will avoid personal rancor of all sorts. In the absence of proof to the contrary it will assume honesty of purpose on the part of all men, North and South, white and black.". Pictured are representative issues in this collection from 1914 - 1968. This collection has many issues, including two issues from 1913.

"Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life", a magazine first published in 1923, by the of Chicago which Charles S. Johnson launched upon joining the organization, Opportunity was intended as a vehicle for new black writers and as a competitor with the activist journal . The new publication focused on sociological studies of working and housing conditions in black areas. African art, Gullah culture, Caribbean communities, and other folk subjects were treated in depth. Opportunity also became a magnet for Harlem Renaissance writers with its prizes and sponsored activities. Pictured are representative issues from 1924 - 1932. This collection has many issues.



Aug 3, 1838 -- Sept 7, 1838 -- Dec 28, 1838 -- Jan 11, 1839 -- Feb 8, 1839 -- April 26, 1839 -- May 3, 1839 -- June 21, 1839
Dec 28, 1849 -- Jan 4, 1850 -- April 4, 1851 -- Feb 21, 1851 -- Aug 25, 1854 -- Aug 12, 1859 -- Aug 17, 1860 -- Jan 4, 1861
July 11, 1862 -- April 3, 1863 -- April 24, 1863 -- May 15, 1863 -- June 5, 1863 -- June 12, 1863


Sept 3, 1840 -- Oct 15,, 1840 -- Nov 5, 1840 -- Nov 26, 1840 -- Dec 24 1840 -- Jan 23, 1851 -- Feb 6 1851 -- May 8 1851
July 3, 1851 -- Feb 12, 1852 -- Mar 31, 1853 -- Aug 27, 1853 -- Oct 8, 1853 -- Dec 10, 1853

July - Dec 1859 (every issue) of New Orleans "Daily True Delta" Newspaper
Jul - Dec 1766 issues (all 75) of the London Chronicle, with much about Pre-Revolutionary War events (esp. the Stamp Act)
Alexander's Weekly Messenger, Apr 24, 1839
1839 Newspaper with article discussing the Slave Uprising on the Amistad
1807 Gentleman's Magazine with article discussing talks of the Abolition of Slavery in America
New York Packet, 6/13/1789. Report of a slave ship struck by lightning and all of the 150+ slaves on board were allowed to drown
The Anti-Slavery Examiner, "Emancipation of The West Indies, A Six Months' Tour of Antigua, Barbadoes and Jamaica", 1838
1829 Baltimore Newspaper addressing the Abolition of Slavery in Virginia
1802 Gentleman's Magazine with article discussing a Slave Insurrection in America
1831 newspaper article detailing the NAT TURNER slave rebellion in Virginia
Niles Weekly Register, August 1st 1835, articles on anti-slavery meetings, slave revolt in Mississippi
First published letter from Amistad Negro, Ka-Le to John Adams, Mar. 5, 1841
3 Original & Complete Issues of The National Intelligencer: DC Mar 11, Apr 20, Jun 22, 1820 on Missouri Compromise Bill
All 30 editions/volumes of "Olympia Zeitung", the official German newspaper of the 1936 Olympics (Jesse Owens)
The Royal Gazette, Bermuda -  No. 37 - Vol. 2, dated Tuesday, Sept 15, 1829, includes article about Abolition of Slavery
Poulson's American Daily Advertiser
(Philadelphia, Mar 20, 1818) "Spain Consents to Abolition of Slave Trade"
October 13, 1818 edition of the New-York Spectator reporting the death of boxing legend, Tom Molineaux
Sept 1773 edition of the Gentleman's Magazine -- first published mention of Phillis Wheatley's book
The Black Dispatch (Oklahoma City African American newspaper), March 30, 1919, "Madam Walker Dies"
Rare newspaper article written by Horace Greeley about Frederick Douglass addressing the students of Western Reserve College
New York Times, Apr.29, 1842 -- A 1 1/2" front page column headed "Anti-Slavery Convention, Douglass Elected President"
Copy of the British Emancipator, the Anti-Slavery Newspaper (Jan 10th, 1840 -- LAST EDITION!)
Three copies of the extremely rare Douglass' Monthly newspaper: Oct 1861, Nov 1861 and Dec 1861
New York American (Mar 9, 1836) -- Maryland in Liberia
Aug 22, 1829 newspaper, Philadelphia Recorder, with article about Aiding the Colonization Cause in Liberia
Boston Recorder (Dec 16, 1829) -- Long article on the Mission to Africa
Feb 19, 1829 newspaper, Boston Recorder, with article about the death of famous African American missionary, Lott Carey
Boston Recorder
(Apr 14, 1821) -- Liberia Mission
Mar 21, 1791 edition of the newspaper, Dunlaps American Daily Advertiser, article about Benjamin Banneker
NY Daily Tribune, (May 8, 1850)  Anniversary meeting of American Anti-Slavery Society, with mention of Frederick Douglass.
NY Daily Tribune
(May 13, 1851) 17th Annual Meeting of American Anti-Slavery Society at Syracuse, NY, mentions Douglass.
NY Daily Tribune
(Oct.28, 1851)  Report from Rochester, NY headed Frederick Douglass and Silver Grays.
NY Daily Tribune
(Dec.4, 1860)  Freedom of Speech Violated in Boston - A John Brown Meeting Broken Up - The Police Powerless - Wild Threats Against Mr. Phillips - White Men Fighting with Negroes - Several references to Fred. Douglass.  A mob broke up the meeting commemorating the anniversary of John Brown's execution.  Frederick Douglass was flung down the staircase of Tremont Temple in Boston, etc. 
The Constitution (DC, June 16, 1860) The Baltimore Convention, Black Republican Intolerance, Charles Sumner Insulting a Religious Denomination and What the Dred Scott Case decided.
and many more...


A ten inch plate made in Stockton-on-Tees by William Smith & Co. between 1825 and 1855 commemorating Napoleon Bonaparte’s campaign in Egypt that lasted from 1798 to 1801. The plate is transfer printed with what seems to be hand coloring under the glaze. It has no damage or crazing but there is minute bubbling of the transfer and glaze at the edges, which then goes over to the back of the plate much of the way around to varying degrees. The impressed mark reads 44 W. S. & Co. Wedgewood (Yorkshire) and this could indicate that the plate was made in 1844.

Limoges porcelain plate, made in France. Plate depicts the Marquis de LaFayette's encounter on June 17, 1777 with some African American slaves who saved his life from the British, They took him and his companion, Baron de Kalb, to their master. LaFayette and his companion spent 54 days hiding from the British soldiers. The historic event occurred in a remote region of South Carolina and is depicted in great detail on this premier edition plate. The story is written on the reverse side of the plate. The plate is certified # D5 and is assigned #565.



Liberian Two Cents, 1847
Berlin Olympics, 1936
George Washington Carver/ Booker T. Washington US Half Dollars, 1952 (2 coins)
Commemorating the Act of Navigation, the Statutory Registry of Merchant Ships, 1786
Commemorating "The Liberator Newspaper, Publishing to Fight Slavery, January 1, 1831 (2 coins)
Commemorating Mary McLeod Bethune
Commemorating Jesse Owens, 1913 - 1980
Commemorating Jackie Robinson, 1947
Commemorating the US Supreme Court Dred Scott Decision, March 6, 1857
Commemorating Missouri Compromise Limits the Spread of Slavery in USA, March 3, 1820
Commemorating Lincoln - Douglass Debates, August 21 - October 15, 1858
Commemorating Dr. Martin Luther King, 1929-1968
Commemorating King of Sports, OJ Simpson, 1973
Commemorating Harriet Beecher Stowe
Commemorating Ira Frederick Aldridge, 1807 - 1867
Commemorating Phillis Wheatley, 1753 - 1784 (2 coins)
Commemorating the Importation of Slaves Prohibited in the US, 1808
Commemorating the Publishing of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852
Commemorating Jesse Owens Wins at the Olympics, 1936 (3 coins)
Commemorating "Separate But Equal Statutes Upheld, 1896
Commemorating the Atlanta Compromise, 1895
Commemorating Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington, 1899 - 1974
Free Church of Scotland Communion Token, 1844


A Riggs National Bank check written and signed by Judson W. Lyons, ex-slave from Georgia and first African-American lawyer to practice in the state of Georgia. Active in the Republican Party, he was appointed Register of the US Treasury (appointment influenced by Booker T. Washington) from 1898-1906 and as such, his signature appeared on US currency issued during those years. See example above (left). It is a little known fact that five African Americans have had their signatures on currency. There are no images of African-Americans printed on U.S. currency. The four African American men whose signatures appeared on the currency were Blanche K. Bruce, Judson W. Lyons, William T. Vernon and James C. Napier.
The fifth African American whose signature appeared on currency was Azie Taylor Morton. She was the 36th Treasurer of the United States. She served from September 12, 1977, to January 20, 1981. I also own a choice uncirculated (1977) bill autographed by Azie Taylor Morton. Mrs. Morton is a very scarce signer.

No images on this page may be used without .  © 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.


"Decks of a Slave Ship" engraving, from W.O. Blake's book, History of Slavery (1861)


Bill Cosby, signed L.P, 1982, blue sharpie

B.B. King, signed L.P., 1987, gold ink


Hand signed LP Albums

Duke Ellington "North of the Border. In Canada", 1967, signed in ballpoint by Marian Anderson, Aaron Copland, and P. Boulez
Duke Ellington "Yale Concert", 1973, blue ink
Duke Ellington "At Southland/At the Cotton Club", 1937, black ink
Duke Ellington "Greatest Hits!", silver ink, 1962
Louis Armstrong "Satchmo, the Great", 1956, blue ink
"Negro Folk Symphony" signed by William L. Dawson, black ink
Fats Domino "Fats Domino Swings", 1967, black ink
Chuck Berry "Greatest Hits", 1981, blue ink
rare Chuck Berry 1950s Chess 78 RPM with "You Can Catch Me" & "Havana Moon", blue ink
Cab Calloway "Hi De Ho Man", 1974, ballpoint
Nat King Cole "The Very Thought of You", 1958, black sharpie
Nat King Cole and his Trio "After Midnight", 1956, signed in ballpoint by Nat King Cole, Jack Costanza, Joe Comfort and Irving Ashby
Pearl Bailey and Cab Calloway "Hello Dolly", 1967, signed by both in white ink
Little Richard "Here's Little Richard", 1957, black ink
Quincy Jones "I'll be Good to You", 1989, blue sharpie
Marian Anderson, 78RPM records, quite a few
Ella Fitzgerald "Ella", 1978, blue sharpie
Sammy Davis, Jr. "At Town Hall", 1958, ballpoint (UK)
"Sammy Davis, Jr. & Count Basie", 1973, silver ink and black sharpie
Sammy Davis, Jr. "I've Gotta Be Me", 1968, black ink
Lionel Hampton "Made in Japan", 1995, black sharpie
Diana Ross "Greatest Hits", 1976, blue sharpie
Flip Wilson "The Flip Wilson Show with Special Guest David Frost", 1965, ballpoint
Grace Jones "Inside Story", 1986, silver ink
Donna Summer "I Remember Yesterday", 1977, ballpoint
Lionel Ritchie "Dancing on the Ceiling", 1986, blue sharpie
Al Jarreau "L is for Lover", 1986, blue sharpie
George Benson "In Your Eyes", 1983, blue sharpie
George Benson "Breezin", 1976, blue sharpie
Diana Ross "Swept Away", 1984, blue sharpie
Tina Turner and Barry White "In Your Wildest Dreams", 1996, black and red sharpies
Bill Cosby "Is A Very Funny Fellow. Right!", 1963, blue sharpie
Miles Davis "You're Under Arrest", 1985, ballpoint
Rare "Pablo Live" 8-LP series (Montreux Jazz Festival, 1977), signed in ballpoint by Dizzie Gillespie
James Brown "The Original Disco Man", 1979, gold ink
James Brown "Say it Loud I'm Black and I'm Proud", 1969, gold ink
Vintage "Porgy & Bess" signed by Sidney Poitier, Pearl Bailey, Sammy Davis, Jr., Diahann Carroll, and Claude Akins
Roots: The Saga of An American Family. Signed by Alex Haley and Quincy Jones
Earl "Fatha" Hines "Solo Walk In Tokyo", 1977, Biograph Records, signed in ballpoint
Extremely rare find -- a Columbia Records test pressing (78rpm, 1951-52) featuring Sarah Vaughn and Paul Weston and His Orchestra performing Vanity / My Reverie.

Many unsigned albums (LPs, 45s and 78s)

Climbing the Great Pyramid, 1899 (Stereo view)

Own a full-size, 3D Rosetta Stone replica


and much, much more...

No images on this page may be used without .  © 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.


Dr. Freeman can be invited to your organization to present a 90-minute or half-day program that will be remembered for years to come.
Ask how some of these items can be exhibited at that event.

For More Information:

Click for more specific info about Dr. Freeman's
Presentation or Presentation


Cell: 410-991-9718


This Collection is not for sale. Oldest piece is 1553. The , founded by , administers its use. (The Freeman Institute Foundation). Thanks to historian, Mark E. Mitchell, who has been a mentor and inspiration to Dr. Freeman.

The Freeman Institute Black History Collection is being used to open Black History galleries -- under the umbrella of , in strategic alliance with the , in major American cities and selected cities internationally...designed to educate and inspire young people.

View The Genuine Documents/Artifacts.
Hear The Story Behind The Documents.
Feel The Passion.

This will be the event of the year. Period.



- A Nubian Pharaoh of Egypt, Tarharka (710-664 B.C.), controlled the largest empire in Ancient Africa. Mention of his great campaigns can be found in the Bible (Isaiah 37:9, 2 Kings 19:9). The majesty of his building projects was legendary, with the greatest being the temple at Gebel Barkal in the Sudan.
- The Black Ancient Empire of Ghana flourished from around the 8th-11th centuries, developing a huge economy that comprised manufacturing, agriculture, and trade. Situated on a major trade route from North Africa, its capital, Kumbi Saleh, was one of the greatest and most populous cities of the world. Historians wrote that Ghana's gold was so abundant that the King's dogs wore gold collars! 

- In 1773, slave poet Phillis Wheatley wrote the first book by an African American, “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral.”

- “Freedom’s Journal” was the first Black newspaper published in the United States (1827).

- Hiram Rhoads Revels (R-MS) became the first African American U.S. Senator (1870).
- An outstanding scientist, George Washington Carver revitalized the Southern economy by developing some 300 different products from the peanut including butter, face powder, soaps, ink, vinegar, and wood stains. From the sweet potato he made over 100 by products including flour, shoe polish and candy.

- “Roots” by Alex Haley was initially titled, “Before This Anger.”

- Over 5,000 Blacks, both slaves and freemen, fought in the Continental Army on the Patriot side during the American Revolution.


Vivant Denon drew this image of the Sphinx of Giza around 1798, prior to its defacement. This image and written account (a part of the collection) is from the 1803 issue of Universal Magazine. From that same magazine, here is the written account in Denon's own words, "...Though its proportions are colossal, the outline is pure and graceful; the expression of the head is mild, gracious, and tranquil; the character is African, but the mouth, and lips of which are thick, has a softness and delicacy of execution truly admirable; it seems real life and flesh. Art must have been at a high pitch when this monument was executed; for, if the head wants what is called style, that is the say, the straight and bold lines which give expression to the figures under which the Greeks have designated their deities, yet sufficient justice has been rendered to the fine simplicity and character of nature which is displayed in this figure..." --


The Freeman Institute Domain Names































provide us with all our show displays.



"The Freeman Institute® Black History Collection"
® Box 305, Gambrills, MD 21054
TEL 410-729-4011    Cell: 410-991-9718     FAX 410-729-0353


Joel A. Freeman and The Freeman Institute® on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+, Thumbtack, and YouTube


© 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

Hit Counter